Iraq War

IraqOperation Iraqi Freedomwar in IraqOperation New DawnIraqi Freedominvasion of IraqIraq CampaignSecond Gulf War2003 Iraq warOIF
The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein.wikipedia
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2003 invasion of Iraq

invasion of IraqIraq War2003 Iraq War
The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom). The invasion phase began on 20 March 2003 and lasted just over one month, including 21 days of major combat operations, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq.

Iraqi insurgency (2003–2011)

Iraqi insurgencyIraqi insurgentsinsurgents
The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).

Casualties of the Iraq War

all those killed in Iraqcasualtieskilled in Iraq
An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first three to four years of conflict.
Estimates of the casualties from the conflict in Iraq (beginning with the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, and the ensuing occupation and insurgency) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the information available on different types of Iraq War casualties varies greatly.

Iraq War troop surge of 2007

surgetroop surgeThe Surge
The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007.
In the context of the Iraq War, the surge refers to United States President George W. Bush's 2007 increase in the number of American troops in order to provide security to Baghdad and Al Anbar Province.

Rationale for the Iraq War

rationale for the warrationale for warthe reasons
The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, which had been viewed by the U.S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and that the Iraqi government posed an immediate threat to the United States and its coalition allies.
The rationale for the Iraq War (i.e. the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent hostilities) has been a contentious issue since the Bush administration began actively pressing for military intervention in Iraq in late 2001.

George W. Bush

BushPresident BushPresident George W. Bush
The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of U.S. President George W. Bush following the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003.

Gulf War

Persian Gulf WarOperation Desert ShieldOperation Desert Storm
The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, which had been viewed by the U.S. as a rogue state since the 1990–1991 Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and that the Iraqi government posed an immediate threat to the United States and its coalition allies.
The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War or Iraq War, before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the 2003 Iraq War.

Barack Obama

ObamaPresident ObamaPresident Barack Obama
The winding down of U.S. involvement in Iraq accelerated under President Barack Obama.
In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War.

Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn

al-Qaeda in IraqAl-Qaedaal Qaeda in Iraq
Many violent insurgent groups were supported by Iran and al-Qaeda in Iraq.
The group is believed to have started bomb attacks in Iraq as of August 2003, five months after the coalition invasion and occupation of Iraq, targeting UN representatives, Iraqi Shiite institutions, the Jordanian embassy, provisional Iraqi government institutions.

Iraq and weapons of mass destruction

weapons of mass destructionweapons of mass destruction in IraqIraqi nuclear program
This policy involved numerous economic sanctions by the UN Security Council; the enforcement of Iraqi no-fly zones declared by the US and the UK to protect the Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan and Shias in the south from aerial attacks by the Iraqi government; and ongoing inspections to ensure Iraq's compliance with United Nations resolutions concerning Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.
Despite this, Bush asserted peaceful measures could not disarm Iraq of the weapons he alleged it to have and launched a second Gulf War instead.

Iraq Resolution

Iraq War ResolutionAuthorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraqjoint resolution
In October 2002, the US Congress passed the "Iraq Resolution".
The Iraq Resolution (formally the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002, ) is a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress in October 2002 as Public Law No: 107-243, authorizing military action against Iraq.

Donald Rumsfeld

RumsfeldDonald H. RumsfeldDon Rumsfeld
On the day of the attacks, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld asked his aides for: "best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit Saddam Hussein at same time. Not only Osama bin Laden."
Rumsfeld played a central role in the planning of the United States' response to the September 11 attacks, which included two wars, one in Afghanistan and one in Iraq.

Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda link allegations

Saddam Hussein and al-Qaedaclaims of ties between Iraq and al-Qaedapossible involvement by Saddam Hussein
After the invasion, no substantial evidence was found to verify the initial claims about WMDs, while claims of Iraqi officials collaborating with al-Qaeda were proven false.
In the lead up to the Iraq War, U.S. President George W. Bush alleged that Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda might conspire to launch terrorist attacks on the United States, basing the administration's rationale for war, in part, on this allegation.

United States Central Command

U.S. Central CommandCentral CommandCENTCOM
Rumsfeld met with General Tommy Franks, the commander of U.S. Central Command, on 27 November to go over the plans.
CENTCOM has been the main American presence in many military operations, including the Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm, 1991), the War in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom, 2001–2014), and the Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003–2011).

Shock and awe

shock-and-aweChoc & AweOperation Shock and Awe
The invasion began on 20 March 2003, when the U.S., joined by the United Kingdom and several coalition allies, launched a "shock and awe" bombing campaign.
Reiterating the example in an interview with CBS News several months before Operation Iraqi Freedom, Ullman stated, "You're sitting in Baghdad and all of a sudden you're the general and 30 of your division headquarters have been wiped out. You also take the city down. By that I mean you get rid of their power, water. In 2, 3, 4, 5 days they are physically, emotionally and psychologically exhausted."

Bombing of Iraq (1998)

Operation Desert FoxDesert Foxbombing of Iraq
One month after the passage of the Iraq Liberation Act, the US and UK launched a bombardment campaign of Iraq called Operation Desert Fox.
Although there was no Authorization for Use of Military Force as there was during Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom or a declaration of war, as in WWII, on 31 October 1998, Clinton signed into law H.R. 4655, the Iraq Liberation Act.

Munich Security Conference

MSCSecurity Conferenceconference on security policy
Fischer famously confronted United States Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld at the 39th Munich Security Conference in 2003 on the secretary's purported evidence for Iraq's possession of weapons of mass destruction: "Excuse me, I am not convinced!"
At the 39th Conference 2003, German Minister for Foreign Affairs Fischer doubted to the reasoning of the US government for a war against Iraq with the words "Excuse me, I am not convinced".

Operation Viking Hammer

CIA’s program to destabilize the Saddam Hussein regime
The battle against Ansar al-Islam, known as Operation Viking Hammer, led to the death of a substantial number of militants and the uncovering of a chemical weapons facility at Sargat.
Operation Viking Hammer was an unconventional warfare operation during the Iraq War which took place in northern Iraq, commonly known as Iraqi Kurdistan.


North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNorth Atlantic Treaty OrganisationNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Key U.S. allies in NATO, such as the United Kingdom, agreed with the US actions, while France and Germany were critical of plans to invade Iraq, arguing instead for continued diplomacy and weapons inspections.
The less potent Article 4, which merely invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, and annexation of Crimea.


BagdadBaghdad, IraqBaghdād
At 5:34 a.m. Baghdad time on 20 March 2003 (9:34 pm, 19 March EST) the surprise military invasion of Iraq began.
In contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011.

Joint Special Operations Command

JSOCAFOJoint Special Operations
This team was composed of members of the CIA's Special Activities Division and was later joined by members of the US military's elite Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC).
Although mainly a term in many cases used to describe a particular sub-set of Delta Force operators, the term "AFO" also was later known used to describe mixed Special Mission Unit elements doing long range RECCE/long range target interdiction operations etc. According to Gen. Michael Repass, who conducted it in the Iraq War and was very familiar with its use in Afghanistan, "AFO consists of U.S. Secretary of Defense-approved military operations such as clandestine operations. It is logically part of Operational Preparation of the Battlespace (OPB), which follows the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace, a concept well-known in U.S. and NATO doctrine, OPB is seldom used outside of SOF channels. OPB is defined by the U.S. Special Operations Command as "Non-intelligence activities conducted prior to D-Day, H-Hour, in likely

101st Airborne Division

101st Airborne101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)101st
With the Nasiriyah and Talil Airfields secured in its rear, the 3rd Infantry Division supported by the 101st Airborne Division continued its attack north toward Najaf and Karbala, but a severe sand storm slowed the coalition advance and there was a halt to consolidate and make sure the supply lines were secure.
In recent years, the division has served in Iraq and Afghanistan.


Kurdish forcesKurdish PeshmergaPeshmerge
Most importantly, their efforts organized the Kurdish Peshmerga to become the northern front of the invasion.
In 2003, during the Iraq War, peshmerga were said to have played a key role in the mission to capture Saddam Hussein.

Foreign policy of the United States

foreign policyU.S. foreign policyAmerican foreign policy
In October 1998, removing the Iraqi government became official U.S. foreign policy with enactment of the Iraq Liberation Act.
Some analysts have argued that the implementation of the Carter Doctrine and the Reagan Corollary also played a role in the outbreak of the 2003 Iraq War.

Improvised explosive device

IEDimprovised explosive devicesIEDs
Insurgents used various guerrilla tactics, including mortars, missiles, suicide attacks, snipers, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), car bombs, small arms fire (usually with assault rifles), and RPGs (rocket propelled grenades), as well as sabotage against the petroleum, water, and electrical infrastructures.
In the second Iraq War, IEDs were used extensively against US-led invasion forces and by the end of 2007 they had become responsible for approximately 63% of coalition deaths in Iraq.