Ireland

The Uragh Stone Circle, a Neolithic stone circle in Tuosist, close to Gleninchaquin Park, County Kerry
Stone tools found in Ireland. Photograph taken in the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin.
The Scoti were Gaelic-speaking people from Ireland who settled in western Scotland in the 6th century or before.
Illuminated page from Book of Kells
Remains of the 12th-century Trim Castle in County Meath, the largest Norman castle in Ireland
Political boundaries in Ireland in 1450, before the plantations
Irish soldiers, 1521 – by Albrecht Dürer
A scene from The Image of Irelande (1581) showing a chieftain at a feast
A 16th century perception of Irish women and girls, illustrated in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel". Painted by Lucas d'Heere in the 2nd half of the 16th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Half-hanging of suspected United Irishmen
A depiction of the Great Famine from Our Boys in Ireland by Henry Willard French (1891)
Sackville Street (now O'Connell Street), Dublin, after the 1916 Easter Rising
Annotated page from the Anglo-Irish Treaty that established the Irish Free State and independence for 26 out of 32 Irish counties
Edward Carson signing the Solemn League and Covenant in 1912, declaring opposition to Home Rule "using all means which may be found necessary"
Political entities on the island of Ireland
Áras an Uachtaráin, the official residence of the President of Ireland
Parliament Buildings, in Stormont Estate, seat of the Northern Ireland Assembly
Physical features of Ireland
Two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Gubbeen, County Cork
Red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Killarney National Park
Furze (Ulex europaeus)
Silage harvesting in Clonard, County Meath
A Population density map of Ireland 2002 showing the heavily weighted eastern seaboard and Ulster
Proportion of respondents to the Ireland census 2011 or the Northern Ireland census 2011 who stated they were Catholic. Areas in which Catholics are in the majority are blue. Areas in which Catholics are in a minority are red.
Administrative divisions of Ireland
The population of Ireland since 1603 showing the consequence of the Great Famine (1845–52) (Note: figures before 1841 are contemporary estimates)
Proportion of respondents who said they could speak Irish in the Ireland census in 2011 or the Northern Ireland census in 2011
Ardboe High Cross, County Tyrone
James Joyce one of the most significant writers of the 20th century
Robert Boyle formulated Boyle's Law.
Tyrone v Kerry in the 2005 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final
Paul O'Connell reaching for the ball during a line out against Argentina in 2007.
Horse racing in Sligo
Gubbeen cheese, an example of the resurgence in Irish cheese making
The Old Bushmills Distillery in County Antrim
A proportional representation of Ireland exports, 2019
Inisheer (Inis Oírr), Aran Islands.
Turf-cutting near Maam Cross by the road to Leenane, Co. Galway.
Dunluce Castle, County Antrim
Benbulbin, County Sligo
Connemara, County Galway
Glendalough, County Wicklow
Ladies View, County Kerry
Slieve League, County Donegal
Giant's Causeway, County Antrim
Skellig Michael, County Kerry
Newgrange, County Meath

Island in the North Atlantic Ocean, in north-western Europe.

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United Kingdom

Sovereign country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland.

Stonehenge in Wiltshire is a ring of stones, each about 13 ft high, 7 ft wide and 25 tonnes, erected 2400–2200 BC.
The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings, 1066, and the events leading to it.
The Treaty of Union led to a united kingdom of all of Great Britain.
At the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, a British-led coalition under the Duke of Wellington, supported by von Blücher's Prussian army, defeated the French, ending the Napoleonic Wars.
Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme. More than 885,000 British soldiers died on the battlefields of the First World War.
Territories once part of the British Empire, with the United Kingdom and its current Overseas Dependencies and Crown Dependencies underlined in red
Leaders of EU states in 2007. The UK entered the EEC in 1973. In a 1975 referendum 67% voted to stay in it; in 2016 52% voted to leave the EU.
The United Kingdom showing hilly regions to north and west
Köppen climate types of the UK
The Palace of Westminster, seat of both houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Organisational chart of the UK political system
The Scottish Parliament Building in Holyrood is the seat of the Scottish Parliament.
The British-Irish Council comprises the UK Government, the Irish Government and the governments of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The Royal Courts of Justice of England and Wales
The High Court of Justiciary, the supreme criminal court of Scotland
and, a pair of Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers of the Royal Navy
British soldier firing during an exercise.
The Bank of England, the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based
The Mini Electric is manufactured in the UK.
Engines and wings for the Airbus A380 are manufactured in the UK.
A Watt steam engine, which was fundamental in driving the Industrial Revolution
London St Pancras International is one of London's main domestic and international transport hubs, providing commuter and high-speed rail services across the UK and to Paris, Lille and Brussels.
Energy mix of the United Kingdom over time
Wind turbines overlooking Ardrossan, Scotland. The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy, and wind power production is its fastest-growing supply.
Map of population density in the UK as at the 2011 census
Percentage of the population not white according to the 2011 census
Westminster Abbey
Estimated foreign-born population by country of birth from April 2007 to March 2008
Estimated number of British citizens living overseas by country in 2006
Christ Church, Oxford, is part of the University of Oxford, which traces its foundations back to c. 1096.
King's College (right) and Clare College (left), both part of the University of Cambridge, which was founded in 1209
The Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital, an NHS Scotland specialist children's hospital
The Chandos portrait, believed to depict William Shakespeare
A photograph of Victorian-era novelist Charles Dickens
Elgar aged about 60
The Beatles are the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in popular music, selling over a billion records.
J. M. W. Turner self-portrait, oil on canvas, c. 1799
Alfred Hitchcock has been ranked as one of the greatest and most influential British filmmakers of all time.
The Art Deco facade of Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the BBC, the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world
Wembley Stadium, London, home of the England national football team, is the fifth most expensive stadium ever built.
The Millennium Stadium of Cardiff opened for the 1999 Rugby World Cup.
Wimbledon, the oldest Grand Slam tennis tournament, is held in Wimbledon, London every June and July.
St Andrews, Scotland, the home of golf. The standard 18 hole golf course was created at St Andrews in 1764.
The Statue of Britannia in Plymouth. Britannia is a national personification of the UK.

The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands within the British Isles.

Gaelic Ireland

Provinces of Ireland in 900
A page from the Book of Kells, made by Gaelic monastic scribes in the 9th century
The Tuatha Dé Danann as depicted in John Duncan's "Riders of the Sidhe" (1911)
A reconstruction of an early Irish Christian chapel and high cross
A scene from The Image of Irelande (1581) showing a chieftain at a feast being entertained by a fili and a harper
Ruins of the O'Davoren law school at Cahermacnaghten, County Clare
Irish Gaels, c. 1575
A reconstructed roundhouse and ráth at Craggaunowen, County Clare
A horse rider from the Book of Kells
Irish Gaels in a painting from the 16th century
A cattle raid shown in The Image of Irelande (1581)
A fantasy painting showing legendary hero Cúchulainn in battle
The summit of the Hill of Tara
A map of the early Irish raids and colonies of Britain during and following Roman rule in Britain.
Ireland in 1014 showing the Island as a "patchwork" of various Gaelic Kingdoms: Ulaid, Airgíalla, Mide, Laigin, Munster, Connacht, Breifne and Aileach. Missing are kingdoms of Osraighe and Uí Maine. Norse settlements shown in red.
Ireland in 1300 showing lands held by native Irish (green) and lands held by Normans (pale).
Ireland in 1450 showing lands held by native Irish (green), the Anglo-Irish (blue) and the English king (dark grey).
Tudor Ireland c. 1500, Map of Ireland showing the approximate territories of the various Gaelic Kingdoms and Anglo-Norman Lordships.
Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone
Newgate, Dublin. 1608. Displaying the heads of Gaelic Irish rebels Cahir O'Doherty (right) and Phelim Reagh MacDaibhéid (left).
After Cromwell's victory, huge areas of land were confiscated from the Gaelic nobility and the Irish Catholics were banished to the lands of Connacht. The Commonwealth is said to have declared that all the Catholic Irish must go "to Hell or to Connaught".

Gaelic Ireland (Éire Ghaelach) was the Gaelic political and social order, and associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century.

Protestant Ascendancy

Flag of the Kingdom of Ireland 1542–1801
St. Patrick's Cross – the Geraldine symbol. It became incorporated into the Union Flag after the 1800 Act of Union merged the formerly separate Kingdom of Ireland into the United Kingdom.

The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy, and members of the professions, all members of the Established Church (Anglican; Church of Ireland or the Church of England).

Dissenter

One who dissents (disagrees) in matters of opinion, belief, etc.

Sticker art arguing that dissent is necessary for democracy.

In the social and religious history of England and Wales, and, by extension, Ireland, however, it refers particularly to a member of a religious body who has, for one reason or another, separated from the established church or any other kind of Protestant who refuses to recognise the supremacy of the established church in areas where the established church is or was Anglican.

Northwestern Europe

Loosely defined subregion of Europe, overlapping Northern and Western Europe.

Frequent minimum definition of Northwestern Europe, excluding certain nations often defined as Northwestern Europe, such as Austria, Switzerland, and Finland

The definition of Northwestern Europe as correlating with Protestant Germanic Europe mostly leads to same definition as the geographical one above, but would tend to exclude northern France, Wallonia (Southern Belgium), much of the southern Netherlands, much of Southern Germany, Luxembourg, Lichenstein, Austria, and Ireland.

Gaelic games

Gaelic games are present across the world. This sign in Sorrento, Italy, advertises that Gaelic games are shown in the bar.
Footballers Aidan O'Mahony (Kerry) and Eoin Bradley (Derry) during the 2009 National League final
Hurlers David Collins (Galway) and Eoin Kelly (Tipperary) in the 2014 National League

Gaelic games (Cluichí Gaelacha) are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).

Music of Ireland

The bodhrán, a traditional Irish drum.
A 16th century Irish Warpipe player
A traditional music session, known in Irish as a seisiún.
John Field, one of Ireland's foremost classical composers.
Anúna.
Thin Lizzy in concert, 1981

Irish music is music that has been created in various genres on the island of Ireland.

Irish Sea

Satellite image
Location of the Irish Sea
From the pier at Dún Laoghaire
a suburban seaside town in County Dublin, Ireland
Dublin Bay
Brittas Bay
Caernarfon Bay
Cardigan Bay
Barrow Offshore windfarm, off Walney Island

The Irish Sea is an extensive body of water that separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

Irish language

Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is a part of the Indo-European language family.

The distribution of the Irish language in 1871
Bilingual sign in Grafton Street, Dublin
Bilingual road signs in Creggs, County Galway
The percentage of respondents who said they spoke Irish daily outside the education system in the 2011 census in the State.
A sign for the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure in Northern Ireland, in English, Irish and Ulster Scots.
The Pale – According to Statute of 1488
The official symbol of the Irish Defence Forces, showing a Gaelic typeface with dot diacritics

Irish is indigenous to the island of Ireland and was the population's first language until the 19th century, when English gradually became dominant, particularly in the last decades of the century.

Irish mythology

Riders of the Sidhe, a 1911 painting of the aos sí or Otherworldly people of the mounds, by the artist John Duncan
Folio 53 of the Book of Leinster. Medieval manuscripts are the main source for Irish mythology and early literature.
Lugh's Magic Spear; illustration by H.R. Millar
"Cuchulain in Battle", illustration by J. C. Leyendecker in T. W. Rolleston's Myths & Legends of the Celtic Race, 1911
Fionn fighting Aillen, illustration by Beatrice Elvery in Violet Russell's Heroes of the Dawn (1914)
The Mound of the Hostages, located in County Meath. Places beneath mounds and hills were attested locations of the Irish Otherworld.
The Fomorians, as depicted by John Duncan (1912)

Irish mythology is the body of myths native to the island of Ireland.