Iran–Iraq War

Iran-Iraq warTanker WarIraq-Iran Warwarwar with IraqIran Iraq warwar with IranImposed Warinvasion of IranIran–Iraq
The Iran–Iraq War began on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and it ended on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.wikipedia
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Badr Organization

Badr BrigadesBadr OrganisationBadr Brigade
They recruited POW's, dissidents, exiles, and Shias to join the Badr Brigade, the military wing of the organisation.
It consisted of several thousand Iraqi exiles, refugees, and defectors who fought alongside Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War.

1974–75 Shatt al-Arab clashes

1974-75 Shatt al-Arab clashes
The 1974-75 Shatt al-Arab clashes refer to Iranian-Iraqi standoff in the Persian Gulf region of Shatt al-Arab waterway during the mid-1970s.
It was the most significant dispute over the Shatt al-Arab waterway in modern times, prior to the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s.

Ronald Reagan

ReaganRonald W. ReaganPresident Reagan
President Ronald Reagan decided that the United States "could not afford to allow Iraq to lose the war to Iran", and that the United States "would do whatever was necessary to prevent Iraq from losing".
Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, and the Iran–Contra affair.

Abadan, Iran

When Iraq laid siege to Abadan and dug its troops in around the city, it was unable to blockade the port, which allowed Iran to resupply Abadan by sea.
The civilian population of the city dropped close to zero during the eight years of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988).

10th Division (Iraq)

10th Armored Division10th Armoured Division10th Armoured
The Revolutionary Guard and regular army followed up by surrounding the Iraqi 9th and 10th Armoured and 1st Mechanised Divisions that had camped close to the Iranian town of Shush.
The 10th Armoured Division served in the Iran–Iraq War.

Ali Khamenei

Ayatollah KhameneiAyatollah Ali KhameneiKhamenei
One faction, comprising Prime Minister Mir-Hossein Mousavi, Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati, President Ali Khamenei, Army Chief of Staff General Ali Sayad Shirazi as well as Major General Qasem-Ali Zahirnejad, wanted to accept the ceasefire, as most of Iranian soil had been recaptured.
Khamenei was one of Iran's leaders during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, and developed close ties with the now powerful Revolutionary Guards which he controls, and whose commanders are elected and dismissed by him.

Human wave attack

human wavehuman wave attackshuman waves
The conflict has been compared to World War I in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across fortified defensive lines, manned machine gun posts, bayonet charges, Iranian human wave attacks, extensive use of chemical weapons by Iraq, and, later, deliberate attacks on civilian targets.
Human wave attacks have been used by several armed forces around the world, including European and American armies during the American Civil War and World War I, the Chinese People's Liberation Army during the Korean War, Vietnamese insurgents during the Indochina Wars, and the Iranian Basij during the Iran–Iraq War.

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23

The Iraqi Air Force was only able to strike in depth with a few MiG-23BN, Tu-22, and Su-20 aircraft, and Iran had built hardened aircraft shelters where most of its combat aircraft were stored.


Baghdad, IraqBagdadBaghdād
Iran's new Islamic administration was regarded in Baghdad as an irrational, existential threat to the Ba'ath government, especially because the Ba'ath party, having a secular nature, discriminated against and posed a threat to the fundamentalist Shia movement in Iraq, whose clerics were Iran's allies within Iraq and whom Khomeini saw as oppressed.
However, the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money was diverted by Saddam Hussein to the army and thousands of residents were killed.

Iranian Arabs

ArabsArabs of KhuzestanIranian Arab
Iraqi hopes of an uprising by the ethnic Arabs of Khuzestan failed to materialise, as most of the ethnic Arabs remained loyal to Iran.
There were attempts by the Iraqi regime during the Iran–Iraq War (1980–88) to generate Arab nationalism in the area but without any palpable success.

Qasr-e Shirin

Ghasr-e ShirinQasr SjirinQasr-e Shirin Caravanserai
On the central front, the Iraqis occupied Mehran, advanced towards the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, and were able to block the traditional Tehran–Baghdad invasion route by securing territory forward of Qasr-e Shirin, Iran.
The ruins of the castle were further damaged as a result of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988) that turned the area into an active battlefield.

1st Division (Iraq)

1st Division1st1st Mechanised Division
The Revolutionary Guard and regular army followed up by surrounding the Iraqi 9th and 10th Armoured and 1st Mechanised Divisions that had camped close to the Iranian town of Shush.
It fought in the Iran–Iraq War, including Operation Fath ol-Mobin, in which the division suffered heavy losses, and at the Second Battle of Al Faw.

Operation Dawn 2

Operation Dawn-22Dawn 2
During Operation Dawn-2, the Iranians directed insurgency operations by proxy in April 1983 by supporting the Kurds in the north.
Operation Dawn 2 or Operation Valfajr-2 was an Iranian operation during the eight-year-long Iran–Iraq War.

Operation Dawn-4

Operation Dawn 44Dawn 4
The focus of Operation Dawn-4 in September 1983 was the northern sector in Iranian Kurdistan.
Operation Dawn 4 was an Iranian operation of the Iran–Iraq War launched in 1983.

Pontoon bridge

floating bridgepontoonpontoon bridges
Iran used speedboats to cross the marshes and rivers in southern Iraq and landed troops on the opposing banks, where they would dig and set up pontoon bridges across the rivers and wetlands to allow heavy troops and supplies to cross.
Pontoon bridges have been in use since ancient times and have been used to great advantage in many battles throughout history, among them the Battle of Garigliano, the Battle of Oudenarde, the crossing of the Rhine during World War II, and during the Iran–Iraq War Operation Dawn 8.

Ra'ad al-Hamdani

General HamdaniIraqi General Ra'ad Hamdani
According to the former Iraqi general Ra'ad al-Hamdani, the Iranian human wave charges consisted of armed "civilians" who carried most of their necessary equipment themselves into battle and often lacked command and control and logistics.
During the Iran–Iraq War Hamdani served as a staff officer in various armoured and reconnaissance units, and joining the Republican Guard in 1982, and serving as a senior training office between 1987 and 1989.

Popular Army (Iraq)

Iraqi Popular ArmyPopular ArmyBaath militia
Large numbers of troops would be used, aimed at overwhelming the Iraqi lines (usually the weakest portion manned by the Iraqi Popular Army) regardless of losses.
The First Battle of Al-Faw, fought on February 11, 1986, was a battle of the Iran–Iraq War.


The two armoured divisions secured the territory bounded by the cities of Khorramshahr, Ahvaz, Susangerd, and Musian.
Iraq attempted to annex Khūzestān and Ahvaz in 1980, resulting in the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988).

Northrop F-5

F-5F-5 Freedom FighterF-5E
Groups of F-4 Phantom and F-5 Tiger fighter jets attacked targets throughout Iraq, such as oil facilities, dams, petrochemical plants, and oil refineries, and included Mosul Airbase, Baghdad, and the Kirkuk oil refinery.
After the Iranian revolution in 1979, the new Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) was partially successful at keeping Western fighters in service during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s and the simple F-5 had a good service readiness until late in the war.

Operation Dawn (1983)

Operation Dawn 1Operation Dawn-1Operation Dawn
During Operation Dawn-1, in early February 1983, 50,000 Iranian forces attacked westward from Dezful and were confronted by 55,000 Iraqi forces.
Operation Dawn-1 (also known as Operation Valfajr-1) was an Iranian offensive in the Iran–Iraq War.

Abolhassan Banisadr

Abulhassan BanisadrBani SadrBanisadr
The battle had been ordered by Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr, who was hoping that a victory might shore up his deteriorating political position; instead, the failure hastened his fall.
During the Iran–Iraq War, Banisadr was appointed acting commander-in-chief by Khomeini on 10 June 1981.

Bostan, Iran

The town of Bostan was retaken from Iraqi divisions by 7 December.
It is mainly known for its battles during the Iran–Iraq War, the Operation Tariq al-Qods.

Arab world

Arab countriesArab statesArab
The United States, Britain, the Soviet Union, France, and most Arab countries provided political and logistic support for Iraq, while Iran was largely isolated.
The Iran–Iraq War (also known as the First Gulf War and by various other names) was an armed conflict between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran, lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the second longest conventional war of the 20th century.

Operation Kheibar

Operation KhaibarKhaibarKhaybar
By 1984, the Iranian ground forces were reorganised well enough for the Revolutionary Guard to start Operation Kheibar, which lasted from 24 February to 19 March.
Operation Kheibar was an Iranian offensive in the Iran–Iraq War.

Boeing CH-47 Chinook

CH-47 ChinookChinookCH-47
On 22 March 1982, Iran launched an attack which took the Iraqi forces by surprise: using Chinook helicopters, they landed behind Iraqi lines, silenced their artillery, and captured an Iraqi headquarters.
During the Iran–Iraq War, Iran made heavy use of its US-bought equipment, and lost at least eight CH-47s during the 1980–1988 period, most notably during a clash on 15 July 1983, when an Iraqi Mirage F1 destroyed three Iranian Chinooks transporting troops to the front line, and on 25–26 February 1984, when Iraqi MiG-21 fighters shot down two examples.