A report on Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

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A Soviet Air Force MiG-23MLD

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23

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Variable-geometry fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union.

Variable-geometry fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union.

A Soviet Air Force MiG-23MLD
A Soviet Air Force MiG-23MLD
A Polish MiG-23MF
MiG-23 parked.
MiG-23M "Flogger-B" armed with R-23 and R-60 missiles.
MiG-23 cockpit in high resolution
KM-1 ejection seat
MiG-23 wing-sweep mechanism
MiG-23M
MiG-23 on display in Israel after defection from Syria
Iraqi MiG-23ML
Libyan MiG-23 over Gulf of Sidra in August 1981, being followed by an F-4 just before the first Gulf of Sidra incident.
Libyan MiG-23
A Hungarian MiG-23MF in flight.
MiG-23BN used in Operation Safed Sagar
MiG-23M "Flogger-B" on display at the National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War, Kyiv
MiG-23ML 332 at the Information Centre for History and Technology, Peenemünde
Soviet MiG-23MLA "Flogger-G"
Soviet MiG-23MLD "Flogger-K"
World operators of the MiG-23 (not including evaluation-only operators)
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23MS Syrian Air Force Camo
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23UB.
Hungarian Air Force Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23MF.
An Indian MiG-23MF on display at a crossroads in Gandhinagar.
Polish Air Force MiG-23
Ukrainian MiG-23 on display at the National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War, Kyiv
MiG-23 on display at the Minsk World theme park in Shenzhen, PRC.
3-view drawing of MiG-23MF
MiG-23 monument

The MiG-23 took part in the Iran–Iraq War and was used in both air-to-air and air-to-ground roles.

Kazem Shariatmadari

Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

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The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution.

The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution.

Kazem Shariatmadari

Elements that played a part in both the crisis and its end were the Iran hostage crisis, the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr.

H-3 "Main" Airbase

H-3 airstrike

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H-3 "Main" Airbase
Map of the operation, showing the aircraft involved and their route.

The H-3 airstrike was a surprise air attack by the Iranian Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War on 4 April 1981 against the airbases of the Iraqi Air Force at the H-3 Air Base in western Iraq.

Ali Sayad Shirazi

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Iranian regular military (Artesh) officer.

Iranian regular military (Artesh) officer.

Ali Sayad Shirazi and Mohsen Rezaee
Funeral of General Ali Sayad Shirazi

He served as commander of the Ground Force during Iran–Iraq War.

Unofficial map displaying the general course of the Iranian aerial operation

Operation Scorch Sword

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Surprise airstrike, carried out by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force on 30 September 1980, that damaged an almost-complete nuclear reactor located 17 km southeast of Baghdad, Iraq.

Surprise airstrike, carried out by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force on 30 September 1980, that damaged an almost-complete nuclear reactor located 17 km southeast of Baghdad, Iraq.

Unofficial map displaying the general course of the Iranian aerial operation
an Iranian F-4 being refueled over Iraq's airspace during the war, 1982

The operation took place eight days into the Iran–Iraq War.

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Baghdad

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Capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo.

Capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo.

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An 1808 picture of Baghdad from the print collection in Travels in Asia and Africa, etc. (ed. J. P. Berjew, British Library)
An 1468 painting of Floods in Baghdad by Shirwan
The Round city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 AD
Baghdad Museum is a local history museum. It features 70 scenes from different periods using lifesize models presenting Baghdad life
Courtyard of Mustansiriya madrasa, established by Al-Mustansir in 1227
Khan Murjan, built in the 14th century as a caravanserai
Al Khulafa mosque retains an Abbasid-era minaret
Zumurrud Khatun Tomb in Baghdad (built in 1202 AD)
Conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258 CE
Central Asian Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur sacked the city and spared almost no one
The Shabandar Café in Baghdad, 1923
Manadotory Iraq, 1921
Three Iraqi Levies, who volunteered in 1946 for service as ground crew with the Royal Air Force, look over the side of the ORBITA as it pulls into the docks at Liverpool. Left to right, they are: Sergeant Macko Shmos, Lance Corporal Adoniyo Odisho and Corporal Yoseph Odisho.
Freedom Monument, Tahrir square in Downtown Baghdad
View of downtown Baghdad, March 2017
Baghdad as seen from the International Space Station
Al-Ma'mun's Telecommunication Center in downtown Baghdad
The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra performing in July 2007
The National Ballet performing in 2007
Chaldean Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady of Sorrows
The Baghdad Convention Center
Qushla Square
Madina Stadium
Al-Shaab Stadium
Baghdad Eyalet in 1609 CE.
Baghdad Vilayet in 1900 CE.
Souk in Baghdad, 1876 CE.
Kadhimiya Mosque
Armenian Orthodox Church of Baghdad
Saray Mosque
Khilani Mosque
Baghdadi Museum
Iraq National Museum
Al Zawra'a Park
Al Salam Palace
Al Faw Palace
Abu Nawas Street

However, the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money was diverted by Saddam Hussein to the army and thousands of residents were killed.

Map of the Iran–Iraq border

Iran–Iraq border

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The Iran–Iraq border runs for 1,599 km (994 mi) from the tripoint with Turkey in the north down to the Shatt al-Arab (known as Arvand Rud in Iran) waterway and out to the Persian Gulf in the south.

The Iran–Iraq border runs for 1,599 km (994 mi) from the tripoint with Turkey in the north down to the Shatt al-Arab (known as Arvand Rud in Iran) waterway and out to the Persian Gulf in the south.

Map of the Iran–Iraq border
Detailed map of the border in the Shatt al-Arab
Map showing the major areas of fighting during the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988)
An Iran-Iraq border crossing in 2015

War broke out in 1980 when Iraq invaded Iran, leading to the eight-year long Iran–Iraq War.

Khorramshahr

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City and capital of Khorramshahr County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

City and capital of Khorramshahr County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

Mandaeans in Khorramshahr in 2015

The city was destroyed in the Iran–Iraq War, with the 1986 census recording a population of zero.

Operation Kaman 99

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Operation Alborz, more commonly known by the code-name Operation Kaman 99 (عملیات کمان 99), was an operation launched by the Iranian Air Force in retaliation to Iraqi surprise aerial attacks on Iran the day before which marked the beginning of the 8-year-long Iran–Iraq War.

Official portrait, 1981

Ronald Reagan

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American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

Official portrait, 1981
Ronald Reagan's boyhood home in Dixon, Illinois
The Bad Man (1941)
Capt. Ronald Reagan at Fort Roach, 1943 or 1944.
Guest stars for the premiere of The Dick Powell Show, 1961. Reagan can be seen wearing a ten-gallon hat on the far left.
Reagan testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee, October 1947
Reagan and his first wife Jane Wyman, 1942
Wedding of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, 1952. Matron of honor Brenda Marshall (left) and best man William Holden (right) were the sole guests.
Nancy and Ronald Reagan aboard a boat in California, 1964
The Reagans meet with President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon, July 1970
Reagan and President Ford shake hands on the podium after Reagan narrowly lost the nomination at the 1976 Republican National Convention
1980 electoral vote results
Ronald Reagan, moderator Jon Breen, and Bush participate in the Nashua, New Hampshire presidential debate, 1980
President and Mrs. Reagan at the 1981 inauguration parade
Supreme Court justice-nominee Sandra Day O'Connor talks with Reagan outside the White House, July 15, 1981.
Reagan outlines his plan for Tax Reduction Legislation in a televised address from the Oval Office, July 1981
Reagan addresses Congress on the Program for Economic Recovery, April 28, 1981 (a few weeks after surviving the assassination attempt)
As the first U.S. president invited to speak before the British Parliament (June 8, 1982), Reagan predicted Marxism–Leninism would end up on the "ash heap of history".
Meeting with leaders of the Afghan Mujahideen in the Oval Office, 1983
Reagan with actress Sigourney Weaver and King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in 1985. The U.S. and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet fighters in Afghanistan.
Reagan (far left) and First Lady Nancy Reagan pay their respects to the 17 American victims of the April 18 attack on the U.S. embassy by Hezbollah in Beirut, 1983
1984 presidential electoral votes by state. Reagan (red) won every state except Mondale's home state of Minnesota; Mondale also carried the District of Columbia.
Reagan is sworn in for a second term as president by Chief Justice Burger in the Capitol rotunda
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (here with Reagan in 1986) granted the U.S. use of British airbases to launch the Libya attack.
Reagan (center) receives the Tower Commission Report regarding the Iran-Contra affair in the Cabinet Room with John Tower (left) and Edmund Muskie (right)
Challenging Gorbachev to "tear down this wall" at the Brandenburg Gate, June 12, 1987
Gorbachev and Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House, December 1987
The Reagans in Los Angeles, 1992
The Reagans with a model of USS Ronald Reagan, May 1996
Reagan lying in state in the Capitol rotunda
A bronze statue of Reagan standing in the National Statuary Hall Collection
President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev, 1985
Reagan in 1982
Approval ratings for President Reagan (Gallup)
Former President Reagan returns to the White House to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Bush, 1993
{{circa}} 1916–17. Pictured from left: Father Jack, older brother Neil, Reagan (with "Dutchboy" haircut), and mother Nelle
1920s. As a teenager, in Dixon, Illinois
{{circa|lk=no|1960}}. Hosting General Electric Theater
1976. At his home at Rancho del Cielo
1985. His second presidential portrait

Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair, and the ongoing Cold War.