A report on Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

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Overall

From left to right: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein in Algiers, 1975

1974–75 Shatt al-Arab conflict

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The 1974–75 Shatt al-Arab conflict took place between the Imperial State of Iran and Ba'athist Iraq from April 1974 to March 1975, and occurred as a direct result of their territorial dispute in the region.

The 1974–75 Shatt al-Arab conflict took place between the Imperial State of Iran and Ba'athist Iraq from April 1974 to March 1975, and occurred as a direct result of their territorial dispute in the region.

From left to right: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein in Algiers, 1975

It was the most significant spike of bilateral tensions between Iran and Iraq over the Shatt al-Arab waterway in times, and the continued border dispute and disagreements over this region both before and after the conflict ultimately led to the protracted Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s following the Iranian Revolution and subsequent establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Logos of the Iraqi Armed Forces

Iraqi Armed Forces

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The Iraqi Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العراقية romanized: Al-Quwwat Al-Musallahah Al-Iraqiyyah) are the military forces of the Republic of Iraq.

The Iraqi Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العراقية romanized: Al-Quwwat Al-Musallahah Al-Iraqiyyah) are the military forces of the Republic of Iraq.

Logos of the Iraqi Armed Forces
The 2nd Brigade, 1st Iraqi Division took delivery of 10 armored HMMWVs
Iraqi T-72 tank fires.
Iraqi Security Force fire a howitzer at known Islamic State of Iraq and Syria locations near the Iraqi-Syrian border during Operation Roundup, June 5, 2018
Iraqi soldiers from 1st Hammurabi Armoured Division in 1982.
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Kirkuk in Iraq
An Iraqi Type 69 main battle tank sits on the side on the road into Kuwait City during the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm.
Iraqi special forces soldiers with M4A1 carbines, March 2020.
Iraqi Soldiers during exercise in Babylon
Modified T-55 tank of the 5th Mechanized Division which saw action in the Battle of Khafji
A C-130 Hercules of the Iraqi Air Force
Iraqi F-16D landing at Tucson International Airport
Iraqi Coastal Defense Force (ICDF) Patrol.

A much larger conflict was the Iran–Iraq War, initiated by the Iraqis in 1980, which continued until 1988.

Iranian soldiers engaged in urban warfare with invading Iraqi troops in Khorramshahr

Battle of Khorramshahr (1980)

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Iranian soldiers engaged in urban warfare with invading Iraqi troops in Khorramshahr
Iranian soldiers engaged in urban warfare with invading Iraqi troops in Khorramshahr
Iraqi BTR-50 wreckage at Khorramshahr, Khuzestan
Commandos from the Iranian Navy's Takavar Battalion in Khorramshahr
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage at Khorramshahr, Khuzestan
An Iranian soldier rescuing a wounded soldier. The Persian graffiti on the wall reads as "[We] will defend the motherland until the last drop of [our] blood".

The battle of Khorramshahr was a major engagement between Iraq and Iran during the Iran–Iraq War.

Persian Gulf from space

Persian Gulf

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Mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

Mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

Persian Gulf from space
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Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from [[:File:MiddleEast.png|larger map of the Middle East]].
A historical map of the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum with the word Persian removed
Picture depicting extent of early civilizations around the Persian Gulf, including Lackhmids and Sassanids.
Picture depicting the Achaemenid Persian empire in relation to the Persian Gulf.
A painting depicting the British Expeditionary Force off the coast of Ras Al Khaimah in 1809.
The Portuguese Castle on Hormuz Island (Gaspar Correia. "Lendas da Índia", c. 1556)
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort in October 1987
Oil and gas pipelines and fields
Khasab, Musandam, Oman
Dubai, UAE
Abu Dhabi, UAE
Doha, Qatar
Manama, Bahrain
Khobar, Saudi Arabia
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Al-Faw, Iraq
Bandar Abbas, Iran
Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow water
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off the southern shore of Iran, around Hengam Island
Spinner dolphins leaping in the Persian gulf
Critically endangered Arabian humpback whales (being the most isolated, and the only resident population in the world) off Dhofar, Oman
Palm and sunset in Minoo Island

The Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers.

The logo of the Imperial Iranian Air Force

History of Iranian military aviation

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The history of the Iranian Air Force, currently known as the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, can be divided into two phases—before the Islamic Revolution, and after it.

The history of the Iranian Air Force, currently known as the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, can be divided into two phases—before the Islamic Revolution, and after it.

The logo of the Imperial Iranian Air Force
Eight major officers of the IIAF, in the 1930s.
An F-86 Sabre from the Golden Crown aerobatic display team, of the Imperial Iranian Air Force.
CH-47C Chinook of the Imperial Iranian Air Force at Issy heliport, Paris, in 1971.
The first F-4D Phantom II squadron of Iran, 1971.
Two F-14 Tomcats equipped with multiple missiles, circa 1986
The first squadron of Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force F-14 Tomcat pilots, at Shiraz Air Base.
Iranian Air Force MiG-29UB
IRIAF Northrop F-5A Freedom Fighter
HESA Azarakhsh.
A Boeing 707 of the Imperial Iranian Air Force refuels a Boeing 747 of the IIAF.

After the 1979 Iranian revolution, some of these planes were not in working order due to a lack of necessary spare parts, because of an American arms embargo and damage sustained on the aircraft during the Iraqi invasion (Iran–Iraq War).

10th Division (Iraq)

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Formation of the Iraqi Army that was dissolved in 2003, but reinstated in 2007.

Formation of the Iraqi Army that was dissolved in 2003, but reinstated in 2007.

The 10th Armoured Division served in the Iran–Iraq War.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)

Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

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Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)
The Basra Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in 1897. After the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was established as an autonomous kaza, or district, of the Ottoman Empire and a de facto protectorate of Great Britain.
April Glaspie's first meeting with Saddam Hussein
An Iraqi Type 69 tank on display at the site of the Al-Qurain Martyrdom
A Kuwait M-84 tank during Operation Desert Shield in 1990. Kuwait continues to maintain strong relations with the coalition of the Gulf War.
Ground troop movements from 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.
American tanks from the 3rd Armored Division during Operation Desert Storm.
More than 600 Kuwaiti oil wells were set on fire by retreating Iraqi forces, causing massive environmental and economic damage to Kuwait.
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait
Aerial view of oil wells on fire
US troops in Kuwait, 2015

A variety of speculations have been made regarding the true intents behind the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay Kuwait more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed from Kuwait to finance the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwait's surge in petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.

Operation Ramadan, Map. Iraq in yellow.

Operation Ramadan

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Operation Ramadan, Map. Iraq in yellow.

Operation Ramadan was an Iranian offensive in the Iran–Iraq War that consisted of three separate attacks that lasted for 6 weeks.

Lion and Sun was adopted in 1993

National Council of Resistance of Iran

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Iranian political organization based in France and Albania.

Iranian political organization based in France and Albania.

Lion and Sun was adopted in 1993

In the Iran–Iraq War the MEK/NCRI formed an alliance with Saddam Hussein, who was largely responsible for its financing, together with Saudi Arabia at that time, though the NCRI also employed fraud to bolster its funding.

A US Navy sailor scans for mines from the bow of the guided missile frigate USS Nicholas (FFG-47) during an Operation Earnest Will convoy mission in June 1988

Operation Earnest Will

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A US Navy sailor scans for mines from the bow of the guided missile frigate USS Nicholas (FFG-47) during an Operation Earnest Will convoy mission in June 1988
Bridgetons convoy route and the place it was hit
MH-60 landing on Hercules
Rostam, one of two Iranian oil platforms set ablaze after shelling by American destroyers.

Operation Earnest Will (24 July 1987 – 26 September 1988) was the American military protection of Kuwaiti-owned tankers from Iranian attacks in 1987 and 1988, three years into the Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War.