Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrakMesopotamiaIRQIrāqal-Irāqal-ʿIrāqBuyids in Iraqcountry
Iraq (, or ; ٱلْعِرَاق, '; عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.wikipedia
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Hamrin Mountains

Jabal HamrinJebel HamrinHamrin
The term historically included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq.
The Hamrin Mountains (Arabic: جبل حمرين, Kurdish:چیای حەمرین Çiyayê Hemrîn or Çiyayên Hemrîn) are a small mountain ridge in northeast Iraq.

Babylonia

BabyloniansBabylonianBabylonian Empire
From this period, the civilisation in Iraq came to be known as Sumero-Akkadian.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

Der (Sumer)

DerDērDur
The major city states of the early Sumerian period were; Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, Shuruppak, Uruk, Kish, Ur, Nippur, Lagash, Girsu, Umma, Hamazi, Adab, Mari, Isin, Kutha, Der and Akshak.
Der (Sumerian: ALU Di-e-ir [citation needed], 𒌷𒂦𒀭𒆠 uru BAD 3 .AN ki ) was a Sumerian city-state at the site of modern Tell Aqar near al-Badra in Iraq's Wasit Governorate.

Multi-National Force – Iraq

Multinational force in IraqCoalitioncoalition forces
After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005.
In March 2006, British newspaper, The Independent, reported that companies based within the United Kingdom had received at least £1.1bn in contracts for reconstruction work in post-invasion Iraq.

League of Nations

The League of NationsCouncil of the League of NationsLeague
In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations.
Partly as a result of pressure brought by the League of Nations, Afghanistan abolished slavery in 1923, Iraq in 1924, Nepal in 1926, Transjordan and Persia in 1929, Bahrain in 1937, and Ethiopia in 1942.

Semiramis

Queen SemiramisSammu-ramatSemiramide
This was to be the largest empire the region had yet seen, and under rulers such as Adad-Nirari II, Ashurnasirpal, Shalmaneser III, Semiramis, Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, Iraq became the centre of an empire stretching from Persia, Parthia and Elam in the east, to Cyprus and Antioch in the west, and from The Caucasus in the north to Egypt, Nubia and Arabia in the south.
The indigenous Assyrians of Iraq, northeast Syria, southeast Turkey, and northwest Iran still use Semiramis (also Shamiram) as a given name for female children.

Eastern Aramaic languages

Eastern AramaicEast AramaicSyriac
It was during this period that an Akkadian influenced form of Eastern Aramaic was adopted by the Assyrians as the lingua franca of their vast empire, and Mesopotamian Aramaic began to supplant Akkadian as the spoken language of the general populace of both Assyria and Babylonia.
Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).

Parthian Empire

ParthianParthiansArsacid
It was also part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid and Ottoman empires.
With the expansion of Arsacid power, the seat of central government shifted from Nisa to Ctesiphon along the Tigris (south of modern Baghdad, Iraq), although several other sites also served as capitals.

Arab League

League of Arab StatesArab StatesArab
Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF.
At least 15 million Christians combined live in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Sudan and Syria.

Hatra

Al-hadar
A number of independent states evolved in the north during the Parthian era, such as Adiabene, Assur, Osroene and Hatra.
Hatra was an ancient city in the Nineveh Governorate of present-day Iraq.

Kufa

al-KūfahAl-Kufaal-Kufah
Under the Rashidun Caliphate, the prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, moved his capital to Kufa when he became the fourth caliph.
Kufa, also spelled Kufah, is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf.

Adiabene

Narsai of AdiabeneNodardashiraganhistory of Queen Helen and her two sons
A number of independent states evolved in the north during the Parthian era, such as Adiabene, Assur, Osroene and Hatra.
Adiabene (from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from, ' or ', Middle Persian: Nodshēragān, Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria, with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Erbil, Iraq).

Kingdom of Iraq

IraqHashemite Kingdom of IraqIraqi
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932.
Under King Faisal of Iraq, the civil government of postwar Iraq was led by the High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox, and his deputy, Colonel Arnold Wilson.

Aram (region)

AramArameaAramean
This name had for many centuries been the Indo-European word for Assyria and specifically and only meant Assyria; however, the Seleucids also applied it to The Levant (Aramea, causing both the Assyria and the Assyrians of Iraq and the Arameans and The Levant to be called Syria and Syrians/Syriacs in the Greco-Roman world.
At its height, Aram stretched from the Lebanon mountains eastward across the Euphrates, including parts of the Khabur River valley in northwestern Mesopotamia on the border of Iraq.

Zagros Mountains

ZagrosZagros mountainZagros Mountains forest steppe
Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert.
The mountains create a geographic barrier between the Mesopotamian Plain, which is in Iraq, and the Iranian Plateau.

Hurrians

HurrianHurrian mythologyHurri
Beginning with the campaigns of Ashur-uballit I, Assyria destroyed the rival Hurrian-Mitanni Empire, annexed huge swathes of the Hittite Empire for itself, annexed northern Babylonia from the Kassites, forced the Egyptian Empire from the region, and defeated the Elamites, Phrygians, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Cilicians, Gutians, Dilmunites and Arameans.
Hurrian names occur sporadically in northwestern Mesopotamia and the area of Kirkuk in modern Iraq by the Middle Bronze Age.

Arabic phonology

ArabicpronunciationArabic pronunciation
The Arabic pronunciation is.
. The standard pronunciation of ⟨ج⟩ varies regionally, most prominently in the Arabian Peninsula, parts of the Levant, Iraq, northern Algeria and Sudan, it is also considered as the predominant pronunciation of Literary Arabic outside the Arab world, in most of Northwest Africa and the Levant, and in most of Egypt and a number of Yemeni and Omani dialects.

Mandaeans

MandeansMandaeanMandean
Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya.
In the aftermath of the Iraq War of 2003, the Mandaean community of Iraq, which used to number 60,000–70,000 persons, collapsed; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East.

Assur

AššurAshurAshur (Qal'at Sherqat)
A number of independent states evolved in the north during the Parthian era, such as Adiabene, Assur, Osroene and Hatra.
The remains of the city lie on the western bank of the Tigris River, north of the confluence with its tributary, the Little Zab, in what is now Iraq, more precisely in the al-Shirqat District of the Saladin Governorate.

Girsu

TellohTello
The major city states of the early Sumerian period were; Eridu, Bad-tibira, Larsa, Sippar, Shuruppak, Uruk, Kish, Ur, Nippur, Lagash, Girsu, Umma, Hamazi, Adab, Mari, Isin, Kutha, Der and Akshak.
Girsu (Sumerian Ĝirsu; cuneiform ĝir 2 -su ki) was a city of ancient Sumer, situated some 25 km northwest of Lagash, at the site of modern Tell Telloh, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq.

Arabs

ArabArab peopleArabian
Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. The region was thus a province of the Sassanid Empire for over four centuries, and became the frontier and battle ground between the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire, with both empires weakening each other, paving the way for the Arab-Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid-7th century.
Today, Arabs primarily inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

Muslim conquest of Persia

Islamic conquest of PersiaArab conquest of IranArab invasion of Iran
The region was thus a province of the Sassanid Empire for over four centuries, and became the frontier and battle ground between the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire, with both empires weakening each other, paving the way for the Arab-Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid-7th century.
Arab Muslims first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia (Sassanid province of Asōristān; what is now Iraq), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state.

Neo-Assyrian Empire

Neo-AssyrianAssyrianAssyrians
Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Chaldean Empire, and Babylonian empires.
In the Old Assyrian period of the Early Bronze Age, Assyria had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia (modern-day northern Iraq), competing for dominance initially with the Hattians and Hurrians of Asia Minor, and the ancient Sumero-Akkadian "city states" such as Isin, Ur and Larsa, and later with Babylonia which was founded by Amorites in 1894 BC, and often under Kassite rule.

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

Organisation of the Islamic ConferenceOICOrganization of Islamic Cooperation
Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF.
Whilst Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan and Turkey had legalized homosexuality.

Church of the East

NestorianNestorian ChurchNestorians
Christianity began to take hold in Iraq (particularly in Assyria) between the 1st and 3rd centuries, and Assyria became a centre of Syriac Christianity, the Church of the East and Syriac literature.
It established dioceses and communities stretching from the Mediterranean Sea and today's Iraq and Iran, to India (the Saint Thomas Christians), the Mongol kingdoms in Central Asia, and China during the Tang dynasty (7th to 9th centuries).