A report on Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

237 related topics with Alpha

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Flag of Kurdistan

Kurds

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Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria.

Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria.

Flag of Kurdistan
Kurdish-inhabited areas in the Middle East (1992)
Yazidi new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017
Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism, believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)
Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb, or Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty in the Middle East
Kurdish Warriors by Frank Feller
Karim Khan, the Laki ruler of the Zand Dynasty
Impression of a Kurdish man by American artist Antonio Zeno Shindle circa 1893
Provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres for an independent Kurdistan (in 1920)
Kurdish-inhabited areas of the Middle East and the Soviet Union in 1986, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Two Kurds From Constantinople 1899
Kurdish boys in Diyarbakir
Leyla Zana
Iranian Kurds celebrating Newroz, 20 March 2018
Qazi Muhammad, the President of the Republic of Kurdistan
The President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, meeting with U.S. officials in Baghdad, Iraq, on 26 April 2006
Kurdish girls in traditional Kurdish costume, Newroz picnic in Kirkuk
Pro-independence rally in Erbil in September 2017
Kurdish YPG and YPJ fighters in Syria
Tunar Rahmanoghly singing Kurdish song "Rinda Min". Khari Bulbul Music Festival
Protest in Berlin, Germany against Turkey's military offensive into north-eastern Syria on 10 October 2019
Hamdi Ulukaya, Kurdish-American billionaire, founder and CEO of Chobani
YPG's female fighters in Syria
The fox, a widely recurring character in Kurdish tales
Modern rug from Bijar
A Kurdish nobleman bearing a jambiya dagger
Kurdish woman with deq tattoo
Kurdish musicians, 1890
Bahman Ghobadi at the presentation of his film Nobody Knows About Persian Cats in San Sebastián, 2009
Eren Derdiyok, a Kurdish footballer, striker for the Swiss national football team
The Marwanid Dicle Bridge, Diyarbakir
The Citadel of Erbil
Mercier. Kurde (Asie) by Auguste Wahlen, 1843
Kurdish warriors by Amadeo Preziosi
Armenian, Turkish and Kurdish females in their traditional clothes, 1873
Zakho Kurds by Albert Kahn, 1910s
Kurdish Cavalry in the passes of the Caucasus mountains (The New York Times, January 24, 1915)
A Kurdish woman from Kirkuk, 1922
A Kurdish chief
A Kurdish woman from Piranshahr, Iran, Antoin Sevruguin
A Kurdish woman and a child from Bisaran, Eastern Kurdistan, 2017
A group of Kurdish men with traditional clothing, Hawraman
A Kurdish man wearing traditional clothes, Erbil
A Kurdish woman fighter from Rojava

During Iran–Iraq War, Tehran has provided support for Iraqi-based Kurdish groups like KDP or PUK, along with asylum for 1.4 million Iraqi refugees, mostly Kurds.

Basij

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One of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).

One of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).

A paramilitary volunteer militia established in Iran in 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of the Iranian Revolution, the organization originally consisted of civilian volunteers who were urged by Khomeini to fight in the Iran–Iraq War.

Baghdad Nuclear Research Facility – 10 March 1991. The Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center, Baghdad, Post-strike.

Iraq and weapons of mass destruction

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Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs as required by the United Nations Security Council.

Iraq actively researched and later employed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from 1962 to 1991, when it destroyed its chemical weapons stockpile and halted its biological and nuclear weapon programs as required by the United Nations Security Council.

Baghdad Nuclear Research Facility – 10 March 1991. The Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center, Baghdad, Post-strike.
February 5, 2003 – United States Secretary of State Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving the presentation to the United Nations Security Council.
President George W. Bush addresses the nation from the Oval Office, March 19, 2003, to announce the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom. "The people of the United States and our friends and allies will not live at the mercy of an outlaw regime that threatens the peace with weapons of mass murder." The Senate committee found that many of the administration's pre-war statements about Iraqi WMD were not supported by the underlying intelligence.
Presentation slide used by U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell at the UN Security Council in the lead up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq

The fifth President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, was internationally condemned for his use of chemical weapons during the 1980s campaign against Iranian and Kurdish civilians during and after the Iran–Iraq War.

A First Lieutenant of the U.S. 25th Infantry Division patrolling a local cemetery for some 1,500 victims in February 2005

Halabja massacre

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A First Lieutenant of the U.S. 25th Infantry Division patrolling a local cemetery for some 1,500 victims in February 2005
Ali Hassan al-Majid "Chemical Ali" during an investigative hearing in 2004
An original bomb casing used as flower pot at the Halabja Memorial Monument in 2011

The Halabja massacre (Kêmyabarana Helebce کیمیابارانی ھەڵەبجە), also known as the Halabja chemical attack, was a massacre of Kurdish people that took place on 16 March 1988, during the closing days of the Iran–Iraq War in Halabja, Iraq.

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

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Iranian politician, writer, and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth president of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.

Iranian politician, writer, and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth president of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.

Hashemi as parliament chairman in the inauguration of Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Rafsanjani as the chairman of the parliament with future President Mohammad Khatami
Rafsanjani with newly elected Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, 1989
Hashemi with some Iranian commanders of Iran–Iraq War
Hashemi meeting with former United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan
Hashemi supporters in the 2005 election
Rafsanjani in Eid al-Fitr prayer, while Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is sitting at his side
Hashemi with one of the protest leaders, Mehdi Karroubi
Hashemi announcing his candidacy with his daughter, Fatemeh accompanied him.
The names of the victims appear in the commemorative plaque in front of Mykonos restaurant in Berlin
Rafsanjani beside revolution leader Ruhollah Khomeini, announcing the appointment of Mehdi Bazargan as revolution's interim government prime minister.
Hashemi casting his vote in 2013 presidential election
Hashemi speaking as his wife, Effat listens.
Rafsanjani speaking with the media after the first assassination attempt

During his 40-year tenure, Rafsanjani amassed a large amount of power serving as the speaker of parliament, Commander-in-Chief during the Iran–Iraq War, President, and chose Ali Khamenei as the supreme leader of Iran.

Israel

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Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

On 7 June 1981, during the Iran–Iraq War, the Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole nuclear reactor under construction just outside Baghdad, in order to impede Iraq's nuclear weapons program.

An F-5E of the Swiss Air Force

Northrop F-5

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Family of supersonic light fighter aircraft initially designed as a privately funded project in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation.

Family of supersonic light fighter aircraft initially designed as a privately funded project in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation.

An F-5E of the Swiss Air Force
The first Northrop YF-5A prototype
VNAF F-5C Bien Hoa Air Base, 1971
Official roll-out of first USAF F-5E Tiger II
F-5E Tiger II with B83 nuclear bomb at Hill Aerospace Museum
An early series F-5E
NASA F-5E modified for DARPA sonic boom tests
An F-5B of 602d TFS at Bien Hoa, 1966
USAF F-5F with AIM-9J Sidewinder, AGM-65 Maverick missiles and auxiliary fuel tanks over Edwards Air Force Base, 1976.
A former Swiss F-5N in service with U.S. Navy aggressor squadron VFC-111
F-5A Freedom Fighters of Imperial Iranian Air Force
An F-5E of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force
Northrop RF-5E Tigereye of the Royal Malaysian Air Force at RMAF Butterworth
Mexican Air Force F-5 Tiger flying near the Popocatepetl volcano
Royal Moroccan Air Force F-5 Tiger II
NF-5A air display in the skies over the island of Terschelling
Northrop F-5A(G) flight deck displayed in the Norwegian Armed Forces Aircraft Collection. Serial no. 208 (66-9208)
Philippine Air Force F-5A at Clark Air Base, c. 1982
A Maverick-armed F-5S Tiger II of Republic of Singapore Air Force on static display at Paya Lebar Air Base
A Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force F-5F Tiger II at Songshan Air base
Taiwan AIDC's Tiger 2000
An F-5C at Museum of Ho Chi Minh Campaign, Vietnam. This jet flown by South Vietnamese pilot Nguyen Thanh Trung, who defected to North Vietnam after bombing the presidential palace of South Vietnam in Saigon, on 8 April 1975.
RTAF F-5 and USAF F-15 in the background
A trio of USAF aggressor squadron F-5Es in formation
Brazilian variant F-5EM
Chilean F-5F Tiger II just after delivery in 1977
A Spanish F-5M Freedom Fighter at Dijon Air Base
Swiss F-5F with Ericson Vista 5 radar jammer
A Canadian CF-116
Iranian Azarakhsh
An Iranian Saeqeh
Northrop F-5 operators (former operators in red) as of 2020
Chile Air Force Northrop F-5E Tiger III
The 46th Tactical Fighter Squadron (Aggressor squadron) F-5E 5272 of Republic of China Air Force exhibited on the apron of Zhi-Hang Air Base
Kenya Air Force F-5E Tiger II and a USAF C-5 Galaxy in the background
Royal Moroccan Air Force F-5E Tiger II during an aerial refueling mission in exercise African Lion 2009
F-5E/F Tiger II of the Indonesian Air Force preserved at the Dirgantara Mandala Museum, Yogyakarta
Royal Saudi Air Force F-5F taking off
Philippine Air Force F-5
F-5E Tiger II of the Swiss Patrouille Suisse aerobatics team arrives for the 2014 Royal International Air Tattoo, Fairford, England. Its '50' markings commemorates the team's 50 years of flying (1964–2014).
A Royal Thai Air Force Northrop F-5E Tiger II
NF-5A of the Turkish Stars aerobatic team.
A retired Royal Thai Air Force F-5B in front of wing 23 gate Udon Thani International Airport
Indonesian Air Force F-5E Tiger II of the Skadron Udara 14 at Dirgantara Mandala Museum Yogyakarta
F-5B in Royal Thai Air Force Museum, the first F-5B produced
RTAF F-5E at Royal Thai Air Force Museum
3-view drawing of F-5E Tiger II
M39A2 cannon in the right side of the nose of an F-5E
F-5 external fuel tank cutview
USMC F-5N Tiger IIs from VMFT-401 on standby at the Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort
A Brazilian Air Force F-5M
F-5 Tiger II of the Royal Malaysian Air Force
Norwegian Air Force F-5A
A Republic of Singapore Air Force F-5S Tiger II taking off from Korat Air Base
Venezuela Air Force Northrop (Canadair) VF-5A (CL-226)
A Bahraini Air Force F-5F on the taxiway at RAF Alconbury
A Canadian Air Force CF-116D
CF-5 of the Botswana Defence Force
A Honduran Air Force F-5E
Jordanian F-5E Tiger II
An Austrian Air Force F-5E Tiger II
A Hellenic Air Force F-5A
A South Korean Air Force KF-5E takes off
Turkish Air Force F-5B

After the Iranian revolution in 1979, the new Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) was partially successful at keeping Western fighters in service during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s and the simple F-5 had a good service readiness until late in the war.

Operation Fath ol-Mobin, Map

Operation Fath ol-Mobin

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Operation Fath ol-Mobin, Map

Operation Fath-ol-Mobin (, a Quranic phrase meaning "Undeniable Victory" or "Manifest Victory") was a major Iranian military operation conducted during the Iran–Iraq War, in March 1982.

Kurdistan Democratic Party

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Largest party in Iraqi Kurdistan and the senior partner in the Kurdistan Regional Government.

Largest party in Iraqi Kurdistan and the senior partner in the Kurdistan Regional Government.

KDP propaganda poster in Zakho, 2016
Former flag of KDP
Iraqi Kurdish peshmerga fighter in the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) in 2003.

At the commencement of the Iran–Iraq War, Saddam Hussein was able to publicly boast that "the Kurdish organizations would never be able to achieve anything since they are hopelessly divided against each other and subservient to foreign powers."

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

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American tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed by McDonnell Aircraft for the United States Navy.

American tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed by McDonnell Aircraft for the United States Navy.

The McDonnell F3H-G/H mockup, 1954
Key figures in the F-4 development: David Lewis, Robert Little, and Herman Barkey
An F4H-1F aboard USS Independence (CV-62), April 1960
VF-74 was the first operational U.S. Navy Phantom squadron in 1961
Transcontinental "Operation LANA" in 1961
Cockpit of F-4 Phantom II
435th TFS F-4Ds over Vietnam
USAF F-4 Phantom II destroyed on 18 February 1968, during the enemy attack against Tan Son Nhut, during the Tet Offensive
USAFE F-4G, A-10A and RF-4C, 6 April 1987
A U.S. Navy F-4B from VF-111 dropping bombs over Vietnam, 25 November 1971
The Blue Angels flew the F-4J, 1969–1974
A U.S. Marine F-4B with VMFA-314, flies over South Vietnam in September 1968
Egyptian Air Force F-4E Phantom IIs of the 222nd Tactical Fighter Brigade in formation with a U.S. Air Force 347th Tactical Fighter Wing F-4E Phantom II during exercise Proud Phantom
McDonnell RF-4E Phantom II of the Luftwaffe's AKG52 unit in 1977
Hellenic Air Force RF-4E Phantom II in a special color scheme, lands at RIAT 2008, UK
Iranian F-4E Phantom refueling through a boom during Iran-Iraq war, 1982
An Israeli F-4E on static display in the Olga's Hill neighborhood of Hadera, Israel
JASDF F-4EJ Kais (57-8354 and 87-8407) of 8 Hikōtai in grey air superiority paint scheme, 2002
JASDF RF-4E Kai 57-6913 of 501 Hikōtai in 2017
South Korean F-4E, armed with an AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missile, 19 February 1979
Retired Turkish Air Force F-4E Phantom II, serial number 67-0360, housed at the Istanbul Aviation Museum
An F-4J of the U.S. Navy (foreground), alongside an F-4K of the Fleet Air Arm (background) wait to be catapulted from USS Independence (CV-62), March 1975; one of the major differences can be seen by the higher degree of the British aircraft's extendable nose wheel. Both variants were eventually used by the RAF
The Collings Foundation F-4D Phantom II, with Vietnam-era "Ritchie/DeBellevue" markings, taxis at Selfridge ANGB, May 2005
QF-4E AF Serial No. 74-1626 at McGuire AFB in May 2007 with an A-10 in the background
F-4Fs of the German Air Force, 21 January 1998
Iranian F-4Es, 2009
Spanish Air Force RF-4C Phantom II, 15 June 1993
An F-4F on display described as the "World's largest distributor of MiG parts", because of the high number of this type of enemy aircraft shot down
The Spook
3-side view of the F-4E/F
Structural view of partially disassembled German F-4 Phantoms.
A U.S. Marine Corps RF-4B in September 1982
F-4Gs over Bahrain during Operation Desert Shield
An F4E Phantom II aircraft with the Turkish Air Force takes off from Third Air Force Base Konya, Turkey, during Exercise Anatolian Eagle.
A RAAF F-4E Phantom II at RAAF Base Pearce in 1971

Israeli Phantoms saw extensive combat in several Arab–Israeli conflicts, while Iran used its large fleet of Phantoms, acquired before the fall of the Shah, in the Iran–Iraq War.