A report on Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Furthest ground gains
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980

Protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army

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Operation Samen-ol-A'emeh

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soldiers in Operation Samen-ol-A'emeh

Operation Samen-ol-A'emeh ( "Operation Eighth of the Imams") was an offensive of the Iran–Iraq War between 27–29 September 1981 where Iran broke the Iraqi Siege of Abadan.

A U.S. Army CH-47 departs a landing zone in 2014 after unloading soldiers.

Boeing CH-47 Chinook

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Tandem rotor helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol.

Tandem rotor helicopter developed by American rotorcraft company Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol.

A U.S. Army CH-47 departs a landing zone in 2014 after unloading soldiers.
HC-1B during in-flight evaluation
A CH-47F practicing the pinnacle maneuver whereby soldiers are deposited without the helicopter landing completely
A CH-47 Chinook airlifts a MIKE Force Hurricane Aircat airboat from Don Phuc to the Seven Mountains in Vietnam.
Troops unload from a CH-47 in the Cay Giep Mountains, Vietnam, 1967
Imperial Iranian Air Force CH-47C in France before delivery in 1971
Soldiers wait for pickup from two CH-47s in Afghanistan, 2008
US parachutists jump from a Chinook over Germany in 2019
U.S. Army soldiers ride inside a Chinook in November 2008
CH-47C of the Italian Army
CH-47D of the Spanish Army, 2009
A US Army MH-47E Chinook with in-flight refuelling probe, lands aboard USS Kearsarge (LHD-3)
A Canadian CH-47F at RIAT 2017
A JASDF CH-47J flies from Iruma Air Base, Japan.
RAF Chinooks onboard
British Airways Helicopters 234LR at Aberdeen Airport in 1985
BV-347 at the US Army Aviation Museum in Fort Rucker, Alabama
Indian CH-47F(I) helicopters at Air Force Station, Chandigarh
JGSDF's Kawasaki CH-47J
CH-47D of the Royal Netherlands Air Force
Argentine Air Force Chinook H-93, Tecnópolis, 2012
CH-47C on display at Volandia
Orthographically projected diagram of the Boeing Vertol CH-47 Chinook.
XM34 armament system on ACH-47A "Birth Control" at Vung Tau Air Base.

During the Iran–Iraq War, Iran made heavy use of its US-bought equipment, and lost at least eight CH-47s during the 1980–1988 period, most notably during a clash on 15 July 1983, when an Iraqi Mirage F1 destroyed three Iranian Chinooks transporting troops to the front line, and on 25–26 February 1984, when Iraqi MiG-21 fighters shot down two examples.

Operation Kheibar

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Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Battle of the Marshes iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H. Operation Kheibar

Operation Kheibar was an Iranian offensive in the Iran–Iraq War.

Al-Hussein missiles displayed in their erector-launchers. Baghdad arms exhibition, April–May 1989

Al Hussein (missile)

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Designation of an Iraqi short-range ballistic missile.

Designation of an Iraqi short-range ballistic missile.

Al-Hussein missiles displayed in their erector-launchers. Baghdad arms exhibition, April–May 1989
Al-Hussein components
Aftermath of the Al-Hussein strike on US Army barracks at Dhahran

The weapon was widely used by the Iraqi Army during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War of 1991.

Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq

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Shia Islamist Iraqi political party.

Shia Islamist Iraqi political party.

SCIRI's leader Abdal Aziz al-Hakim meeting President George W. Bush, 2006
Abdul Aziz al-Hakim, leader of the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq, casts his ballot at a poll station in Baghdad in the January, 2005 election.

Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution of Iraq was founded in Iran in 1982 during the Iran–Iraq War after the leading Islamist insurgent group, Islamic Dawa Party, was severely weakened by an Iraqi government crackdown following Dawa's unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Iraqi president Saddam Hussein.

Operation Badr (1985)

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Operation Badr was an Iranian operation conducted during the Iran–Iraq War against the forces of Ba'athist Iraq.

A British gas bomb that was used during World War I

Chemical weapon

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Specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

Specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

A British gas bomb that was used during World War I
John Singer Sargent's iconic World War I painting: Gassed, showing blind casualties on a battlefield after a mustard gas attack
Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System prior to demolition
A Swedish Army soldier wearing a chemical agent protective suit (C-vätskeskydd) and protection mask (skyddsmask 90)
Stockpile/disposal site locations for the United States' chemical weapons and the sites operating status as of August 28, 2008
An Australian observer, who has moved into a gas-affected target area to record results, examines an un-exploded shell.

Some 100,000 Iranian troops were casualties of Iraqi chemical weapons during the Iran–Iraq War.

Operation Dawn 2

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Operation Dawn 2 or Operation Valfajr-2 was an Iranian operation during the eight-year-long Iran–Iraq War.

Mill Mi-8 of Baltic Airlines taking off at Peter and Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg

Mil Mi-8

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Medium twin-turbine helicopter, originally designed by the Soviet Union in the 1960s and introduced into the Soviet Air Force in 1968.

Medium twin-turbine helicopter, originally designed by the Soviet Union in the 1960s and introduced into the Soviet Air Force in 1968.

Mill Mi-8 of Baltic Airlines taking off at Peter and Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg
Passenger cabin of a Shree Airlines aircraft
Cockpit view
Finnish Mi-8 in Hernesaari, Helsinki, in 2005
Mi-8MSB on a 2016 Ukrainian stamp
Croatian Mil Mi-8MTV-1
Serbian Mi-8T cargo helicopter
Mi-8 helicopter cockpit
Ukrainian Ministry of Emergency Situations Mi-8MSB picking up water for aerial firefighting purposes.
Mil Mi-8 3-view drawing

In the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s, there were air-to-air combat between Iraqi and Iranian Army Aviation helicopters, including between Iranian Bell AH-1J Cobras and Iraqi Mi-8s.

A Super Étendard at RIAT in 2005.

Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard

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French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.

French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy.

A Super Étendard at RIAT in 2005.
A Super Étendard at RIAT in 2005.
Underside of a Super Étendard in-flight. The protruding tail hook is towards the rear of the fuselage
During the 1982 Falklands War, the Argentine Super Étendards were used as a launch platform for Exocet anti-ship missiles
A formation of Super Étendards in flight, one of which is refueling another Super Étendard, through "buddy-to-buddy" refueling process.
Launch from Charles de Gaulle
Dassault Super Étendard, Iraqi Air Force, 1983
Argentine Navy's Super Étendard
Orthographically projected diagram of the Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard
DEFA 552 cannons on display

The Super Étendard was used by Iraq to attack oil tankers and merchant shipping in the Persian Gulf during the Iraq-Iran War.