A report on Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

237 related topics with Alpha

Overall

People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran

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Iranian political-militant organization.

Iranian political-militant organization.

MEK leader Massoud Rajavi with Iraqi president Saddam Hussein.
MEK forces killed during Operation Mersad (Operation Forough Javidan)
John Bolton speaking at a MEK event
MEK demonstrators carrying Lion and Sun flags and those of 'National Liberation Army of Iran'
Rudy Giuliani, Newt Gingrich, James T. Conway, Bill Richardson and other American politicians at the MEK event in 2018
Bomb debris after assassination of President Mohammad-Ali Rajaei and Prime Minister Mohammad-Javad Bahonar in 1981
Letter in Persian requesting that the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union lend any amount of money (up to US$300,000,000) to the Mujahedin Organization and requesting that the supporters of the Mujahedin Organization be allowed to cross the Soviet-Iranian border and be granted a temporary asylum; memorandum to the TsK KPSS from Olfat
The Nahj al-Balagha, a 10th century collection of the sayings of Ali ibn Abi Talib was the main source of inspiration for the MEK in its early years.
Entrance Gate of Ashraf City when populated by PMOI exilees
Stamp in memory of martyrs of the 7th Tir bombing
Mohammad-Reza Sa'adati, executed on charges of assisting the MEK

Near the end of the Iran–Iraq War, a military force of 7,000 members of the MEK, armed and equipped by Saddam's Iraq and calling itself the National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA) was founded.

Iranian students crowd the U.S. Embassy in Tehran (November 4, 1979)

Iran hostage crisis

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On November 4, 1979, 52 United States diplomats and citizens were held hostage after a group of militarized Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and seized hostages.

On November 4, 1979, 52 United States diplomats and citizens were held hostage after a group of militarized Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and seized hostages.

Iranian students crowd the U.S. Embassy in Tehran (November 4, 1979)
Iran attempted to use the occupation to provide leverage in its demand for the return of the shah to stand trial in Iran
Anticipating the takeover of the embassy, the Americans tried to destroy classified documents in a furnace. The furnace malfunctioned and the staff was forced to use cheap paper shredders. Skilled carpet weavers were later employed to reconstruct the documents.
Two American hostages during the siege of the U.S. Embassy.
Barry Rosen, the embassy's press attaché, was among the hostages. The man on the right holding the briefcase is alleged by some former hostages to be future President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, although he, Iran's government, and the CIA deny this.
An anti-Iranian protest in Washington, D.C., in 1979. The front of the sign reads "Deport all Iranians" and "Get the hell out of my country", and the back reads "Release all Americans now".
A headline in an Islamic Republican newspaper on November 5, 1979, read "Revolutionary occupation of U.S. embassy".
A group photograph of the fifty-two hostages in a Wiesbaden hospital where they spent a few days after their release.
A heckler in Washington, D.C., leans across a police line toward a demonstration of Iranians in August 1980.
Americans expressed gratitude for Canadian efforts to rescue American diplomats during the hostage crisis.
Vice President George H. W. Bush and other VIPs wait to welcome the hostages home.
The hostages disembark Freedom One, an Air Force Boeing C-137 Stratoliner aircraft, upon their return.
A protest in Tehran on November 4, 2015, against the United States, Israel, and Saudi Arabia.
The November 2015 protest in Tehran.
Simulation of the first day of the event, 3 November 2016, Tehran
Iran hostage crisis memorial
Operation Eagle Claw remnant in the former embassy
The former US embassy, known as the "espionage den," "den of espionage", and "nest of spies" by the Iranians after the crisis.

In September 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War.

A U.S. Navy F-14D conducts a mission over the Persian Gulf-region in 2005.

Grumman F-14 Tomcat

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American carrier-capable supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.

American carrier-capable supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft.

A U.S. Navy F-14D conducts a mission over the Persian Gulf-region in 2005.
A U.S. Navy F-14D conducts a mission over the Persian Gulf region in 2005.
The F-111B was designed to fulfill the carrier-based interceptor role, but had weight and performance problems, and was not suited to the types of aerial combat that were predominant over Vietnam
Grumman's VFX entry was designed around the TF30 engine, AWG-9 radar and AIM-54 missile intended for the F-111B; this eventually became the F-14A
VFA-143 "Pukin Dogs" F-14B and F/A-18E Super Hornet in 2005
An F-14D launching an AIM-7 Sparrow; a GBU-10 Paveway II is also carried.
An F-14D(R) from VF-213 flying over Iraq on last Tomcat deployment with LANTIRN pod on starboard wing glove station and LGB underneath fuselage.
F-14 Tomcat with wings in asymmetric sweep during testing for this possible in-flight malfunction
Rear view of the F-14 showing the area between the engine nacelles
An F-14D prepares to refuel with probe extended.
F-14 with landing gear deployed
F-14 Tomcat carrying an AIM-120 AMRAAM during a 1982 test.
Two Iranian Tomcats equipped with multiple missiles, circa 1986, in the midst of a project to adapt I-Hawk surface-to-air missiles for F-14s
An F-14A of VF-84 Jolly Rogers, in a 1970s color scheme
An F-14A from VF-114 intercepting a Soviet Tu-95RT "Bear-D" maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
An F-14A of VF-32 during Operation Desert Storm with a KC-135 Stratotanker and two EA-6B Prowlers in the background
A Navy F-14D flying over the skies of Afghanistan on a precision bombing mission in November 2001.
The last F-14 launch from a carrier, USS Theodore Roosevelt on 28 July 2006
Iranian ace Jalil Zandi is credited with shooting down 11 Iraqi aircraft during the Iran–Iraq War, making him the highest scoring F-14 pilot.
Formation flight of Iranian Tomcats, 2008
Close-up view of the distinctive afterburner petals of the GE F110 engine
An upgraded F-14D(R) Tomcat with the ROVER transmit antenna circled with USS Theodore Roosevelt in the background
Grumman's proposed F-14 Interceptor for USAF Aerospace Defense Command in 1972 with the simulated "Buzz Code" and Aerospace Defense Command livery and emblem on the tail
F-14 Tomcat operators as of 2014 (former operators in red)
An IRIAF F-14 Tomcat landing at Mehrabad, Iran.
F-14A Tomcat of NFWS (TOPGUN) NAS Miramar c. 1993
Front view of an F-14A at Yokota Air Base, Tokyo, Japan, 2003
F-14A BuNo 162689 at the USS Hornet Museum in Alameda, California, 2009
An F-14A on display at Grumman Memorial Park in New York
F-14A BuNo 160661 on display at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center's Aviation Challenge facility in Huntsville, Alabama, 2009
YF-14A at the Cradle of Aviation Museum
F-14B at the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum
F-14A of VF-84 "Jolly Rogers" at the Museum of Flight
Grumman F-14 Tomcat drawings
F-14A of VF 111 "Sundowners" (USS Carl Vinson)
F-14B from the VF-211 Fighting Checkmates carrying six AIM-54 Phoenix missiles.
Tomcat logo

In the 1980s, F-14s were used as land-based interceptors by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War, where they saw combat against Iraqi warplanes.

Ruhollah Khomeini

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Ruhollah Khomeini's birthplace at Khomeyn
Khomeini as a student with his friends (second from right)
Khomeini in 1938
Khomeini's speech against the Shah in Qom, 1964
Khomeini denouncing the Shah on 'Ashura (3 June 1963)
Khomeini in prayer
Khomeini in exile at Bursa, Turkey without clerical dress
The Entrance of Khomeini's House in Najaf, Iraq
Khomeini at Najaf
Khomeini in the 1970s
Ayatollah Khomeini in front of his house at Neauphle-le-Chateau in a media conference
Khomeini in 1978
Arrival of Khomeini on 1 February 1979. When asked about his feelings of returning from exile in the plane, he replied Hich; "None."
Khomeini and the interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan
Khomeini with people
Carpet given to Khotan mosque by Ayatollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini with Ahmad Khomeini and Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Mourning men in residence of Khomeini around his seat area, Jamaran, 4 June 1989.
Khomeini and his successor, Ali Khamenei
Khomeini's State Portrait
Murals of Khomeini and Ali Khamenei, Shah Mosque in Isfahan
Khomeini in the 1980s
Khomeini and a child.

Most of his period in power was taken up by the Iran–Iraq War of 1980–1988.

A Spanish Air Force Mirage F1M

Dassault Mirage F1

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French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.

French fighter and attack aircraft designed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.

A Spanish Air Force Mirage F1M
A Spanish Air Force Mirage F1M
Mirage F1 Escadron de chasse 1/5 Vendée.
Mirage F1C of EC 2/30 Normandie-Niemen at the 1975 Paris Air Show.
A pair of French Air Force Mirage F1Cs from the EC 2/30 and EC 3/30 in flight, 31 May 1986.
A multinational fighter formation, including, left to right, a Qatari F-1 Mirage, a French F-1C Mirage, a U.S. Air Force F-16C Fighting Falcon, a Canadian CF/A-18A Hornet and a Qatari Alpha Jet, during Operation Desert Shield
An Ecuadoran Mirage F1JA during the joint US/Ecuadoran exercise "Blue Horizon '86".
A Hellenic Air Force Mirage F1CG
Moroccan Mirage F1CH (2007).
A formation of four Mirage F1CZs, flying over Air Force Base Ysterplaat, circa 1982
A SAAF Mirage F1CZ performing an aerial display at Air Force Base Ysterplaat, Cape Town, circa 1982
Spanish Air Force F1M at Kecskeméti Repülőnap 2010.
A Mirage F1BD, believed to be the only twin-seat aircraft of the type remaining in Libyan service at that time, 2009
Underside view of a SAAF Mirage F1AZ flying overhead, 2002
A Mirage F1B performing a flight display at the 2008 Royal International Air Tattoo
A Spanish Mirage F1CE at RAF Coltishall, England, 1988
A Mirage F1ED of the Libyan Air Force, August 1981
A Jordanian Mirage F1EJ in formation with an American F-16 Fighting Falcon over Iraq, 1996
A formation of four Mirage F1CRs flying over Avenue des Champs-Élysées, Paris, 2006
A French Air Force Mirage F1CR at the 2009 Royal International Air Tattoo
A Mirage F1AZ at Air Force Base Swartkop, Gauteng, circa 1996
Aerosud Mirage F1
Mirage F1 operators, current (blue) and former (red)
Iranian Air Force Mirage F1BQ
Iraqi Air Force Mirage F1BQ
Jordanian Air Force Dassault Mirage F1EJ
Qatari Air Force Mirage F1EDA
Dassault Mirage F1 3-view drawings
Thomson CSF Cyrano IV radar unit
Assorted 125kg, 250kg, 500kg, and 1000kg bombs besides a Mirage F1

The type has seen action in a large number of armed conflicts involving several of its operators, including the Western Sahara War, the Paquisha War, the Cenepa War, the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, the South African Border War, the War in Afghanistan, the Chadian–Libyan conflict, the 2011 military intervention in Libya, and the Northern Mali conflict.

Footwear of a child found in an Anfal mass grave

Anfal campaign

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Counterinsurgency operation which was carried out by Ba'athist Iraq in the late 1980s.

Counterinsurgency operation which was carried out by Ba'athist Iraq in the late 1980s.

Footwear of a child found in an Anfal mass grave
Monument at the mass grave of victims of the Halabja chemical attack
Rizgary, former Sumud relocation camp for Anfal survivors (photographed 2011)
Memorial to Anfal victims at the Amna Suraka museum in Sulaimaniyya

The Iraqi forces were led by Ali Hassan al-Majid, on the orders of President Saddam Hussein, against Iraqi Kurdistan in northern Iraq during the final stages of the Iran–Iraq War.

Shatt al-Arab

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River of some 200 km in length that is formed at the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

River of some 200 km in length that is formed at the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

Map
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Iraq 1932–1959 depicting the Shatt and the forest
Arab ferryman on the Shatt al-Arab 1958
Evening atmosphere on the Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab near Basra city, Iraq

At the end of the Iran–Iraq War, both sides agreed to once again treat the Algiers Accord as binding.

Logo of the General Staff of the Armed Forces

Islamic Republic of Iran Armed Forces

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The Islamic Republic of Iran Armed Forces are the combined military forces of Iran, comprising the Islamic Republic of Iran Army (Arteš), the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Sepâh) and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).

The Islamic Republic of Iran Armed Forces are the combined military forces of Iran, comprising the Islamic Republic of Iran Army (Arteš), the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Sepâh) and the Law Enforcement Force (Police).

Logo of the General Staff of the Armed Forces
Ali Khamenei with IRIN commanders (at the time) during inauguration of Jamaran frigate
A formation flight of Iranian F-14 Tomcats, in 2008
Iran has three Russian-built Kilo-class submarines patrolling the Persian Gulf.
Fateh-110 is a solid-fuel, guided ballistic missile
The Shahed 129 drone is widely considered to be one of the most capable Iranian drone in service
Iranian Velayat-90 Naval Exercise Iran

Most of Iran's imported weapons consist of American systems purchased before the 1979 Islamic Revolution, with limited purchases from the Soviet Union in the 1990s following the Iran–Iraq War.

Khamenei in 2022

Ali Khamenei

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Twelver Shia Marja' and the second and current supreme leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

Twelver Shia Marja' and the second and current supreme leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

Khamenei in 2022
A teenage Khamenei
Khamenei in a protest during Iranian Revolution in Mashhad
Ali Khamenei in military uniform during Iran–Iraq War
Khamenei in the hospital after the assassination attempt
Ali Khamenei has shaken hands with his left hand since the unsuccessful assassination.
Khamenei as Tehran's Friday Prayer Imam in 1979
Khamenei reading Will of Ruhollah Khomeini in Assembly of Experts
Khamenei in 2018
Khamenei in 2020
Khamenei at the Great Conference of Basij members at Azadi Stadium, October 2018
Khamenei during a meeting with Qaris
International Holy Quran Competition's participants meeting with Khamenei, June 2013
Participants of 31st International Islamic Unity Conference meeting with Khamenei, December 2017
Khamenei and former president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Khamenei with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Ali Larijani and Sadeq Larijani in 2011
Khamenei at a public speech, 2018
Khamenei casting his vote in 2013 presidential election
Khamenei in meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 23 November 2015
Khamenei meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping, 23 January 2016
Khamenei with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, 11 February 2017
Sixth International Conference in Support of the Palestinian Intifada, Tehran, 2017
Pro-government Syrians with portraits of Assad, Ayatollah Khomeini and Khamenei, April 2018
Khamenei speaking to Iranian Air Force personnel, 6 February 2016
Khamenei meeting with Hajj authorities, 2018
Iranian women with portraits of Khamenei, 2014
Khamenei in 2022
Khamenei meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping, 23 January 2016

Khamenei was one of Iran's leaders during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, and developed close ties with the now powerful Revolutionary Guards which he controls, and whose commanders are elected and dismissed by him.

Seal of IRGC

Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

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Branch of the Iranian Armed Forces, founded after the Iranian Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Branch of the Iranian Armed Forces, founded after the Iranian Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Seal of IRGC
IRGC's naval special forces, S.N.S.F.
IRGC tank in 2012 military parade in Tehran
Qiam (left) and Sejjil 2 (right) ballistic missiles in a 2012 exhibition
One of the various types of fast attack craft used by the IRGC

Among the dead was General Ahmad Kazemi, the IRGC ground forces commander, and Iran–Iraq War veteran.