A report on Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

237 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Iraqi 25-dinar note, with the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah depicted in the background

Modern usage of al-Qādisiyyah

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The engagement between the Arab-Muslim army and the Sāsānian Iranian army during the first period of Muslim expansion which resulted in the Arab-Muslim conquest of Iran.

The engagement between the Arab-Muslim army and the Sāsānian Iranian army during the first period of Muslim expansion which resulted in the Arab-Muslim conquest of Iran.

Iraqi 25-dinar note, with the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah depicted in the background
'The Sword of Qādisiyyah', sometimes known as the 'Hands of Victory', opened August 1989

In modern times, Qādisiyyah saw a revival beginning with the tensions leading up to the Iran–Iraq War.

A U.S. Navy crewman stands atop the cabin of a PB Mark III patrol boat tied up to the oil rig service barge Wimbrown VII in the northern Persian Gulf. From lower to upper right, the barge is armed with a .50-caliber M2 machine gun, an 81 mm Mark 2 mortar, and a 40 mm Mk 19 grenade launcher.

Operation Prime Chance

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A U.S. Navy crewman stands atop the cabin of a PB Mark III patrol boat tied up to the oil rig service barge Wimbrown VII in the northern Persian Gulf. From lower to upper right, the barge is armed with a .50-caliber M2 machine gun, an 81 mm Mark 2 mortar, and a 40 mm Mk 19 grenade launcher.
An aerial view of the leased barge Hercules with three Mark III patrol boats and the tugboat Mister John H tied up alongside in the northern Persian Gulf.

Operation Prime Chance (August 1987 – June 1989) was a United States Special Operations Command operation intended to protect U.S.-flagged oil tankers from Iranian attack during the Iran–Iraq War.

Scud missile on TEL vehicle, National Museum of Military History, Bulgaria

Scud missile

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One of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

One of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

Scud missile on TEL vehicle, National Museum of Military History, Bulgaria
Scud missile on TEL vehicle, National Museum of Military History, Bulgaria
MAZ-543 (9P117) Launcher with 8K14 rocket of 9K72 missile complex "Elbrus" (Scud B), Saint-Petersburg Artillery Museum, Russia. (2007)
The rear section of an 8K14 missile, displayed at the Poznan Museum of Armaments - :pl:Muzeum Uzbrojenia w Poznaniu, Poland. The fixed fins and the graphite vanes that control the missile's path can be seen
2T3M1 Transport for the Soviet Scud-A Launchers
Scud Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) with missile in upright position, RAF Spadeadam, England (2005)
An R-17 on a reload transport trailer with a ZIL-131 tractor, Tolyatti Technical Museum, Tolyatti, Russia (2010)
Damage from an Iraqi scud missile that hit Ramat Gan, Israel, during the first Gulf War (26 January 1991)
Military personnel examine the remains of a Scud tail assembly during the Gulf War, 26 May 1992
Map with Scud operators in blue and former operators in red
Scud launcher of the Afghan National Army.
An opposing force Scud launcher in the United States.

Scud missiles were used in several regional conflicts that included use by Soviet and Afghan Communist forces in Afghanistan, and Iranians and Iraqis against one another in the so-called "War of the cities" during the Iran–Iraq War.

Badr Organization

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Iraqi Shia Islamist political party and military organization headed by Hadi Al-Amiri.

Iraqi Shia Islamist political party and military organization headed by Hadi Al-Amiri.

Flag of the Badr Organisation Military Wing

The Badr Brigade was created by Iranian intelligence and Shia cleric Mohammad Baqir al-Hakim with the aim of fighting Saddam Hussein's regime during the Iran–Iraq War.

AM39 under a Dassault Rafale

Exocet

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French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

AM39 under a Dassault Rafale
AM39 under a Dassault Rafale
Exocet missile launch
Exocet impact
MM38 onboard German Navy Type 143A Nerz
Sue 204 (Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard) of Argentina's 2nd Navy Squadron, used in the Atlantic Conveyor attack
Stark listing after being hit
Map with Exocet operators in blue and former operators in red

During the Iran–Iraq War, on 17 May 1987, an Iraqi aircraft identified as a Dassault Mirage F1 fired two Exocet missiles at the American frigate USS Stark (FFG-31).

The Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi meeting with President Jimmy Carter and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977.

United States support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War

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The Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi meeting with President Jimmy Carter and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977.
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, July 20, 1984.
Ronald Reagan hosts then-Iraqi foreign minister Tariq Aziz of the Saddam Hussein administration at the White House, 1984
The MK-84: Saudi Arabia transferred to Iraq hundreds of U.S.-made general-purpose "dumb bombs".
Iraq purchased 8 strains of anthrax from the United States in 1985, according to British biological weapons expert David Kelly. The Iraqi military settled on the American Type Culture Collection strain 14578 as the exclusive strain for use as a biological weapon, according to Charles Duelfer.
MD 500 Defender: Iraq acquired 60 multi-role military helicopters directly from the United States in 1983. Additional helicopter sales prompted congressional opposition, forcing the Reagan administration to explore alternative ways of assisting Saddam.
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Agusta-Bell 212 ASW: The Italian subsidiary of Bell Textron sold Iraq military helicopters fitted out for anti-submarine warfare. This deal needed, and duly received, government approval.

American support for Ba'athist Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, in which it fought against post-revolutionary Iran, included several billion dollars' worth of economic aid, the sale of dual-use technology, military intelligence, and special operations training.

Official division logo

1st Division (Iraq)

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Motorized infantry division of the Iraqi Army headquartered in Camp Fallujah.

Motorized infantry division of the Iraqi Army headquartered in Camp Fallujah.

Official division logo
The 2nd Brigade, 1st Iraqi Division took delivery of 10 armored HMMWVs in March 2006
Iraqi Soldiers with 2nd Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, practice marching for their graduation ceremony aboard the Iraqi training center in Al Anbar province, Iraq, Feb. 15.

It fought in the Iran–Iraq War, including Operation Fath ol-Mobin, in which the division suffered heavy losses, and at the Second Battle of Al Faw.

Tariq Aziz

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Iraqi politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and a close advisor of President Saddam Hussein.

Iraqi politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and a close advisor of President Saddam Hussein.

Ronald Reagan hosts Aziz at the White House, 1984
Aziz with Russian President Vladimir Putin at the Kremlin on 26 July 2000.

It was part of the casus belli of the Iran–Iraq War.

Second Battle of al-Faw

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The Second Battle of al-Faw (also known as the Operation Ramadan Mubarak (Blessed Ramadan)), fought on 17 April 1988, was a major battle of the Iran–Iraq War.

A view of Kermanshah in mid.-19th century- toward south, Farokhshad Mt. and Wasi Mt. are visible at background

Kermanshah

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Capital of Kermanshah Province, located 525 km from Tehran in the western part of Iran.

Capital of Kermanshah Province, located 525 km from Tehran in the western part of Iran.

A view of Kermanshah in mid.-19th century- toward south, Farokhshad Mt. and Wasi Mt. are visible at background
Archaeological excavations in late 1940s in the Bisitun cave, where the first Neanderthal remain of Iran was discovered by Carleton S. Coon
Clay human figurine (Fertility goddess) Tappeh Sarab, Kermanshah,, Neolithic period, National Museum of Iran
Hellenistic-era depiction of Bahram as Hercules carved in 153 BC
General Baratov, Russian Cossack, at a meeting with British officers and the leaders of the Kurdish tribes in Kermanshah, 1917
Anahita on the left as the patron yazata of the Sassanian dynasty behind Emperor Khosrau Parviz with Ahura Mazda presenting the diadem of sovereignty on the right. Taq-e Bostan.
Jame-Shafeie Mosque
Khajeh Barookh's House
Interior of the second room of Zagros Paleolithic Museum.

After the Iran–Iraq War, however, the city was renamed Kermanshah, as it resonated more with the desire of its residents, the Persian literature, and the collective memory of the Iranians.