A report on Iran and Iran–Iraq War

Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Inscription of Ardeshir Babakan (r. 224–242) in Naqsh-e Rostam: "This is the figure of Mazdaworshiper, the lord Ardashir, Shahanshah of Iran..."
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
An Ashrafi Coin of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747), reverse:"Coined on gold the word of kingdom in the world, Nader of Greater Iran and the world-conquerer king."
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
A cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, from the 8th millennium BC
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
A bas-relief at Persepolis, depicting the united Medes and Persians
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, in Pasargadae
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
The Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC) around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes I
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
Tomb of Hafez, a medieval Persian poet whose works are regarded as a pinnacle in Persian literature and have left a considerable mark on later Western writers, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Emerson
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
Venetian portrait, kept at the Uffizi, of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid Empire
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
A portrait of AbbasI, the powerful, pragmatic Safavid ruler who reinforced Iran's military, political, and economic power
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Statue of Nader Shah, the first Afsharid ruler of Iran, at his Tomb
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
A map showing the 19th-century northwestern borders of Iran, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, before being ceded to the neighboring Russian Empire by the Russo-Iranian wars
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
The first national Iranian Parliament was established in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Reza Shah, the first Pahlavi king of Iran, in military uniform
Saddam Hussein in 1982
The Allied "Big Three" at the 1943 Tehran Conference.
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial Family during the coronation ceremony of the Shah of Iran in 1967.
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Iran on 1February 1979
Furthest ground gains
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask on the front-line during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
The Green Movement's Silent Demonstration during the 2009–10 Iranian election protests
Iranian child soldier
The 2017–18 Iranian protests were initiated on 31 December 2017 and continued for months.
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Amol, Mazenderan.
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
Persian leopard, listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
Iran's most populated cities (2010)
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
Iran's syncretic political system combines elements of an Islamic theocracy with vetted democracy.
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
Ali Khamenei voting in the 2017 presidential election
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
Iranian former President Hassan Rouhani meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Iran and Russia are strategic allies.
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly, also known as the Iranian Parliament
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
Protest against U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel. Tehran, 11 December 2017.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
Sophisticated indigenous long range missile system Bavar-373 paraded in Tehran.
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
Iran's provinces by their contribution to national GDP (2014)
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
A proportional representation of Iran exports, 2019
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
More than a million tourists visit Kish Island each year.
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
Iran holds 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. It is OPEC's second largest exporter and the world's 7th largest oil producer.
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Literacy rate of Iran's population plus 15, 1975–2015, according to UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Sharif University of Technology is one of Iran's most prestigious higher education institutions.
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
The production line for AryoSeven at the Iranian biopharmaceutical company of AryoGen
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
Simorgh launch, Iranian Space Agency
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
Iran's population growth (1880–2016)
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
Iran's provinces by population density (2013)
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
Iron Age gold cup from Marlik, kept at New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Kamal-ol-Molk's Mirror Hall, often considered a starting point in Iranian modern art
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Tomb of the 10th-century Persian poet Ferdowsi, author of Šāhnāme, the classical Persian composition of the Iranian national epics, in Tus
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980
Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, depicted on Raphael's The School of Athens
Karna, an ancient Iranian musical instrument from the 6th century BC, kept at the Persepolis Museum
The Roudaki Hall, constructed between 1957 and 1967 in Tehran
Reproduction of the 3rd-millennium BC goblet from southeastern Iran, possibly the world's oldest example of animation.
Abbas Kiarostami (1940–2016), an acclaimed Iranian film director
Behrouz Vossoughi, a well-known Iranian actor who has appeared in more than 90 films
Haft-Seen, a customary of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year
Chelow kabab (rice and kebab), one of Iran's national dishes
Skiers at the Dizin Ski Resort
The Azadi Stadium in Tehran is West Asia's largest football stadium.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
An Iranian tea tray served near Garden of Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam in Nishapur

The Iran–Iraq War (الحرب الإيرانية العراقية) was a protracted armed conflict that began on 22 September 1980 with a full-scale invasion of Iran by neighbouring Iraq.

- Iran–Iraq War

On 22 September 1980, the Iraqi army invaded the western Iranian province of Khuzestan, initiating the Iran–Iraq War.

- Iran

23 related topics with Alpha


Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

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Iranian politician, writer, and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth president of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.

Iranian politician, writer, and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth president of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.

Hashemi as parliament chairman in the inauguration of Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Rafsanjani as the chairman of the parliament with future President Mohammad Khatami
Rafsanjani with newly elected Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, 1989
Hashemi with some Iranian commanders of Iran–Iraq War
Hashemi meeting with former United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan
Hashemi supporters in the 2005 election
Rafsanjani in Eid al-Fitr prayer, while Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is sitting at his side
Hashemi with one of the protest leaders, Mehdi Karroubi
Hashemi announcing his candidacy with his daughter, Fatemeh accompanied him.
The names of the victims appear in the commemorative plaque in front of Mykonos restaurant in Berlin
Rafsanjani beside revolution leader Ruhollah Khomeini, announcing the appointment of Mehdi Bazargan as revolution's interim government prime minister.
Hashemi casting his vote in 2013 presidential election
Hashemi speaking as his wife, Effat listens.
Rafsanjani speaking with the media after the first assassination attempt

During his 40-year tenure, Rafsanjani amassed a large amount of power serving as the speaker of parliament, Commander-in-Chief during the Iran–Iraq War, President, and chose Ali Khamenei as the supreme leader of Iran.

In his latter years, Rafsanjani had disagreements with Ali Khamenei who has the last say in everything in Iran.

Saudi Arabia

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Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

In the 1980s, Saudi Arabia spent $25 billion in support of Saddam Hussein in the Iran–Iraq War; however, Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and asked the US to intervene.

The consequences of the 2003 invasion and the Arab Spring led to increasing alarm within the Saudi monarchy over the rise of Iran's influence in the region.

Shatt al-Arab

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River of some 200 km in length that is formed at the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

River of some 200 km in length that is formed at the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Iraq 1932–1959 depicting the Shatt and the forest
Arab ferryman on the Shatt al-Arab 1958
Evening atmosphere on the Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab near Basra city, Iraq

Even afterwards, backtracking and disagreements continued, until British Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, was moved to comment in 1851 that "the boundary line between Turkey and Persia can never be finally settled except by an arbitrary decision on the part of Great Britain and Russia".

At the end of the Iran–Iraq War, both sides agreed to once again treat the Algiers Accord as binding.

Khuzestan province

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One of the 31 provinces of Iran.

One of the 31 provinces of Iran.

Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. The shape is an architectural trademark of craftsmen of the province. Daniel's shrine, located in Khuzestan, has such a shape. The shrine pictured here, belongs to Imamzadeh Hamzeh, located between Mahshahr and Hendijan.
The ziggurat of Choqa Zanbil in Khuzestan was a magnificent structure of the Elamite Empire. Khuzestan's Elamites were "precursors of the royal Persians", and were "the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense."
Masjed Jame' Dezful. In spite of devastating damage caused by Iraqi shelling in the Iran–Iraq War, Khuzestan still possesses a rich heritage of architecture from Islamic, Sassanid, and earlier times.
Pol Sefid
A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan in 1939.
The government of Iran is spending large amounts of money in Khuzestan province. The massive Karun-3 dam, was inaugurated recently as part of a drive to boost Iran's growing energy demands.
Sketch of the Abadan island showing rivers and date palm plantations
Shahid Abbaspour Dam
The Parthian Prince, found in Khuzestan c. AD 100, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.

In 1980, the region was invaded by Ba'athist Iraq, leading to the Iran–Iraq War.

However, following the fall of the Abbasid dynasty, the flow of Arab immigrants into Persia gradually diminished, but it nonetheless continued.

Satellite image

Strait of Hormuz

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Strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

Strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

Satellite image
The Strait of Hormuz separates Iran to the north and the Musandam Governorate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates to the south.
The Strait of Hormuz as seen from an airliner at 35,000 feet. Musandam is in the foreground.
Map of Strait of Hormuz with maritime political boundaries (2004)
1606 map of the Ottoman Empire
Oil trade through the strait by origin and destination, 2014–2018
The guided-missile destroyer USS Porter (DDG-78) transits the Strait of Hormuz in May 2012. Porter is deployed to the U.S. 5th Fleet
U.S. Navy convoy in the Strait of Hormuz on 21 July 2016
Map of the Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline and the East-West Crude Oil Pipeline

On the north coast lies Iran, and on the south coast the United Arab Emirates and Musandam, an exclave of Oman.

The Tanker War phase of the Iran–Iraq War started when Iraq attacked the oil terminal and oil tankers at Iran's Kharg Island in early 1984.


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Mandaeans in Khorramshahr in 2015

Khorramshahr (, also romanized as Khurramshahr, المحمرة, romanized as Al-Muhammerah) is a city and capital of Khorramshahr County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

The city was destroyed in the Iran–Iraq War, with the 1986 census recording a population of zero.

Flag of Kurdistan


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Flag of Kurdistan
Kurdish-inhabited areas in the Middle East (1992)
Yazidi new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017
Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism, believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)
Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb, or Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty in the Middle East
Kurdish Warriors by Frank Feller
Karim Khan, the Laki ruler of the Zand Dynasty
Impression of a Kurdish man by American artist Antonio Zeno Shindle circa 1893
Provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres for an independent Kurdistan (in 1920)
Kurdish-inhabited areas of the Middle East and the Soviet Union in 1986, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Two Kurds From Constantinople 1899
Kurdish boys in Diyarbakir
Leyla Zana
Iranian Kurds celebrating Newroz, 20 March 2018
Qazi Muhammad, the President of the Republic of Kurdistan
The President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, meeting with U.S. officials in Baghdad, Iraq, on 26 April 2006
Kurdish girls in traditional Kurdish costume, Newroz picnic in Kirkuk
Pro-independence rally in Erbil in September 2017
Kurdish YPG and YPJ fighters in Syria
Tunar Rahmanoghly singing Kurdish song "Rinda Min". Khari Bulbul Music Festival
Protest in Berlin, Germany against Turkey's military offensive into north-eastern Syria on 10 October 2019
Hamdi Ulukaya, Kurdish-American billionaire, founder and CEO of Chobani
YPG's female fighters in Syria
The fox, a widely recurring character in Kurdish tales
Modern rug from Bijar
A Kurdish nobleman bearing a jambiya dagger
Kurdish woman with deq tattoo
Kurdish musicians, 1890
Bahman Ghobadi at the presentation of his film Nobody Knows About Persian Cats in San Sebastián, 2009
Eren Derdiyok, a Kurdish footballer, striker for the Swiss national football team
The Marwanid Dicle Bridge, Diyarbakir
The Citadel of Erbil
Mercier. Kurde (Asie) by Auguste Wahlen, 1843
Kurdish warriors by Amadeo Preziosi
Armenian, Turkish and Kurdish females in their traditional clothes, 1873
Zakho Kurds by Albert Kahn, 1910s
Kurdish Cavalry in the passes of the Caucasus mountains (The New York Times, January 24, 1915)
A Kurdish woman from Kirkuk, 1922
A Kurdish chief
A Kurdish woman from Piranshahr, Iran, Antoin Sevruguin
A Kurdish woman and a child from Bisaran, Eastern Kurdistan, 2017
A group of Kurdish men with traditional clothing, Hawraman
A Kurdish man wearing traditional clothes, Erbil
A Kurdish woman fighter from Rojava

Kurds (کورد ,Kurd) or Kurdish people are an Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria.

During Iran–Iraq War, Tehran has provided support for Iraqi-based Kurdish groups like KDP or PUK, along with asylum for 1.4 million Iraqi refugees, mostly Kurds.

16th-century schematic map of Tabriz by Matrakçı Nasuh


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16th-century schematic map of Tabriz by Matrakçı Nasuh
Aerial view of northeast Tabriz, May 2012
Saat Tower, Municipality Museum and former municipality office.
Main Municipality Office
A page from the only manuscript of Safina-yi Tabriz. It contains a Persian and a Pahlavi poem
Tabriz style in Iranian miniature
Bazaar vendor of electrical goods
University of Tabriz as seen from the Applied Physics Faculty
Tabriz Railway Station
Tabriz Metro
Sahand Stadium in a Tractor football match
Sahand TV main building
Saheb-ol-Amr Mosque and Quru river, Eugène Flandin 1841.
Sketch of the gate of Tabriz, Eugène Flandin 1841.
A sketch of a 19th-century house in Tabriz, Eugène Flandin.
Painting of Blue mosque, Jules Laurens, 1872.
Siege of Tabriz during Constitutional Revolution, September 27, 1908.
Constitutional revolutionists defending Davachi bridge against monarchists, May 1, 1909.
Constitutionals in Tabriz, 1911.
Ark of Tabriz and US flag in the days after constitutional revolution, 1911.
Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911.
Soviet artillery units passing through Tabriz, World War II.
Soviet Tank and troops marching through Tabriz, World War II.
Soviet T-26 Tank passing through the main street of Tabriz, World War II.
A table of some of Tabriz traditional foods (köfte and syrup with sangak and Bonab Kababi with rice)
Tabriz meatballs
Qurutli Aash, a thick soup made of qurut
Tabrizi Lovuez
Nouga (Nougat)
Konjod Halvasi, a laminal sesame cookie.
Tabriz's Baklava
Dried, Fried, and Salted Nuts
Saat Tower
The Grand Bazaar
Iron Age museum
Amir Nezam House (Qajar museum)
Constitution House of Tabriz
Measure museum of Tabriz
Behnam House
Qari Bridge
Azerbaijan Museum
Blue Mosque
Shah-goli park
Saint Mary Church of Tabriz
Chay kenar (river side) at night
Seyed Hamzeh shrine and mosque
a mosque in Tabriz
Shah Goli Park
Eynali artificial forest in the north of the Tabriz
A week-end ritual at Eynali peak
A sample of Tabriz rugs
A newly made bronze Astrolabe, as a sample of Ghalamzani in Tabriz
An engraver in Tabriz
Shams Tabrizi, poet.
King Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.
Iraj Mirza, poet.
Saib Tabrizi, Persian poet.
Sattar Khan, a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
Bagher Khan, a pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
Farah Pahlavi, is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and was the Shahbanu (empress) of Iran.
Mohammad Taqi Pessian, gendarme and pilot.
Ahmad Kasravi, linguist, nationalist, religious reformer, historian and cleric.
Farhad Fakhreddini composer, conductor and founder of Iran's National Orchestra.
Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, poet.
Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi, writer.
Samad Behrangi, teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and writer.
Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai, Allamah.
Tahmineh Milani, film director.
Azim Gheychisaz, mountain climber and Summiter of all 14 Eight-thousanders
Parvin Etesami, 20th-century Persian poet of Iran.
Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Iranian Grand Ayatollah.
Dariush Shayegan, Philosopher and former University Professor.
Karim Bagheri, professional football player and coach.
Javad Fakoori, prominent military official and defence minister.

Tabriz (تبریز) is a city in northwestern Iran, serving as the capital of East Azerbaijan Province.

In the 1980s, due to the Iran–Iraq War, like the rest of the country, most of the construction and development projects in the city were stopped in order to fund the war costs.

Seal of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army

Islamic Republic of Iran Army

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Seal of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army
Iranian peacekeeping missions battalion in a 2012 parade
Ground Force soldiers carrying off medical supplies for 2003 Bam earthquake

The Islamic Republic of Iran Army, acronymed AJA , simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh , is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The 1941 invasion by the Allies of World War II resulted in a decisive loss for the Iranian forces, the deposition of Iran's Shah and five years of subsequent occupation, while the 1980 Iraqi invasion began the Iran–Iraq War, which lasted almost eight years and ended in status quo ante bellum.

Kazem Shariatmadari

Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

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The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution.

The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution.

Kazem Shariatmadari

After the Shah of Iran and his regime were overthrown by revolutionaries in February 1979, Iran was in a "revolutionary crisis mode" from this time until 1982 or 1983.

Elements that played a part in both the crisis and its end were the Iran hostage crisis, the invasion of Iran by Saddam Hussein's Iraq, and the presidency of Abolhassan Banisadr.