Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrakMesopotamiaIRQIrāqal-Irāqal-ʿIrāqBuyids in Iraqcountry
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.wikipedia
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Kuwait

State of KuwaitKuwaitiKWT
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, it shares borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

Baghdad

Baghdad, IraqBagdadBaghdād
The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad.
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south.

Jordan

Hashemite Kingdom of JordanTransjordanKingdom of Jordan
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and the east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and the Palestinian West Bank to the west.

Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

Saudi Arabia

SaudiKingdom of Saudi ArabiaKSA
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba.

Kurds

KurdishKurdKurdish people
Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.
Kurds (کورد, Kurd) are an Iranian ethnic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria.

Assyrian people

AssyrianAssyriansSyriac
Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.
The tribal areas that form the Assyrian homeland are parts of present-day northern Iraq (Nineveh Plains and Dohuk Governorate), southeastern Turkey (Hakkari and Tur Abdin), northwestern Iran (Urmia) and, more recently, northeastern Syria (Al-Hasakah Governorate).

Iraqi Turkmen

TurkmenTurkmensIraqi Turkmen/Turkoman dialects
Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.
Today, the Iraqi Turkmen form the third largest ethnic group in Iraq, after the Arabs and Kurds.

Armenians in Iraq

ArmeniansIraqIraqi Armenians
Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.
The history of Armenians in Iraq is documented since late Babylonian times.

Circassians in Iraq

CircassiansCircassians and ChechensIraq
Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.
Circassians in Iraq are people of North Caucasian origin in Iraq, including Adyghes, Chechens and Dagestanis.

Western Asia

West AsiaSouthwest AsiaWest Asian
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The most populous countries in Western Asia are Turkey (partly in Southeast Europe), Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen.

Chaldean Catholics

ChaldeanChaldeansChaldean Christians
Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.
While indigenous to the region of north Iraq, southeast Turkey and northeast Syria, many Chaldean Catholic Christians have migrated to Western countries including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia, Sweden and Germany.

Euphrates

Euphrates RiverRiver EuphratesFırat River
Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf.
Originating in the Armenian Highlands (eastern Turkey), the Euphrates flows through Syria and Iraq to join the Tigris in the Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.
At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan.

Abbasid Caliphate

AbbasidAbbasidsAbbasid dynasty
It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.
They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH).

Tigris

Tigris RiverRiver TigrisDijla
Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf.
The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq and empties into the Persian Gulf.

Achaemenid Assyria

AthuraAssyriaAchaemenid
It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.
It mostly incorporated the territories of Neo-Assyrian Empire corresponding to what is now northern Iraq in the upper Tigris, the middle and upper Euphrates, modern-day northeastern Syria (Eber-Nari) and part of south-east Anatolia (now Turkey).

Persian Gulf

GulfGulf regionPersian Gulf region
Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert.
It is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War, the largely air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.

14 July Revolution

1958 Iraqi coup d'étatIraqi Revolutionmilitary coup
In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
The 14 July Revolution, also known as the 1958 Iraqi coup d'état, took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, and resulted in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq that had been established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British.

Ba'athist Iraq

IraqBaathist IraqIraqi
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003.
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.

Shatt al-Arab

Shatt-al-ArabArvand RudShatt al Arab
Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf.
Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

Uruk

ErechEanna districtUnug
It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URU UNUG ; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء or أوروك, '; Aramaic/Hebrew: ';, Ὀρέχ Orekh, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.

Iraqi insurgency (2011–2013)

Iraqi insurgencyIraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal)Iraqi insurgency (2011–present)
The US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country.
The Iraqi insurgency, later referred to as the Iraq Crisis, escalated in 2011, resulting in violent conflict with the central government, as well as sectarian violence among Iraq's religious groups.

Kurdistan Region

Kurdistan Region of IraqIraqi KurdistanKurdistan Presidency Council
Disputes over the sovereignty of Kurdistan Region continue.
The Kurdistan Region (KRI;,, إقليم كردستان) is an autonomous region in the northern parts of Iraq comprising the four Kurdish-majority populated governorates of Dohuk, Erbil, Halabja and Sulaymaniyah and borders Iran, Syria and Turkey.