A report on Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

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Overall

Original M60 variant on display at the Fort Lewis Military Museum in 2016

M60 tank

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American second-generation main battle tank .

American second-generation main battle tank .

Original M60 variant on display at the Fort Lewis Military Museum in 2016
A concept design #1 of the XM60 mounting the T123E6 main gun and British styled gun barrel, the newly designed full-vision cupola using the T95E6 turret as preferred by the Ordnance Department.
The M60 production pilot number 1 after completion by Chrysler on 2 July 1959. Note the use of a pedestal mounted M2HB machine gun on the cupola. The turret is traversed to the rear of the tank.
A M60 with AN/VSS-1(V)1 IR searchlight on display at Mississippi Armed Forces Museum, Camp Shelby, Mississippi
M60E1 pilot number 1 during preliminary tests at the Detroit Arsenal Test Center 19 May 1961. The machine guns are not installed.
A US Army M60A1 RISE Passive tank maneuvers through a narrow German village street while participating in REFORGER 1982.
A conceptual drawing of the XM66 with a Type C turret
A M60A1E2 tank prototype with a Type B turret.
An early version of the M60A2 at the AAF Museum
A US M60A3 on Display in Lake Charles, Louisiana in April 2005
Two M60A3 TTSs of the US Army near Giessen, West Germany 1985
A US Army crew aims its M60A3 TTS during NATO Exercise Certain Sentinel 1986. The canvas covered device attached to the main gun is a Hoffman simulator launcher for the MILES system.
General Dynamics Super M60 prototype, 1985
A Magach 7C in Yad la-Shiryon museum, Latrun.
A M60-2000/120S MBT prototype
A Leonardo M60A3 prototype, 2017
An M88 Recovery Vehicle towing an M60 tank for Exercise REFORGER 1978
A 401st TFW (P) M60 seen at Doha, Qatar during the Gulf War of 1991
Marines from Company D, 2nd Tank Battalion, M60A1 main battle tank during a breach exercise in Operation Desert Storm. The tank is fitted with reactive armor and an M9 bulldozer kit.
Excess M60 tanks at Fort Hood Texas, 1994. Note: All the turrets are traversed to the rear of the tank.
A XM1060 ROBAT circa 1982
A Panther MDCV equipped with an M1 MCRS prepares to lead a column of vehicles down a road near McGovern Base, in Bosnia and Herzegovina on May 16, 1996, during Operation Joint Endeavor.
A Turkish M60A1 tank upgraded by Israel Military Industries to M60T Sabra II, in Rishon LeZion, Israel, 2008
A map of M60 operators as of 2021 in blue with former operators in red

M60s delivered to Iran also served in the Iran–Iraq War.

Operation Nasr

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Iraqi T-62

Operation Nasr, fought in early January 1981, was a major battle of the Iran–Iraq War.

Exploded T-54/55 tank, remains as symbol of Iran–Iraq War.

Abadan, Iran

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City and capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Province, which is located in the southwest of Iran.

City and capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Province, which is located in the southwest of Iran.

Exploded T-54/55 tank, remains as symbol of Iran–Iraq War.
Ruins of a building in Abadan, which had suffered serious damages during the Iran–Iraq War (1980–88), including by Saddam's deadly chemical weapons.
Pictures From Iran E5329
Mohammad Reza Shah visits Abadan Petrochemical
Outdoor cinema in Abadan, 1960s
Naft Cinema
Rengoonie's Mosque

The civilian population of the city dropped close to zero during the eight years of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988).

Tu-22 at the Monino, Russian Federation Central Air Force Museum

Tupolev Tu-22

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The first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union.

The first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union.

Tu-22 at the Monino, Russian Federation Central Air Force Museum
Tu-22 at the Monino, Russian Federation Central Air Force Museum
Tu-22 Blinder landing
Soviet engineer checks the 23-mm R-23 cannon in remotely controlled tail turret
A parked Tupolev Tu-22
A U.S. Navy F-4N belonging to VF-111 intercepts Tu-22s being delivered to Libya in 1977.
Tu-22KD with Kh-22 missile at Poltava Museum of Long-Range and Strategic Aviation
Tu-22U trainer
Former operators of the Tu-22
Orthographic projection of the Tupolev Tu-22.

The Tu-22 was one of the few Soviet jet bombers to see combat: Libyan Tu-22s were used against Tanzania and Chad, and Iraqi Tu-22s were used during the Iran–Iraq War.

Official seal of Islamic Republic of Iran Army Aviation

Islamic Republic of Iran Army Aviation

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Army aviation of the Iranian Army ground forces. It is the largest and most professional army aviation service in the Middle East, possessing no less than 300 helicopters both for attack and transport uses.

Army aviation of the Iranian Army ground forces. It is the largest and most professional army aviation service in the Middle East, possessing no less than 300 helicopters both for attack and transport uses.

Official seal of Islamic Republic of Iran Army Aviation
The official seal of Imperial Iranian Army Aviation
An AH-1J International of Imperial Iranian Army Aviation
AH-1J International Cobra
CH-47 Chinook
Aero Commander 690A

It is also the most experienced in the region, having fought the brutal Iran–Iraq War in the 80s, in which the Havanirooz played a crucial role in destroying and defeating the invading Iraqi armies.

Su-22M4 of the Czech Air Force

Sukhoi Su-17

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Variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed for the Soviet military.

Variable-sweep wing fighter-bomber developed for the Soviet military.

Su-22M4 of the Czech Air Force
Su-22M4 of the Czech Air Force
An Su-20 (left) next to an older, similar Su-7BKL.
A Soviet Su-17M.
Iraqi Su-22M aircraft in a hangar damaged by Coalition air strikes during Operation Desert Storm.
Libyan Su-22M.
Sukhoi Su-22 aircraft of the Peruvian Air Force.
Polish Su-22M4 in the markings of 7th Tactical Sqn.
Polish Su-22M4 in flight
Polish Su-22M4 in markings of 7th Tactical Sqn.
Operating nations of the Su-17, Su-20, and Su-22; current operators shaded blue, former operators shaded red
Former Libyan Arab Republic Air Force Sukhoi Su-22M
Polish Su-22M4
A former Afghan Air Force Su-22M4 that now sits as a gate guardian at the entrance of Hamid Karzai International Airport
Czech Air Force Su-22M4
Hungarian Su-22M3
Su-22UM of the Peruvian Air Force
Retired Slovak Su-22M4
Drawing of the Su-17M4 "Fitter K", with plan view of wings swept and spread
Egyptian Air Force Su-20 armed with four 250 kg bombs, two rocket pods, and fitted with two external fuel tanks.

From 22 September 1980 to 20 August 1988, during the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq used Su-17 export versions (Su-20 and Su-22) alongside older Su-7s.

Side-view of the AIM-54C

AIM-54 Phoenix

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American radar-guided, long-range air-to-air missile , carried in clusters of up to six missiles on the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, its only operational launch platform.

American radar-guided, long-range air-to-air missile , carried in clusters of up to six missiles on the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, its only operational launch platform.

Side-view of the AIM-54C
Side-view of the AIM-54C
Side-view of the AIM-54C
An AIM-54A launched from the NA-3A-testbed in 1966
AIM-54 Phoenix seconds after launch (1991)
An AIM-54 hitting a QF-4B target drone, 1983.
An AIM-54 Phoenix being attached to an F-14 wing pylon before the forward fins were installed (2003).
Iranian F-14 Tomcats armed with multiple missiles, including AIM-54 Phoenix, 1986.
An AIM-54A "Phoenix" missile on display at Grumman Memorial Park in New York State
Map with AIM-54 Phoenix operators in blue with former operators in red
A technical drawing of AIM-54C

The AIM-54 has been used in 62 air-to-air strikes, all by Iran during the eight-year Iran–Iraq War.

Basra

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Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab.

Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab.

View of Basra in circa 1695, by Dutch cartographer Isaak de Graaf
Ashar Creek and bazaar, c. 1915
Basra designed by the Portuguese at the end of the 16th century, according to the representation of the "Lyvro de plantaforma of the fortresses of India" codex of São julião da Barra
Purple - Portuguese in the Persian Gulf in the 16th and 17th century. Main cities, ports and routes.
Iraqi girls, c. 1917
Turkish prisoners passing along the bank of Ashar Creek, nearing Whiteley's Bridge, Basra 1917.
Shanasheel of the old part of Basra city, 1954
Model of Basra Dockyard
Basra at night
Basra Times square shopping centre
A Chaldean Catholic Church in Basra.
Ali Bin Abi Talib mosque
Shatt Al-Arab
Old Basrah
Muhhmad Baquir Al-Sadr Bridge
Al Basrah Oil Terminal.
Basra International Stadium in 2013
Old houses of Basra
Ali Bin Abi Talib mosque
Basra International Airport

The population declined during the Iran–Iraq War, being under 900,000 in the late 1980s, possibly reaching a low point of just over 400,000 during the worst of the war.

AGM-65 Maverick

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Air-to-ground missile designed for close air support.

Air-to-ground missile designed for close air support.

Laser AGM-65E Maverick on a USN F/A-18C, 2004
An A-10 firing a Maverick missile
Firebee drone carrying two AGM-65 Mavericks for strike mission.
Map with AGM-65 operators in blue
A U.S. Navy F/A-18C Hornet armed with AGM-65 Maverick
An Imperial Iranian Air Force F-4E Phantom II carrying four AGM-65 Mavericks

The Maverick served during the Vietnam, Yom Kippur, Iran–Iraq, and Persian Gulf Wars, along with other smaller conflicts, destroying enemy forces and installations with varying degrees of success.

Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas

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Operation Beit-ol-Moqaddas or Operation Toward Beit-ol-Moqaddas (عملیات الی بیت‌المقدس) was an Iranian operation conducted during the Iran–Iraq War.