Mass demonstrations at College Bridge, Tehran
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi official coronation photo 1967
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (revolutionary leader).
Inscription of Ardeshir Babakan (r. 224–242) in Naqsh-e Rostam: "This is the figure of Mazdaworshiper, the lord Ardashir, Shahanshah of Iran..."
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
People of Tehran in the demonstrations of 5 June 1963 with pictures of Ruhollah Khomeini in their hands
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Two armed militants outside the Embassy of the United States, Tehran where diplomats are held hostage. Behind of them is a banner written: "Long live anti-imperialism and democratic forces". Photograph by Abbas, dated 1979, from the Iran Diary series
An Ashrafi Coin of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747), reverse:"Coined on gold the word of kingdom in the world, Nader of Greater Iran and the world-conquerer king."
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
The Shah of Iran (left) meeting with members of the U.S. government: Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, Jimmy Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977
A cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, from the 8th millennium BC
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
Pro-Shah demonstration organized by the Resurgence Party in Tabriz, April 1978
A bas-relief at Persepolis, depicting the united Medes and Persians
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Demonstration of 8 September 1978. The placard reads, "We want an Islamic government, led by Imam Khomeini".
Tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, in Pasargadae
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
Demonstration of "Black Friday" (8 September 1978)
The Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC) around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes I
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Victims of Black Friday
The Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Ayatollah Khomeini in Neauphle-le-Château surrounded by journalists
Tomb of Hafez, a medieval Persian poet whose works are regarded as a pinnacle in Persian literature and have left a considerable mark on later Western writers, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Emerson
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
Mohammad Beheshti in the Tehran Ashura demonstration, 11 December 1978
Venetian portrait, kept at the Uffizi, of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid Empire
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
"The Shah is Gone" —headline of Iranian newspaper Ettela'at, 16 January 1979, when the last monarch of Iran left the country.
A portrait of AbbasI, the powerful, pragmatic Safavid ruler who reinforced Iran's military, political, and economic power
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
A protester giving flowers to an army officer
Statue of Nader Shah, the first Afsharid ruler of Iran, at his Tomb
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Shah and his wife, Shahbanu Farah leaving Iran on 16 January 1979
A map showing the 19th-century northwestern borders of Iran, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, before being ceded to the neighboring Russian Empire by the Russo-Iranian wars
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
Cartoon depicting Shapour Bakhtiar and Mosaddegh on 22 January 1978 issue of Ettela'at, during the revolution
The first national Iranian Parliament was established in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Iranian prime minister Mehdi Bazargan was an advocate of democracy and civil rights. He also opposed the cultural revolution and US embassy takeover.
Reza Shah, the first Pahlavi king of Iran, in military uniform
Saddam Hussein in 1982
Iranian armed rebels during the revolution
The Allied "Big Three" at the 1943 Tehran Conference.
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
Iranian women protesting
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial Family during the coronation ceremony of the Shah of Iran in 1967.
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Khomeini told questioners that "the religious dignitaries do not want to rule."
Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Iran on 1February 1979
Furthest ground gains
A revolutionary firing squad in 1979
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask on the front-line during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Executed Generals of Imperial Army: Reza Naji, Mehdi Rahimi, and Manouchehr Khosrodad
The Green Movement's Silent Demonstration during the 2009–10 Iranian election protests
Iranian child soldier
Kazem Shariatmadari and Khomeini
The 2017–18 Iranian protests were initiated on 31 December 2017 and continued for months.
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Banisadr in 1980
Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Amol, Mazenderan.
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
People celebrating anniversary of the revolution in Mashhad in 2014.
Persian leopard, listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
An injured revolutionary during protests against Pahlavi regime.
Iran's most populated cities (2010)
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
Protests in summer 1978.
Iran's syncretic political system combines elements of an Islamic theocracy with vetted democracy.
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Revolutionary victims.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Current Iranian leader, Ali Khamenei in a Revolutionary protest in Mashhad.
Ali Khamenei voting in the 2017 presidential election
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Shah visiting Bakhtiar cabinet before his exit from Iran.
Iranian former President Hassan Rouhani meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Iran and Russia are strategic allies.
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
People celebrating Shah's exit from the country.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly, also known as the Iranian Parliament
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
Removal of Shah's statue by the people in University of Tehran.
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Khomeini at Mehrabad Airport.
Protest against U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel. Tehran, 11 December 2017.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
People accompanying Khomeini from Mehrabad to Behesht Zahra.
Sophisticated indigenous long range missile system Bavar-373 paraded in Tehran.
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
Khomeini in Behesht Zahra.
Iran's provinces by their contribution to national GDP (2014)
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
Khomeini before a speech at Alavi school.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
A proportional representation of Iran exports, 2019
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
More than a million tourists visit Kish Island each year.
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
Iran holds 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. It is OPEC's second largest exporter and the world's 7th largest oil producer.
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Literacy rate of Iran's population plus 15, 1975–2015, according to UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Sharif University of Technology is one of Iran's most prestigious higher education institutions.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
The production line for AryoSeven at the Iranian biopharmaceutical company of AryoGen
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
Simorgh launch, Iranian Space Agency
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
Iran's population growth (1880–2016)
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
Iran's provinces by population density (2013)
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
Iron Age gold cup from Marlik, kept at New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Kamal-ol-Molk's Mirror Hall, often considered a starting point in Iranian modern art
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Tomb of the 10th-century Persian poet Ferdowsi, author of Šāhnāme, the classical Persian composition of the Iranian national epics, in Tus
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980
Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, depicted on Raphael's The School of Athens
Karna, an ancient Iranian musical instrument from the 6th century BC, kept at the Persepolis Museum
The Roudaki Hall, constructed between 1957 and 1967 in Tehran
Reproduction of the 3rd-millennium BC goblet from southeastern Iran, possibly the world's oldest example of animation.
Abbas Kiarostami (1940–2016), an acclaimed Iranian film director
Behrouz Vossoughi, a well-known Iranian actor who has appeared in more than 90 films
Haft-Seen, a customary of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year
Chelow kabab (rice and kebab), one of Iran's national dishes
Skiers at the Dizin Ski Resort
The Azadi Stadium in Tehran is West Asia's largest football stadium.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
An Iranian tea tray served near Garden of Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam in Nishapur

The Iran–Iraq War (الحرب الإيرانية العراقية) was a protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War

Iraq's primary rationale for the invasion was to cripple Iran and prevent Ruhollah Khomeini from exporting the 1979 Iranian Revolution movement to Shia-majority Iraq and internally exploit religious tensions that would threaten the Sunni-dominated Ba'athist leadership led by Saddam Hussein.

- Iran–Iraq War

After the Iranian Revolution, the current Islamic Republic was established in 1979 by Ruhollah Khomeini, who became the country's first Supreme Leader.

- Iran

The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978.

- Iranian Revolution

On 22 September 1980, the Iraqi army invaded the western Iranian province of Khuzestan, initiating the Iran–Iraq War.

- Iran

At the same time, events that made up both the crisis and its resolution were the Iran hostage crisis, the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr.

- Iranian Revolution
Mass demonstrations at College Bridge, Tehran

9 related topics with Alpha


Seal of IRGC

Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

4 links

Seal of IRGC
IRGC's naval special forces, S.N.S.F.
IRGC tank in 2012 military parade in Tehran
Qiam (left) and Sejjil 2 (right) ballistic missiles in a 2012 exhibition
One of the various types of fast attack craft used by the IRGC

The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC; or Sepâh for short) is a branch of the Iranian Armed Forces, founded after the Iranian Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Whereas the Iranian Army defends Iranian borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard is intended to protect the country's Islamic republic political system.

Among the dead was General Ahmad Kazemi, the IRGC ground forces commander, and Iran–Iraq War veteran.

Khamenei in 2022

Ali Khamenei

4 links

Twelver Shia Marja' and the second and current supreme leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

Twelver Shia Marja' and the second and current supreme leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

Khamenei in 2022
A teenage Khamenei
Khamenei in a protest during Iranian Revolution in Mashhad
Ali Khamenei in military uniform during Iran–Iraq War
Khamenei in the hospital after the assassination attempt
Ali Khamenei has shaken hands with his left hand since the unsuccessful assassination.
Khamenei as Tehran's Friday Prayer Imam in 1979
Khamenei reading Will of Ruhollah Khomeini in Assembly of Experts
Khamenei in 2018
Khamenei in 2020
Khamenei at the Great Conference of Basij members at Azadi Stadium, October 2018
Khamenei during a meeting with Qaris
International Holy Quran Competition's participants meeting with Khamenei, June 2013
Participants of 31st International Islamic Unity Conference meeting with Khamenei, December 2017
Khamenei and former president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Khamenei with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Ali Larijani and Sadeq Larijani in 2011
Khamenei at a public speech, 2018
Khamenei casting his vote in 2013 presidential election
Khamenei in meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 23 November 2015
Khamenei meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping, 23 January 2016
Khamenei with Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, 11 February 2017
Sixth International Conference in Support of the Palestinian Intifada, Tehran, 2017
Pro-government Syrians with portraits of Assad, Ayatollah Khomeini and Khamenei, April 2018
Khamenei speaking to Iranian Air Force personnel, 6 February 2016
Khamenei meeting with Hajj authorities, 2018
Iranian women with portraits of Khamenei, 2014
Khamenei in 2022
Khamenei meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping, 23 January 2016

After the Iranian revolution overthrowing the shah, he was the target of an attempted assassination in June 1981 that paralysed his right arm.

Khamenei was one of Iran's leaders during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s, and developed close ties with the now powerful Revolutionary Guards which he controls, and whose commanders are elected and dismissed by him.

Nevertheless, according to anti-regime change activist Abbas Edalat, in 2005 Khamenei responded to a remark by then-President Ahmadinejad which had been widely translated as saying that the "regime occupying Jerusalem should be wiped off the map" by saying that "the Islamic Republic has never threatened and will never threaten any country."

Ruhollah Khomeini

3 links



Ruhollah Khomeini's birthplace at Khomeyn
Khomeini as a student with his friends (second from right)
Khomeini in 1938
Khomeini's speech against the Shah in Qom, 1964
Khomeini denouncing the Shah on 'Ashura (3 June 1963)
Khomeini in prayer
Khomeini in exile at Bursa, Turkey without clerical dress
The Entrance of Khomeini's House in Najaf, Iraq
Khomeini at Najaf
Khomeini in the 1970s
Ayatollah Khomeini in front of his house at Neauphle-le-Chateau in a media conference
Khomeini in 1978
Arrival of Khomeini on 1 February 1979. When asked about his feelings of returning from exile in the plane, he replied Hich; "None."
Khomeini and the interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan
Khomeini with people
Carpet given to Khotan mosque by Ayatollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini with Ahmad Khomeini and Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Mourning men in residence of Khomeini around his seat area, Jamaran, 4 June 1989.
Khomeini and his successor, Ali Khamenei
Khomeini's State Portrait
Murals of Khomeini and Ali Khamenei, Shah Mosque in Isfahan
Khomeini in the 1980s
Khomeini and a child.

He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the end of the Persian monarchy.

Most of his period in power was taken up by the Iran–Iraq War of 1980–1988.

Iranian students crowd the U.S. Embassy in Tehran (November 4, 1979)

Iran hostage crisis

2 links

Iranian students crowd the U.S. Embassy in Tehran (November 4, 1979)
Iran attempted to use the occupation to provide leverage in its demand for the return of the shah to stand trial in Iran
Anticipating the takeover of the embassy, the Americans tried to destroy classified documents in a furnace. The furnace malfunctioned and the staff was forced to use cheap paper shredders. Skilled carpet weavers were later employed to reconstruct the documents.
Two American hostages during the siege of the U.S. Embassy.
Barry Rosen, the embassy's press attaché, was among the hostages. The man on the right holding the briefcase is alleged by some former hostages to be future President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, although he, Iran's government, and the CIA deny this.
An anti-Iranian protest in Washington, D.C., in 1979. The front of the sign reads "Deport all Iranians" and "Get the hell out of my country", and the back reads "Release all Americans now".
A headline in an Islamic Republican newspaper on November 5, 1979, read "Revolutionary occupation of U.S. embassy".
A group photograph of the fifty-two hostages in a Wiesbaden hospital where they spent a few days after their release.
A heckler in Washington, D.C., leans across a police line toward a demonstration of Iranians in August 1980.
Americans expressed gratitude for Canadian efforts to rescue American diplomats during the hostage crisis.
Vice President George H. W. Bush and other VIPs wait to welcome the hostages home.
The hostages disembark Freedom One, an Air Force Boeing C-137 Stratoliner aircraft, upon their return.
A protest in Tehran on November 4, 2015, against the United States, Israel, and Saudi Arabia.
The November 2015 protest in Tehran.
Simulation of the first day of the event, 3 November 2016, Tehran
Iran hostage crisis memorial
Operation Eagle Claw remnant in the former embassy
The former US embassy, known as the "espionage den," "den of espionage", and "nest of spies" by the Iranians after the crisis.

On November 4, 1979, 52 United States diplomats and citizens were held hostage after a group of militarized Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and seized hostages.

In September 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War.


2 links

One of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).

One of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).

A paramilitary volunteer militia established in Iran in 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of the Iranian Revolution, the organization originally consisted of civilian volunteers who were urged by Khomeini to fight in the Iran–Iraq War.

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

2 links

Iranian politician, writer, and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth president of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.

Iranian politician, writer, and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth president of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.

Hashemi as parliament chairman in the inauguration of Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Rafsanjani as the chairman of the parliament with future President Mohammad Khatami
Rafsanjani with newly elected Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, 1989
Hashemi with some Iranian commanders of Iran–Iraq War
Hashemi meeting with former United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan
Hashemi supporters in the 2005 election
Rafsanjani in Eid al-Fitr prayer, while Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is sitting at his side
Hashemi with one of the protest leaders, Mehdi Karroubi
Hashemi announcing his candidacy with his daughter, Fatemeh accompanied him.
The names of the victims appear in the commemorative plaque in front of Mykonos restaurant in Berlin
Rafsanjani beside revolution leader Ruhollah Khomeini, announcing the appointment of Mehdi Bazargan as revolution's interim government prime minister.
Hashemi casting his vote in 2013 presidential election
Hashemi speaking as his wife, Effat listens.
Rafsanjani speaking with the media after the first assassination attempt

During his 40-year tenure, Rafsanjani amassed a large amount of power serving as the speaker of parliament, Commander-in-Chief during the Iran–Iraq War, President, and chose Ali Khamenei as the supreme leader of Iran.

After the victory of Iranian Revolution, Hashemi became one of the members of Council of Islamic Revolution.

In his latter years, Rafsanjani had disagreements with Ali Khamenei who has the last say in everything in Iran.


1 links

Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Inside the Shanidar Cave, where the remains of eight adults and two infant Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago were found.
Map of the Akkadian Empire and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows). The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler from Nineveh, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin
Hammurabi, depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws.
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Jehu, king of Israel, bows before Shalmaneser III of Assyria, 825 BC.
Lamassu from the Assyrian gallery at the Iraq Museum, Baghdad
The Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus (r. 626–539 BC)
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
Roman amphitheater in Sulaymaniyah.
Al-Hariri of Basra was a poet, high government official and scholar of the Arabic language, He is known for his Maqamat al-Hariri (‘'Assemblies of Hariri'’), a collection of some 50 stories written in the Maqama style. Al-Hariri's best known work, Maqamat has been regarded as the greatest treasure in Arabic literature.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Conquest of Mosul (Nineveh) by Mustafa Pasha in 1631, a Turkish soldier in the foreground holding a severed head. L., C. (Stecher) 1631 -1650
Crowning of King Faisal II of Iraq in the Council of Representatives, 1953
Nuri Said (1888 - 1958), contributed to the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq and the armed forces while also served as the Prime minister of the state.
Iraq state emblem under nationalist Qasim was mostly based on Mesopotamian symbol of Shamash, and avoided pan-Arab symbolism by incorporating elements of Socialist heraldry.
The April 2003 toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue by US Army troops in Firdos Square in Baghdad shortly after the US-led invasion.
Destroyed Lion of Babylon tank on Highway 9 outside Najaf during US-led invasion in 2003.
An Iraqi Army Aviation Command aerial gunner prepares to test fire his M240 machine gun, Near Baghdad International Airport, 2011
Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, provides command and control of air power throughout Iraq and Syria.
Pro-independence rally in Iraqi Kurdistan in 2017. The Kurdistan Regional Government announced it would respect the Supreme Federal Court's ruling that no Iraqi province is allowed to secede.
Protest in Baghdad in November 2019. The protests were the largest incident of civil unrest Iraq has experienced since the 2003 invasion.
Cheekha Dar, highest point in Iraq.
Iraq Köppen climate classification map.
The Asiatic lion has remained a prominent symbol of the country throughout history.
Baghdad Convention Center, the current meeting place of the Council of Representatives of Iraq.
View over Green Zone, which contains governmental headquarters and the army, in addition to containing the headquarters of the American embassy and the headquarters of foreign organizations and agencies for other countries.
US President Donald Trump with Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in 2017.
Administrative districts of Iraq
Historical GDP per capita development
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people.
Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the Iraq Museum in Baghdad. It contains ancient Mesopotamian artifacts.
Supertankers at the Basra Oil Terminal
Mosul Dam Lake
Lake Dukan
Children in a village in Sulaymaniyah.
Imam Hussein Shrine in Karbala
Mor Mattai Monastery (Dayro d-Mor Mattai) in, Bartella, Nineveh, Iraq. It is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence and is famous for its magnificent library and considerable collection of Syriac Christian manuscripts
Saddam Hussein Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
University students in Iraq, 2016
Al-Mutanabi, regarded as one of the greatest, most prominent and influential poets in the Arabic language, much of his work has been translated into over 20 languages worldwide
Wasiti's illustrations served as an inspiration for the modern Baghdad art movement in the 20th-century.
Zaha Hadid (1950–2016), an acclaimed architect.
Facade of Temple at Hatra, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.
The Queen's gold lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Masgouf, a popular Iraqi dish.
Madina Stadium in Baghdad is Iraq's first-ever stadium solar power plant, and the second in the Middle East of its kind.
Iraq wall det 2003.
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Sunni Arabs
Shiite Arabs
Sunni Kurds

It is bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, the Persian Gulf and Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

In 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, sparking a protracted war which would last for almost eight years, and end in a stalemate with devastating losses for both countries.

In 1979, the Iranian Revolution took place.

16th-century schematic map of Tabriz by Matrakçı Nasuh


0 links

16th-century schematic map of Tabriz by Matrakçı Nasuh
Aerial view of northeast Tabriz, May 2012
Saat Tower, Municipality Museum and former municipality office.
Main Municipality Office
A page from the only manuscript of Safina-yi Tabriz. It contains a Persian and a Pahlavi poem
Tabriz style in Iranian miniature
Bazaar vendor of electrical goods
University of Tabriz as seen from the Applied Physics Faculty
Tabriz Railway Station
Tabriz Metro
Sahand Stadium in a Tractor football match
Sahand TV main building
Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque and Quru river, Eugène Flandin 1841.
Sketch of the gate of Tabriz, Eugène Flandin 1841.
A sketch of a 19th-century house in Tabriz, Eugène Flandin.
Painting of Blue mosque, Jules Laurens, 1872.
Siege of Tabriz during Constitutional Revolution, September 27, 1908.
Constitutional revolutionists defending Davachi bridge against monarchists, May 1, 1909.
Constitutionals in Tabriz, 1911.
Ark of Tabriz and US flag in the days after constitutional revolution, 1911.
Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911.
Soviet artillery units passing through Tabriz, World War II.
Soviet Tank and troops marching through Tabriz, World War II.
Soviet T-26 Tank passing through the main street of Tabriz, World War II.
A table of some of Tabriz traditional foods (köfte and syrup with sangak and Bonab Kababi with rice)
Tabriz meatballs
Qurutli Aash, a thick soup made of qurut
Tabrizi Lovuez
Nouga (Nougat)
Konjod Halvasi, a laminal sesame cookie.
Tabriz's Baklava
Dried, Fried, and Salted Nuts
Saat Tower
The Grand Bazaar
Iron Age museum
Amir Nezam House (Qajar museum)
Constitution House of Tabriz
Measure museum of Tabriz
Behnam House
Qari Bridge
Azerbaijan Museum
Blue Mosque
Shah-goli park
Saint Mary Church of Tabriz
Chay kenar (river side) at night
Seyed Hamzeh shrine and mosque
a mosque in Tabriz
Shah Goli Park
Eynali artificial forest in the north of the Tabriz
A week-end ritual at Eynali peak
A sample of Tabriz rugs
A newly made bronze Astrolabe, as a sample of Ghalamzani in Tabriz
An engraver in Tabriz
Shams Tabrizi, poet.
King Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.
Iraj Mirza, poet.
Saib Tabrizi, Persian poet.
Sattar Khan, a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
Bagher Khan, a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
Farah Pahlavi, is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and was the Shahbanu (empress) of Iran.
Mohammad Taqi Pessian, gendarme and pilot.
Ahmad Kasravi, linguist, nationalist, religious reformer, historian and cleric.
Farhad Fakhreddini composer, conductor and founder of Iran's National Orchestra.
Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, poet.
Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi, writer.
Samad Behrangi, teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and writer.
Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai, Allamah.
Tahmineh Milani, film director.
Azim Gheychisaz, mountain climber and Summiter of all 14 Eight-thousanders
Parvin Etesami, 20th-century Persian poet of Iran.
Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Iranian Grand Ayatollah.
Dariush Shayegan, Philosopher and former University Professor.
Karim Bagheri, professional football player and coach.
Javad Fakoori, prominent military official and defence minister.

Tabriz (تبریز) is a city in northwestern Iran, serving as the capital of East Azerbaijan Province.

Starting with 1978 and with the heat of the Iranian Revolution, revolutionary movements of some of Tabriz residents played a major role in the revolution.

In the 1980s, due to the Iran–Iraq War, like the rest of the country, most of the construction and development projects in the city were stopped in order to fund the war costs.

Seal of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army

Islamic Republic of Iran Army

0 links

Seal of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army
Iranian peacekeeping missions battalion in a 2012 parade
Ground Force soldiers carrying off medical supplies for 2003 Bam earthquake

The Islamic Republic of Iran Army, acronymed AJA , simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh , is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The 1941 invasion by the Allies of World War II resulted in a decisive loss for the Iranian forces, the deposition of Iran's Shah and five years of subsequent occupation, while the 1980 Iraqi invasion began the Iran–Iraq War, which lasted almost eight years and ended in status quo ante bellum.

Replaced by Finnish forces, Iranian peacekeepers were withdrawn in 1979 following the Islamic revolution.