Iran-Iraq warTanker WarIraq-Iran Warwarwar with IraqIran Iraq warwar with IranImposed Warinvasion of IranIran–Iraq
The Iran–Iraq War began on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and it ended on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.wikipedia
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They then aimed to capture the Iraqi border town of Mandali.
During September 1980 of the Iran–Iraq War, the town and other nearby villages were attacked by Iranian forces.
alleged illegal dealingsBritish support for Iraq during the Iran-Iraq warBritish support for Saddam's regime
Support from Great Britain exemplified the methods by which Iraq would circumvent export controls.
In the United Kingdom there were direct sales to both sides in the Iran–Iraq War.
destroy two Iranian oil platformsNimble ArcherOil Platforms
On 8 October, the U.S. Navy destroyed four Iranian speedboats, and in response to Iranian Silkworm missile attacks on Kuwaiti oil tankers, launched Operation Nimble Archer, destroying two Iranian oil rigs in the Persian Gulf.
The action occurred during Operation Earnest Will, the effort to protect Kuwaiti shipping amid the Iran–Iraq War.
Iraqgateincreased its support for Iraqaid the Iraqis
The [[United States support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq war#Banca Nazionale del Lavoro|Iraqgate]] scandal revealed that a branch of Italy's largest bank, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL), in Atlanta, Georgia, relied partially on U.S. taxpayer-guaranteed loans to funnel $5 billion to Iraq from 1985 to 1989.
American support for Ba'athist Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, in which it fought against post-revolutionary Iran, included several billion dollars' worth of economic aid, the sale of dual-use technology, non-U.S. origin weaponry, military intelligence, and special operations training.
Iran's strategy was to press Kurdish tribes to occupy the Banjuin Valley, which was within 45 km of Suleimaniyah and 140 km from the oilfields of Kirkuk.
Kurdish villages were razed and thousands of new homes were built, including at least 200 homes for relatives of Iraqi soldiers killed during the Iran-Iraq War.
Iraq also replenished their stocks of small arms and anti-tank weapons such as AK-47s and rocket-propelled grenades from its supporters.
The Iraqi government also commemorated the war with various monuments, including the Hands of Victory and the al-Shaheed Monument, both in Baghdad.
It is dedicated to the Iraqi soldiers who died in the Iran–Iraq War.
Massoud BarzaniBarzaniMasud Barzani
The crackdown on Kurds saw 8,000 members of the Barzani clan, whose leader (Massoud Barzani) also led the Kurdistan Democratic Party, similarly executed.
Working closely with his brother Idris Barzani until Idris's death, Barzani and various other Kurdish groups fought the forces of the Iraqi government in Baghdad during the Iran–Iraq War.
United States support for Iran during the Iran–Iraq warAmong the other arms suppliers and supportersarms sales to Iraq
Among the other arms suppliers and supporters of Iran's Islamic Revolution, the major ones were Libya, Syria, and China.
During the Iran–Iraq War, Iraq received large quantities of weapons and other material useful to the development of armaments and weapons of mass destruction.
Mohsen RezaeiMohsen RezaiRezaei
Mohsen Rezaee, head of the IRGC, announced that Iran would focus exclusively on limited attacks and infiltrations, while arming and supporting opposition groups inside of Iraq.
Although he studied mechanical engineering at Iran University of Science and Technology before the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Rezaee switched to economics after the Iran–Iraq War, studying at Tehran University and received his PhD in 2001.
acquired arms from PortugalPortugal helped both countriestransfer of Portuguese 155mm ammunition
Likewise, Portugal helped both countries; it was not unusual to see Iranian and Iraqi flagged ships anchored at Setúbal, waiting their turn to dock.
Portugal's involvement in the Iran–Iraq War includes Portugal supplying both Iran and Iraq with arms, and playing a role in the Iran–Contra affair.
Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
The Siege of Basra, code-named Operation Karbala-5, was an offensive operation carried out by Iran in an effort to capture the Iraqi port city of Basra in early 1987.
Following months of cross-border raids between the two countries, Saddam declared war on Iran in September 1980, initiating the Iran–Iraq War (or First Persian Gulf War).
war of attritionattritionbattle of attrition
Iran, however, held the advantage in the war of attrition.
Navy SEALsNavy SEALSEAL
On 24 September, US Navy SEALS captured the Iranian mine-laying ship Iran Ajr, a diplomatic disaster for the already isolated Iranians.
During the closing stages of the Iran–Iraq War the United States Navy began conducting operations in the Persian Gulf to protect US-flagged ships from attack by Iranian naval forces.
In retaliation for Kurdish collaboration with the Iranians, Iraq launched a massive poison gas attack against Kurdish civilians in Halabja, recently taken by the Iranians, killing thousands of civilians.
The Kurdish peshmerga guerrillas, supported by Iran, ایران captured Halabja in the final phase of the Iran–Iraq War.
Al Faw PeninsulaFao PeninsulaFaw Peninsula
On the night of 10–11 February 1986, the Iranians launched Operation Dawn 8, in which 30,000 troops comprising five Army divisions and men from the Revolutionary Guard and Basij advanced in a two-pronged offensive to capture the al-Faw peninsula in southern Iraq, the only area touching the Persian Gulf.
During the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, al-Faw was bitterly contested due to its strategic location at the head of the disputed Shatt al-Arab waterway, and was the site of many large-scale battles.
5 June 1984
The Iranian attacks against Saudi shipping led to Saudi F-15s shooting down a pair of F-4 Phantom II on 5 June 1984.
To discourage the United States from escorting tankers, Iran secretly mined some areas in the Gulf.
During the Iran–Iraq War from 1980 to 1988, the belligerents mined several areas of the Persian Gulf and nearby waters.
Mirage F1Mirage F-1Mirage F.1
In preparation for Operation Beit ol-Moqaddas, the Iranians had launched numerous air raids against Iraq air bases, destroying 47 jets (including Iraq's brand new Mirage F-1 fighter jets from France); this gave the Iranians air superiority over the battlefield while allowing them to monitor Iraqi troop movements.
The type has seen action in a large number of armed conflicts involving several of its operators, including the Western Sahara War, the Paquisha War, the Cenepa War, the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, the South African Border War, the War in Afghanistan, the Chadian–Libyan conflict, the 2011 military intervention in Libya, and the Northern Mali conflict.
acting as a third party in arms dealsmajor arms supplier to Iran
North Korea was a major arms supplier to Iran, often acting as a third party in arms deals between Iran and the Communist bloc.
Sales began with a delivery of Soviet artillery ammunition in October 1980 after the Iran–Iraq War had begun in September.
Iraq used newly acquired T-55, T-62 and T-72 tanks (as well as Chinese copies), BM-21 truck-mounted rocket launchers, and Mi-24 helicopter gunships to prepare a Soviet-type three-line defence, replete with obstacles such as barbed wire, minefields, fortified positions and bunkers.
Fighter-bombers such as the Mig-25 Foxbat and Su-22 Fitter were used against smaller or shorter range targets, as well as escorting the strategic bombers.
The MiG-25 was in service with the Iraqi Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War.
Imperial Iranian ArmyIranian ArmyArmy
Iran's regular Army had been purged after the 1979 Revolution, with most high-ranking officers either having deserted (fled the country) or been executed.
The 1941 invasion by Allied forces during World War II resulted in a decisive loss for the Iranian forces, the deposition of Iran's Shah and five years of subsequent occupation, while the 1980 Iraqi invasion began a war lasting almost eight years, which ended in status quo ante bellum.
On 24 February 1986, Saddam sent one of his best commanders, General Maher Abd al-Rashid, and the Republican Guard to begin a new offensive to recapture al-Faw.
F-14 TomcatF-14F-14A Tomcat
Meanwhile, Iraqi air attacks on Iran were repelled by Iran's F-14 Tomcat interceptor fighter jets, using Phoenix missiles, which downed a dozen of Iraq's Soviet-built fighters in the first two days of battle.
In the 1980s, F-14s were used as land-based interceptors by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force during the Iran–Iraq War, where they saw combat against Iraqi warplanes.