A report on Shatt al-ArabIranIran–Iraq War and Kuwait

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Map
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Iraq 1932–1959 depicting the Shatt and the forest
Inscription of Ardeshir Babakan (r. 224–242) in Naqsh-e Rostam: "This is the figure of Mazdaworshiper, the lord Ardashir, Shahanshah of Iran..."
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Ancient coins found on Failaka Island.
Arab ferryman on the Shatt al-Arab 1958
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Evening atmosphere on the Shatt al-Arab
An Ashrafi Coin of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747), reverse:"Coined on gold the word of kingdom in the world, Nader of Greater Iran and the world-conquerer king."
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
Marine Museum in Kuwait City. Demonstrates the founding of Kuwait as a sea port for merchants.
Shatt al-Arab near Basra city, Iraq
A cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, from the 8th millennium BC
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
The Basra Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in 1897. After the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was established as an autonomous kaza, or district, of the Ottoman Empire and a de facto protectorate of Great Britain
A bas-relief at Persepolis, depicting the united Medes and Persians
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Unofficial map of Kuwait in 1803 according to Scottish geographer and cartographer Alexander Keith Johnston
Tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, in Pasargadae
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
The Kuwait Red Fort in Al Jahra
The Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC) around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes I
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
Celebration at Seif Palace in 1944
The Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
HMS Victorious taking part in Operation Vantage in July 1961
Tomb of Hafez, a medieval Persian poet whose works are regarded as a pinnacle in Persian literature and have left a considerable mark on later Western writers, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Emerson
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
Kuwaiti oil fires set by retreating Iraqi forces in 1991.
Venetian portrait, kept at the Uffizi, of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid Empire
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
Kuwait Towers
A portrait of AbbasI, the powerful, pragmatic Safavid ruler who reinforced Iran's military, political, and economic power
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
A satellite image of Kuwait reveals its desert topography.
Statue of Nader Shah, the first Afsharid ruler of Iran, at his Tomb
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Kuwait shares land borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia, and maritime borders with Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Iran.
A map showing the 19th-century northwestern borders of Iran, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, before being ceded to the neighboring Russian Empire by the Russo-Iranian wars
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
The Kuwait National Assembly is the unicameral legislature of Kuwait.
The first national Iranian Parliament was established in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
The Seif Palace, the original seat of the Government of Kuwait.
Reza Shah, the first Pahlavi king of Iran, in military uniform
Saddam Hussein in 1982
Kuwait's then Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense Sheikh Mohammad Al Khalid Al Sabah with then US Defense Secretary Jim Mattis in 2017.
The Allied "Big Three" at the 1943 Tehran Conference.
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
Al Hamra Tower is the tallest sculpted tower in the world.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial Family during the coronation ceremony of the Shah of Iran in 1967.
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
A proportional representation of Kuwait exports, 2019
Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Iran on 1February 1979
Furthest ground gains
Prototype of the Kuwait Space Rocket
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask on the front-line during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
A highway in Kuwait City.
The Green Movement's Silent Demonstration during the 2009–10 Iranian election protests
Iranian child soldier
Kuwaiti youth celebrating Kuwait's independence and liberation, 2011.
The 2017–18 Iranian protests were initiated on 31 December 2017 and continued for months.
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Holy Family Co-Cathedral
Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Amol, Mazenderan.
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
A theatrical play titled "Fateh Masr" at Al Mubarikya school in the 1940s.
Persian leopard, listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Machboos
Iran's most populated cities (2010)
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
Tareq Rajab Museum
Iran's syncretic political system combines elements of an Islamic theocracy with vetted democracy.
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
The 372 m tall Kuwait Telecommunications Tower (left) is the main communication tower of Kuwait.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Spectators at a local football match.
Ali Khamenei voting in the 2017 presidential election
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent.
Iranian former President Hassan Rouhani meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Iran and Russia are strategic allies.
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
The Seleucid Empire at its greatest extent.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly, also known as the Iranian Parliament
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Protest against U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel. Tehran, 11 December 2017.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
Sophisticated indigenous long range missile system Bavar-373 paraded in Tehran.
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
Iran's provinces by their contribution to national GDP (2014)
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
A proportional representation of Iran exports, 2019
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
More than a million tourists visit Kish Island each year.
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
Iran holds 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. It is OPEC's second largest exporter and the world's 7th largest oil producer.
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Literacy rate of Iran's population plus 15, 1975–2015, according to UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Sharif University of Technology is one of Iran's most prestigious higher education institutions.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
The production line for AryoSeven at the Iranian biopharmaceutical company of AryoGen
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
Simorgh launch, Iranian Space Agency
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
Iran's population growth (1880–2016)
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
Iran's provinces by population density (2013)
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
Iron Age gold cup from Marlik, kept at New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Kamal-ol-Molk's Mirror Hall, often considered a starting point in Iranian modern art
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Tomb of the 10th-century Persian poet Ferdowsi, author of Šāhnāme, the classical Persian composition of the Iranian national epics, in Tus
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980
Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, depicted on Raphael's The School of Athens
Karna, an ancient Iranian musical instrument from the 6th century BC, kept at the Persepolis Museum
The Roudaki Hall, constructed between 1957 and 1967 in Tehran
Reproduction of the 3rd-millennium BC goblet from southeastern Iran, possibly the world's oldest example of animation.
Abbas Kiarostami (1940–2016), an acclaimed Iranian film director
Behrouz Vossoughi, a well-known Iranian actor who has appeared in more than 90 films
Haft-Seen, a customary of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year
Chelow kabab (rice and kebab), one of Iran's national dishes
Skiers at the Dizin Ski Resort
The Azadi Stadium in Tehran is West Asia's largest football stadium.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
An Iranian tea tray served near Garden of Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam in Nishapur

The Iran–Iraq War (الحرب الإيرانية العراقية) was a protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War

Kuwait also shares maritime borders with Iran.

- Kuwait

Kuwait's Bubiyan Island is part of the Shatt al-Arab delta.

- Shatt al-Arab

The war followed a long-running history of bilateral border disputes between the two states, as a result of which Iraq planned to retake the eastern bank of the Shatt al-Arab ceded in 1975.

- Iran–Iraq War

Even afterwards, backtracking and disagreements continued, until British Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, was moved to comment in 1851 that "the boundary line between Turkey and Persia can never be finally settled except by an arbitrary decision on the part of Great Britain and Russia".

- Shatt al-Arab

At the end of the Iran–Iraq War, both sides agreed to once again treat the Algiers Accord as binding.

- Shatt al-Arab

At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire included territories of modern-day Iran, Republic of Azerbaijan (Arran and Shirvan), Armenia, Georgia, Turkey (Anatolia), much of the Black Sea coastal regions, northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria (Thrace), northern Greece and North Macedonia (Paeonia and Macedon), Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya, Kuwait, northern Saudi Arabia, parts of the United Arab Emirates and Oman, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and much of Central Asia, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen.

- Iran

On 22 September 1980, the Iraqi army invaded the western Iranian province of Khuzestan, initiating the Iran–Iraq War.

- Iran

During the Iran–Iraq War, Kuwait supported Iraq.

- Kuwait

The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where the country borders the mouth of the Arvand river.

- Iran

Bubiyan Island is part of the Shatt al-Arab delta.

- Kuwait

Iraq's main financial backers were the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, most notably Saudi Arabia ($30.9 billion), Kuwait ($8.2 billion), and the United Arab Emirates ($8 billion).

- Iran–Iraq War

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Persian Gulf from space

Persian Gulf

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Mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

Mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

Persian Gulf from space
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Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from [[:File:MiddleEast.png|larger map of the Middle East]].
A historical map of the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum with the word Persian removed
Picture depicting extent of early civilizations around the Persian Gulf, including Lackhmids and Sassanids.
Picture depicting the Achaemenid Persian empire in relation to the Persian Gulf.
A painting depicting the British Expeditionary Force off the coast of Ras Al Khaimah in 1809.
The Portuguese Castle on Hormuz Island (Gaspar Correia. "Lendas da Índia", c. 1556)
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort in October 1987
Oil and gas pipelines and fields
Khasab, Musandam, Oman
Dubai, UAE
Abu Dhabi, UAE
Doha, Qatar
Manama, Bahrain
Khobar, Saudi Arabia
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Al-Faw, Iraq
Bandar Abbas, Iran
Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow water
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off the southern shore of Iran, around Hengam Island
Spinner dolphins leaping in the Persian gulf
Critically endangered Arabian humpback whales (being the most isolated, and the only resident population in the world) off Dhofar, Oman
Palm and sunset in Minoo Island

The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.

Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are (clockwise, from north): Iran; Oman's Musandam exclave; the United Arab Emirates; Saudi Arabia; Qatar, on a peninsula off the Saudi coast; Bahrain, an island nation; Kuwait; and Iraq in the northwest.

The Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers.