A report on Saddam Hussein and Iran–Iraq War

Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Saddam in his youth as a shepherd in his village, near Tikrit
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath Party student cell, Cairo, in the period 1959–1963
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
Saddam in 1974
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Saddam talking to Michel Aflaq, the founder of Ba'athist thought, in 1988
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Alexei Kosygin (left) and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr signing the Iraqi–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-Operation in 1972
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Propaganda art to glorify Saddam after Iran–Iraq War, 1988.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Saddam Hussein and al-Bakr, de jure president of Iraq alongside Hafez al-Assad of Syria at an Arab Summit in Baghdad in November 1978
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Saddam greeting Carlos Cardoen, a Chilean businessman who provided Iraq with weapons during the war in the 1980s
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
U.S. Ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie meets Saddam for an emergency meeting
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iraqi stamp about the Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), founded 1989 by Saleh of (North) Yemen, king Hussein of Jordan, Saddam Hussein and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Saddam in duty uniform
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Saddam addresses state television, in January 2001
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Saddam Hussein in 1996
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Statue of Saddam being toppled in Firdos Square after the invasion
Saddam Hussein in 1982
Saddam is discovered and interrogated by American soldiers, December 2003
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
Saddam Hussein shortly after capture
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Hussein after being captured and shaven to confirm his identity
Furthest ground gains
Saddam speaks in court
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Saddam Hussein's family, mid-late 1980s
Iranian child soldier
Saddam Hussein's sons Qusay and Uday were killed in a gun battle in Mosul on 22 July 2003.
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Iraq's primary rationale for the invasion was to cripple Iran and prevent Ruhollah Khomeini from exporting the 1979 Iranian Revolution movement to Shia-majority Iraq and internally exploit religious tensions that would threaten the Sunni-dominated Ba'athist leadership led by Saddam Hussein.

- Iran–Iraq War

He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively, and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War.

- Saddam Hussein
Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War

27 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Clockwise from top: USAF F-15Es, F-16s, and an F-15C flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells; British troops from the Staffordshire Regiment in Operation Granby; camera view from a Lockheed AC-130; the Highway of Death; M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle

Gulf War

10 links

Armed campaign waged by a United States-led coalition of 35 countries against Iraq in response to the Iraqi invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

Armed campaign waged by a United States-led coalition of 35 countries against Iraq in response to the Iraqi invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

Clockwise from top: USAF F-15Es, F-16s, and an F-15C flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells; British troops from the Staffordshire Regiment in Operation Granby; camera view from a Lockheed AC-130; the Highway of Death; M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle
Donald Rumsfeld, US special envoy to the Middle East, meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983.
Map of Kuwait
Kuwaiti Armed Forces Chieftain main battle tanks
Kuwait Air Force McDonnell Douglas A-4KU Skyhawk ground-attack aircraft
Lion of Babylon main battle tanks, common Iraqi battle tank used in the Gulf War by the Iraqi Army.
An Iraqi Air Force Bell 214ST transport helicopter, after being captured by a US Marine Corps unit at the start of the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm
Kuwaiti Armed Forces M-84 main battle tanks
President Bush visiting American troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990
American F-15Es parked in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield
US Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade during the Gulf War
Countries that deployed coalition forces or provided support (On behalf of Afghanistan, 300 Mujaheddin joined the coalition on 11 February 1991. Niger contributed 480 troops to guard shrines in Mecca and Medina on 15 January 1991.)
General Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George Bush visit US troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990.
Dick Cheney meets with Prince Sultan, Minister of Defence and Aviation in Saudi Arabia to discuss how to handle the invasion of Kuwait.
Gen. Colin Powell (left), Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., and Paul Wolfowitz (right) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.
The USAF F-117 Nighthawk, one of the key aircraft used in Operation Desert Storm
Aftermath of Amiriyah shelter bombing by U.S. Air Force, which killed at least 408 civilians in Baghdad
An Iraqi T-54A or Type 59 tank lies destroyed after a coalition bombing attack during Operation Desert Storm.
Scud Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) with missile in upright position
Aftermath of an Iraq Armed Forces strike on US barracks
Military operations during Khafji's liberation
Marine Artillery played a huge factor in disrupting Iraqi counterattacks during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry, February 1991
Soldiers of 2nd Platoon, Company C, 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment pose with a captured Iraqi tank, February 1991
An Iraqi Republican Guard T-55 tank destroyed by Task Force 1–41 Infantry, February 1991
American AH-64 Apache helicopters proved to be very effective weapons during the 1991 Gulf War.
4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) conducts artillery strikes on Iraqi positions during the 1st Gulf War. 4-3 FA was the primary fire support battalion for Task Force 1-41 during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) moves into position to conduct fire missions during the Battle of Norfolk, February 1991.
U. S. M1A1 Abrams tanks move out on a mission during Desert Storm in 1991. A Bradley IFV and logistics convoy can be seen in the background.
A M109A2 howitzer belonging to Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) during the Gulf War, February 1991.
A M60A1 tank with a Track Width Mine Plow, Desert Storm February 1991
British Challenger 1 tanks during the 1st Gulf War. The British Challenger tank was the most efficient tank of the Gulf war suffering no losses while destroying approximately 300 Iraqi tanks during combat operations.
A destroyed Iraqi Army T-55 tank lies among the wreckage of many other Iraqi vehicles, such as trucks, cars and buses, somewhere along the Highway of Death in April 1991.
US M1A1 Abrams tanks from the 3rd Armored Division along the Line of Departure
Two Iraqi T-55 tanks lie abandoned near Kuwait City on 26 February 1991.
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait.
Ground troop movements 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm
Iraqi T-62 knocked out by 3rd Armored Division fire
Destroyed LAV-25
Aerial view of destroyed Iraqi T-72 tank, BMP-1 and Type 63 armored personnel carriers and trucks on Highway 8 in March 1991
Iraqi 'Saddam' main battle tank destroyed during Operation Desert Storm
Remains of a downed F-16C
A Bradley IFV burns after being hit by Iraqi T-72 fire.
Civilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the retreat of Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
Coalition troops from Egypt, Syria, Oman, France, and Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm
HMAS Sydney in the Persian Gulf in 1991
Argentine Navy Alouette III helicopter on board, February 1991
Canadian CF-18 Hornets participated in combat during the Gulf War.
French and American soldiers inspecting an Iraqi Type 69 tank destroyed by the French Division Daguet during Operation Desert Storm
One of the Italian tornadoes used in the operation
British Army Challenger 1 main battle tank during Operation Desert Storm
Iraqi Kurds fleeing to Turkey shortly after the war
Sailors from a US Navy honor guard carry Navy pilot Scott Speicher's remains.
Approximate area and major clashes in which DU rounds were used
Destroyed Iraqi civilian and military vehicles on the Highway of Death
An armored bulldozer similar to the ones used in the attack
Oil well fires rage outside Kuwait City in 1991.
USS Missouri launching a Tomahawk missile. The Gulf War was the last conflict in which battleships were deployed in a combat role.
Military personnel examine the remains of a Scud.

Different speculations have been made regarding the true intents behind the invasion, including Iraq's inability to pay Kuwait the more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed to finance its military efforts during the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwait's surge in petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.

When Iraqi President Saddam Hussein expelled Abu Nidal to Syria at the US's request in November 1983, the Reagan administration sent Donald Rumsfeld to meet Saddam as a special envoy and to cultivate ties.

Ba'athist Iraq

9 links

Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic until 6 January 1992 and the Republic of Iraq thereafter, covers the national history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003 under the rule of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.

Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic until 6 January 1992 and the Republic of Iraq thereafter, covers the national history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003 under the rule of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.

Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr was de jure leader of Iraq from 1968 to 1979.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the Iran-Iraq war.
Retreating Iraqi forces sabotaged Kuwaiti oil wells, causing massive fires across Kuwait's oil fields.
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (left), the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Ba'ath, shaking hands with Michel Aflaq, principal founder of Ba'athist thought, in 1968.
Saddam Hussein (right) talking with founder of Ba'athism and Ba'ath Party leader Michel Aflaq in 1988.
Kurdish peshmerga (opposition forces) in northern Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War.
Saddam Hussein (left) talking with Michel Aflaq in 1979.
Alexei Kosygin (left) and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr signing the Iraqi–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation in 1972.
GNP per capita in Iraq from 1950 to 2008.
28 February 2003: Iraqi soldiers ride an MT-LB armored vehicle on an Iraqi highway, one month before the start of the Iraq War.
Saddam Hussein and female students. Ba'athism promoted greater participation of women in Iraqi society.
Flag (1963–1991)
Flag (1991–2004)
Coat of arms (1965–1991)
Coat of arms (1991–2004)

Iraqi President Abdul Rahman Arif and Iraqi Prime Minister Tahir Yahya were ousted during the 17 July coup d'état led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of the Ba'ath Party, which had previously held power in 1963 and was led primarily by al-Bakr—who served as its leader—and Saddam Hussein.Saddam, pronounced, is his personal name, and means the stubborn one or he who confronts in Arabic.

Rapidly deteriorating relations eventually led to the Iran–Iraq War by 1980, which began following the Iraqi invasion of Iran in September 1980.

Iraq

6 links

Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Inside the Shanidar Cave, where the remains of eight adults and two infant Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago were found.
Map of the Akkadian Empire and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows). The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler from Nineveh, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin
Hammurabi, depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws.
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Jehu, king of Israel, bows before Shalmaneser III of Assyria, 825 BC.
Lamassu from the Assyrian gallery at the Iraq Museum, Baghdad
The Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus (r. 626–539 BC)
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
Roman amphitheater in Sulaymaniyah.
Al-Hariri of Basra was a poet, high government official and scholar of the Arabic language, He is known for his Maqamat al-Hariri (‘'Assemblies of Hariri'’), a collection of some 50 stories written in the Maqama style. Al-Hariri's best known work, Maqamat has been regarded as the greatest treasure in Arabic literature.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Conquest of Mosul (Nineveh) by Mustafa Pasha in 1631, a Turkish soldier in the foreground holding a severed head. L., C. (Stecher) 1631 -1650
Crowning of King Faisal II of Iraq in the Council of Representatives, 1953
Nuri Said (1888 - 1958), contributed to the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq and the armed forces while also served as the Prime minister of the state.
Iraq state emblem under nationalist Qasim was mostly based on Mesopotamian symbol of Shamash, and avoided pan-Arab symbolism by incorporating elements of Socialist heraldry.
The April 2003 toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue by US Army troops in Firdos Square in Baghdad shortly after the US-led invasion.
Destroyed Lion of Babylon tank on Highway 9 outside Najaf during US-led invasion in 2003.
An Iraqi Army Aviation Command aerial gunner prepares to test fire his M240 machine gun, Near Baghdad International Airport, 2011
Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, provides command and control of air power throughout Iraq and Syria.
Pro-independence rally in Iraqi Kurdistan in 2017. The Kurdistan Regional Government announced it would respect the Supreme Federal Court's ruling that no Iraqi province is allowed to secede.
Protest in Baghdad in November 2019. The protests were the largest incident of civil unrest Iraq has experienced since the 2003 invasion.
Cheekha Dar, highest point in Iraq.
Iraq Köppen climate classification map.
The Asiatic lion has remained a prominent symbol of the country throughout history.
Baghdad Convention Center, the current meeting place of the Council of Representatives of Iraq.
View over Green Zone, which contains governmental headquarters and the army, in addition to containing the headquarters of the American embassy and the headquarters of foreign organizations and agencies for other countries.
US President Donald Trump with Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in 2017.
Administrative districts of Iraq
Historical GDP per capita development
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people.
Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the Iraq Museum in Baghdad. It contains ancient Mesopotamian artifacts.
Supertankers at the Basra Oil Terminal
Mosul Dam Lake
Lake Dukan
Children in a village in Sulaymaniyah.
Imam Hussein Shrine in Karbala
Mor Mattai Monastery (Dayro d-Mor Mattai) in, Bartella, Nineveh, Iraq. It is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence and is famous for its magnificent library and considerable collection of Syriac Christian manuscripts
Saddam Hussein Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
University students in Iraq, 2016
Al-Mutanabi, regarded as one of the greatest, most prominent and influential poets in the Arabic language, much of his work has been translated into over 20 languages worldwide
Wasiti's illustrations served as an inspiration for the modern Baghdad art movement in the 20th-century.
Zaha Hadid (1950–2016), an acclaimed architect.
Facade of Temple at Hatra, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.
The Queen's gold lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Masgouf, a popular Iraqi dish.
Madina Stadium in Baghdad is Iraq's first-ever stadium solar power plant, and the second in the Middle East of its kind.
Iraq wall det 2003.
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Sunni Arabs
Shiite Arabs
Sunni Kurds
Assyrians
Yazidis
Turkmen

In 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, sparking a protracted war which would last for almost eight years, and end in a stalemate with devastating losses for both countries.

After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005.

Israel

4 links

Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

On 7 June 1981, during the Iran–Iraq War, the Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole nuclear reactor under construction just outside Baghdad, in order to impede Iraq's nuclear weapons program.

During the 1991 Gulf War, the PLO supported Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Scud missile attacks against Israel.

Footwear of a child found in an Anfal mass grave

Anfal campaign

3 links

Counterinsurgency operation which was carried out by Ba'athist Iraq in the late 1980s.

Counterinsurgency operation which was carried out by Ba'athist Iraq in the late 1980s.

Footwear of a child found in an Anfal mass grave
Monument at the mass grave of victims of the Halabja chemical attack
Rizgary, former Sumud relocation camp for Anfal survivors (photographed 2011)
Memorial to Anfal victims at the Amna Suraka museum in Sulaimaniyya

The Iraqi forces were led by Ali Hassan al-Majid, on the orders of President Saddam Hussein, against Iraqi Kurdistan in northern Iraq during the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War.

Baghdad Nuclear Research Facility – 10 March 1991. The Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center, Baghdad, Post-strike.

Iraq and weapons of mass destruction

2 links

Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs as required by the United Nations Security Council.

Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs as required by the United Nations Security Council.

Baghdad Nuclear Research Facility – 10 March 1991. The Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center, Baghdad, Post-strike.
February 5, 2003 – United States Secretary of State Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving the presentation to the United Nations Security Council.
President George W. Bush addresses the nation from the Oval Office, March 19, 2003, to announce the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom. "The people of the United States and our friends and allies will not live at the mercy of an outlaw regime that threatens the peace with weapons of mass murder." The Senate committee found that many of the administration's pre-war statements about Iraqi WMD were not supported by the underlying intelligence.
Presentation slide used by U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell at the UN Security Council in the lead up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq

The fifth President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, was internationally condemned for his use of chemical weapons during the 1980s campaign against Iranian and Kurdish civilians during and after the Iran–Iraq War.

Iranian soldiers resisting the Iraqi invasion during the Battle of Khorramshahr, 1980

Iraqi invasion of Iran

2 links

Iranian soldiers resisting the Iraqi invasion during the Battle of Khorramshahr, 1980
Iranian soldiers resisting the Iraqi invasion during the Battle of Khorramshahr, 1980
The Shatt al-Arab waterway on the Iran–Iraq border
Explosion in Mehrabad Air Base in Tehran after Iraqi forces attacked Tehran on 22 September, 1980
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Location of Khūzestān Province in Iran
Iranian Northrop F-5 during Iran–Iraq War
Ali Khamenei (right), the future Supreme Leader of Iran, in a trench during the Iran-Iraq war.

The Iraqi invasion of Iran refers to the Iraqi military campaign against neighbouring Iran in 1980, when the Iraqi Armed Forces crossed the international border and invaded the country, sparking the protracted Iran–Iraq War.

The invasion's purpose, per Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, was to blunt the edge of Iranian Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini's movement and thwart his attempts to export Iran's Islamic Revolution to Saddam's secular Iraq and the Persian Gulf states.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)

Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

3 links

Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)
The Basra Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in 1897. After the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was established as an autonomous kaza, or district, of the Ottoman Empire and a de facto protectorate of Great Britain.
April Glaspie's first meeting with Saddam Hussein
An Iraqi Type 69 tank on display at the site of the Al-Qurain Martyrdom
A Kuwait M-84 tank during Operation Desert Shield in 1990. Kuwait continues to maintain strong relations with the coalition of the Gulf War.
Ground troop movements from 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.
American tanks from the 3rd Armored Division during Operation Desert Storm.
More than 600 Kuwaiti oil wells were set on fire by retreating Iraqi forces, causing massive environmental and economic damage to Kuwait.
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait
Aerial view of oil wells on fire
US troops in Kuwait, 2015

A variety of speculations have been made regarding the true intents behind the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay Kuwait more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed from Kuwait to finance the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwait's surge in petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.

In early 1990, Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing Iraqi petroleum through cross-border slant drilling, although some Iraqi sources indicated that Saddam Hussein's decision to attack Kuwait was already made a few months before the actual invasion.

Mass demonstrations at College Bridge, Tehran

Iranian Revolution

4 links

Series of events that culminated in the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt.

Series of events that culminated in the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt.

Mass demonstrations at College Bridge, Tehran
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi official coronation photo 1967
Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (revolutionary leader).
People of Tehran in the demonstrations of 5 June 1963 with pictures of Ruhollah Khomeini in their hands
Two armed militants outside the Embassy of the United States, Tehran where diplomats are held hostage. Behind of them is a banner written: "Long live anti-imperialism and democratic forces". Photograph by Abbas, dated 1979, from the Iran Diary series
The Shah of Iran (left) meeting with members of the U.S. government: Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, Jimmy Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977
Pro-Shah demonstration organized by the Resurgence Party in Tabriz, April 1978
Demonstration of 8 September 1978. The placard reads, "We want an Islamic government, led by Imam Khomeini".
Demonstration of "Black Friday" (8 September 1978)
Victims of Black Friday
Ayatollah Khomeini in Neauphle-le-Château surrounded by journalists
Mohammad Beheshti in the Tehran Ashura demonstration, 11 December 1978
"The Shah is Gone" —headline of Iranian newspaper Ettela'at, 16 January 1979, when the last monarch of Iran left the country.
A protester giving flowers to an army officer
Shah and his wife, Shahbanu Farah leaving Iran on 16 January 1979
Cartoon depicting Shapour Bakhtiar and Mosaddegh on 22 January 1978 issue of Ettela'at, during the revolution
Iranian prime minister Mehdi Bazargan was an advocate of democracy and civil rights. He also opposed the cultural revolution and US embassy takeover.
Iranian armed rebels during the revolution
Iranian women protesting
Khomeini told questioners that "the religious dignitaries do not want to rule."
A revolutionary firing squad in 1979
Executed Generals of Imperial Army: Reza Naji, Mehdi Rahimi, and Manouchehr Khosrodad
Kazem Shariatmadari and Khomeini
Banisadr in 1980
People celebrating anniversary of the revolution in Mashhad in 2014.
An injured revolutionary during protests against Pahlavi regime.
Protests in summer 1978.
Revolutionary victims.
Current Iranian leader, Ali Khamenei in a Revolutionary protest in Mashhad.
Shah visiting Bakhtiar cabinet before his exit from Iran.
People celebrating Shah's exit from the country.
Removal of Shah's statue by the people in University of Tehran.
Khomeini at Mehrabad Airport.
People accompanying Khomeini from Mehrabad to Behesht Zahra.
Khomeini in Behesht Zahra.
Khomeini before a speech at Alavi school.

At the same time, events that made up both the crisis and its resolution were the Iran hostage crisis, the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr.

Approximate map of the Kurdish-populated region of Iraq

Iraqi Kurdistan

4 links

Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan (باشووری کوردستان) refers to the Kurdish-populated part of northern Iraq.

Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan (باشووری کوردستان) refers to the Kurdish-populated part of northern Iraq.

Approximate map of the Kurdish-populated region of Iraq
Erbil, capital of Kurdistan Region
Lake Dukan
Greater Zab River near Erbil
221x221px
Shanidar Cave is surrounded by Mediterranean vegetation.
Ottoman vilayets of Van and Mossoul, 1899. Modern Iraqi Kurdistan is covered by the Mosul vilayet (green), which is divided into the sanjaks of Mossoul (Mosul), Kerkouk (Kirkuk and Erbil), and Souleimanié (Sulaymaniyah). To the east is Persia and south is the vilayet of Bagdad.
Ethnographical Map of the contested territory, compiled by the Commission according to the latest statistics drawn up by the Government of Iraq (1922–1924), League of Nations. Green shows the Kurdish population in the region, while yellow is used for Arabs and purple for Yazidis
Kurdish Independent Kingdoms and Autonomous Principalities circa 1835
Mahmud Barzanji was the leader of a series of Kurdish uprisings against the British Mandate of Iraq.
Kingdom of Kurdistan in 1923
The Barzani revolt, June 1932
Mustafa Barzani with Abd al-Karim Qasim
181x181px
Graves of the Halabja chemical attack victims
Kurdish Federation in 1998
Disputed areas in Iraq prior to the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive
Pro-independence rally in Erbil in September 2017

The Baath party under Saddam Hussein engaged in active expulsion of minorities from the mid-1970s onwards.

During the Iran–Iraq War, the Iraqi government again implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out.