A report on Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

237 related topics with Alpha

Overall

French infantry charging in 1913

Human wave attack

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Offensive infantry tactic in which an attacker conducts an unprotected frontal assault with densely concentrated infantry formations against the enemy line, intended to overrun and overwhelm the defenders by engaging in melee combat.

Offensive infantry tactic in which an attacker conducts an unprotected frontal assault with densely concentrated infantry formations against the enemy line, intended to overrun and overwhelm the defenders by engaging in melee combat.

French infantry charging in 1913

Human wave attacks have been used by several armed forces around the world, including European and American armies during the American Civil War and World War I, the Chinese People's Liberation Army during the Korean War, Vietnamese forces during the Indochina Wars, and the Iranian Basij during the Iran–Iraq War.

Republican Guard Forces Command insignia

Republican Guard (Iraq)

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Branch of the Iraqi military from 1969 to 2003, primarily during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.

Branch of the Iraqi military from 1969 to 2003, primarily during the presidency of Saddam Hussein.

Republican Guard Forces Command insignia
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein talks with Republican Guard officers in Baghdad on 1 March 2003. Iraqi News Agency/AP.
The insignia of the Iraqi Anti Aircraft Unit of the Republican Guard.
A dug-in 2S1 Gvozdika 122mm self-propelled howitzer of the Iraqi Republican Guard abandoned during Operation Desert Storm, 28 February 1991.
Close-up of the same vehicle.
An Iraqi Republican Guard FROG-7 captured by U.S. Marines.
Lt. General Mohan al-Furayji, former Republican Guard officer, as a commander of the new Iraqi Army on 5 August 2008.

During the Iran–Iraq War, it was expanded into a large military force.

An original bomb casing used as flower pot at the Halabja Memorial Monument in 2011

Iraqi chemical attacks against Iran

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An original bomb casing used as flower pot at the Halabja Memorial Monument in 2011
An officer of the U.S. 25th Infantry Division patrolling a local cemetery for some 1,500 victims in 2003

Iraqi chemical attacks against Iran refers to chemical attacks used by the Iraqi armed forces against Iranian combatants and non-combatants during the Iran–Iraq War.

Satellite image

Strait of Hormuz

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Strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

Strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

Satellite image
The Strait of Hormuz separates Iran to the north and the Musandam Governorate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates to the south.
The Strait of Hormuz as seen from an airliner at 35,000 feet. Musandam is in the foreground.
Map of Strait of Hormuz with maritime political boundaries (2004)
1606 map of the Ottoman Empire
Oil trade through the strait by origin and destination, 2014–2018
The guided-missile destroyer USS Porter (DDG-78) transits the Strait of Hormuz in May 2012. Porter is deployed to the U.S. 5th Fleet
U.S. Navy convoy in the Strait of Hormuz on 21 July 2016
Map of the Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline and the East-West Crude Oil Pipeline

The Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War started when Iraq attacked the oil terminal and oil tankers at Iran's Kharg Island in early 1984.

9th Armoured Division (Iraq)

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Formation of the Iraqi Army, originally formed probably around 1975, but disbanded in 1982.

Formation of the Iraqi Army, originally formed probably around 1975, but disbanded in 1982.

9th Division M1 Abrams in Camp Taji, Iraq.
soldiers and military vehicles with heavy weapons and explosives in Camp Taji

Pesach Malovany says it was 'newly established' in the leadup to the Iran–Iraq War.

A T-54 tank on display at Victory Park, Kazan

T-54/T-55

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The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of Soviet main battle tanks introduced in the years following the Second World War.

The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of Soviet main battle tanks introduced in the years following the Second World War.

A T-54 tank on display at Victory Park, Kazan
The original T-54-1. It has a turret reminiscent of the T-34-85s, with prominent, undercut shot traps. This example has the fender machine gun boxes replaced with fuel tanks.
The T-55 front, rear and side elevations
The original T-55 lacked an antiaircraft machine gun mount.
A Somali National Army T-55.
Sri Lanka Army T-55AM2
A former Polish T-54 tank at the Panzermuseum Thun in Switzerland. The T-54 can be recognized apart from the highly-similar T-55 by the dome-shaped ventilator on the turret's roof and the tiny hole (for the vehicle's bow-mounted 7.62mm machine gun) in the centre of the tank's front glacis-plate.
An abandoned Iraqi Army Type 59 tank lies among the wreckage of many other Iraqi vehicles, such as trucks, cars and buses, somewhere along the Highway of Death in April 1991.
Polish T-54AMs
Polish T-55A tanks on the streets during Martial Law in Poland.
An abandoned Israeli-supplied Tiran-5 of the South Lebanon Army (SLA) in South Lebanon, with a giant wooden cut-out of former Iranian religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini flanked by two Hezbollah flags.
A destroyed Iraqi T-55 and supply truck, painted with graffiti by Coalition troops, along the highway between Kuwait City and Basra, Iraq, following the retreat of Iraqi forces from Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm.
An NVA T-54 tank on display in the Vietnam Military History Museum in Hanoi.
T-55 in the South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg.
Civilians crowding atop a T-55 tank in Libya in 2011.
A Macedonian Army T-55 tank and its crew, shown here in 2001.
Yugoslav T-55 tank captured by Croatian army during the Croatian War of Independence is now displayed in city Valpovo, Croatia
A Finnish T-55-based Marksman self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG) vehicle, which is referred to locally as the ItPsv 90.
"Hurricane" firefighting vehicle, which uses the engine from a MiG-21 to blow water mist over a fire.

The tank was heavily used during the Iran–Iraq War of 1980–88.

Operation Dawn-4

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Operation Dawn 4 was an Iranian operation of the Iran–Iraq War launched in October 1983.

The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border

Shatt al-Arab dispute

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Territorial dispute that took place in the Shatt al-Arab region from 1936 until 1975.

Territorial dispute that took place in the Shatt al-Arab region from 1936 until 1975.

The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border

The Iraqi government reneged on the Agreement shortly before launching the Iran-Iraq War in 1980, but accepted it once more in 1988 after the war.

Croatian MiG-21bis-D in flight

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21

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Supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.

Supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.

Croatian MiG-21bis-D in flight
Hungarian Air Force MiG-21bis on takeoff.
Retired Finnish MiG-21bis on top of Verkkokauppa store in Helsinki (Tyynenmerenkatu 11).
MiG-21bis rear.
Close-up of the landing gear bay.
MiG-21 at Aleksotas Airport (S. Dariaus / S. Gireno), Kaunas (EYKS)
MiG-21М National People's Army of the GDR, August 1990
A pole mounted MiG-21
Czechoslovak MiG-21F-13 "Fishbed C"
Older MiG-21 cockpit
MiG-21F-13 cockpit at the Aviation Museum in Bucharest, Romania
MiG-21F-13 rear view
MiG-21 Bison of the Indian Air Force
Indonesian Air Force MiG-21 in the Yogyakarta Air Force Museum
MiG-21F-13 in Vietnam People's Air Force markings exhibited at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Ohio.
A missile-armed VPAF MiG-21PF landing
Vietnam People's Air Force MiG-21 number 4324, flown by various pilots, was credited with 14 kills during the Vietnam War.
VPAF MiG-21 No.4326, which shot down 13 aircraft during the war
Israeli Mirage III shot down by Egyptian MiG-21 during the October War
Yugoslav air force MiG-21F-13
A Romanian Air Force MiG-21 LanceR C during a training exercise.
Bulgarian Air Force MiG-21bis
MiG-21bis Bulgarian Air Force
U.S. Air Force MiG-21 with American markings used for training of American pilots in flight
Current MiG-21 operators in blue, former operators in red, operators of captured aircraft in green.
Serbian Air Force MiG-21UM.
Croatian Air Force MiG-21UMD in unique promotional paint scheme.
Croatian MiG-21bis 1996.
Egyptian MiG-21PFM in 1982
A Bulgarian MiG-21 taxis at Graf Ignatievo Air Base, Bulgaria during a bilateral exercise between the U.S. and Bulgarian Air Force.
Bulgarian Air Force MiG-21UB
Czechoslovak Air Force MiG-21R
Two-seat Polish Air Force MiG-21UM with 3rd Tactical Squadron markings
Bangladesh Air Force two-seat MiG-21UM in BAF Museum. The aircraft was gifted by the Soviet Union in 1972
Derelict Malagasy MiG-21UMs
Slovak Air Force MiG-21MA on display in Liptovský Mikuláš, 2011.
drawing of MiG-21

During the Iran–Iraq War, 23 Iraqi MiG-21s were shot down by Iranian F-14s, as confirmed by Iranian, Western and Iraqi sources and another 29 Iraqi MiG-21s were downed by F-4s.

Saudi Arabia

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Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

In the 1980s, Saudi Arabia spent $25 billion in support of Saddam Hussein in the Iran–Iraq War; however, Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and asked the US to intervene.