Irish Home Rule movement

Home RuleIrish Home RuleHome Rule for IrelandHome Rule movementHome RulerHome Rule BillHome Rule BillsIrish independenceHome Rule in Irelandhome rule issue
The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government (or "home rule") for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.wikipedia
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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government (or "home rule") for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922.

Irish Parliamentary Party

Irish ParliamentaryNationalistIrish Nationalists
This was succeeded in 1873 by the Home Rule League, and in 1882 by the Irish Parliamentary Party.
Its constitutional movement was instrumental in laying the groundwork for Irish self-government through three Irish Home Rule bills.

Home Rule League

Home RuleIrish Home RuleHome Rule Party
This was succeeded in 1873 by the Home Rule League, and in 1882 by the Irish Parliamentary Party. For a while they were prepared to co-operate with Home Rulers under the "New Departure". In November 1873, under the chairmanship of William Shaw, it reconstituted itself as the Home Rule League.
The Home Rule League (1873–1882), sometimes called the Home Rule Party or the Home Rule Confederation, was a political party which campaigned for home rule for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, until it was replaced by the Irish Parliamentary Party.

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
Under the leadership of Charles Stewart Parnell, the movement came close to success when the Liberal government of William Ewart Gladstone introduced the First Home Rule Bill in 1886, but the bill was defeated in the House of Commons after a split in the Liberal Party.
Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and then won a landslide victory in the following year's general election.

Charles Stewart Parnell

ParnellParnellite1890
Under the leadership of Charles Stewart Parnell, the movement came close to success when the Liberal government of William Ewart Gladstone introduced the First Home Rule Bill in 1886, but the bill was defeated in the House of Commons after a split in the Liberal Party.
His power was one factor in Gladstone's adoption of Home Rule as the central tenet of the Liberal Party.

William Ewart Gladstone

GladstoneWilliam GladstoneW. E. Gladstone
Under the leadership of Charles Stewart Parnell, the movement came close to success when the Liberal government of William Ewart Gladstone introduced the First Home Rule Bill in 1886, but the bill was defeated in the House of Commons after a split in the Liberal Party.
Back in office in early 1886, Gladstone proposed home rule for Ireland but was defeated in the House of Commons.

Home Rule Crisis

Home Rule IrelandIrish Home Rulea prolonged crisis
After the removal of the Lords' veto in 1911, the Third Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912, leading to the Home Rule Crisis.
Ulster unionists, determined to prevent any measure of home rule for Ireland, formed a paramilitary force, the Ulster Volunteers, which threatened to resist by physical force the implementation of the Act and the authority of any Dublin Parliament by force of arms.

Easter Rising

1916 Rising1916 Easter RisingEaster Rising of 1916
Following the Easter Rising of 1916, particularly the arrests and executions that followed it, public support shifted from the Home Rule movement to the more radical Sinn Féin party.
The Irish Home Rule movement sought to achieve self-government for Ireland, within the United Kingdom.

1918 Irish general election

1918 general election1918general election of 1918
In the 1918 General Election the Irish Parliamentary Party suffered a crushing defeat with only a handful of MPs surviving, effectively dealing a death blow to the Home Rule movement.
The IPP strove for Home Rule, that is, limited self-government for Ireland within the United Kingdom, and had been supported by most Irish people, especially the Catholic majority.

Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrishRepublic
Following the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War, the 26 southern and western counties of Ireland became the Irish Free State, which evolved into the present Republic of Ireland.
This was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, and secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy.

Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949

Parliament Act 1911Parliament ActsParliament Acts of 1911 and 1949
After the removal of the Lords' veto in 1911, the Third Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912, leading to the Home Rule Crisis.
One of the reasons for the Irish Parliamentary Party MPs' support for the Parliament Act, and the bitterness of the Unionist resistance, was that the loss of the Lords' veto would make possible Irish Home Rule (i.e. a devolved legislature).

Northern Ireland

Northern IrishIrishUlster
Britain passed a Fourth Home Rule Bill, the Government of Ireland Act 1920, aimed at creating separate parliaments for Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.
By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, known as Home Rule, was regarded as highly likely.

Irish nationalism

nationalistIrish nationalistIrish nationalists
It was the dominant political movement of Irish nationalism from 1870 to the end of World War I.
The first two Irish Home Rule Bills were put before the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in 1886 and 1893, but they were bitterly resisted and the second bill ultimately defeated in the Conservative's pro-Unionist majority controlled House of Lords.

Liberal Unionist Party

Liberal UnionistLiberal UnionistsUnionist
Conservatives and (after 1886) Liberal Unionists fiercely resisted any dilution of the Act of Union, and in 1891 formed the Irish Unionist Alliance to oppose home rule.
Led by Lord Hartington (later the Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule.

Irish Unionist Alliance

Irish UnionistUnionistSouthern Unionists
Conservatives and (after 1886) Liberal Unionists fiercely resisted any dilution of the Act of Union, and in 1891 formed the Irish Unionist Alliance to oppose home rule.
The Irish Unionist Alliance (IUA), also known as the Irish Unionist Party or simply the Unionists, was a unionist political party founded in Ireland in 1891 from the Irish Loyal and Patriotic Union to oppose plans for home rule for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

New Departure (Ireland)

New DepartureNew Departure.
For a while they were prepared to co-operate with Home Rulers under the "New Departure".
The term New Departure has been used to describe several initiatives in the late 19th century by which Irish republicans, who were committed to independence from Britain by physical force, attempted to find a common ground for co-operation with groups committed to Irish Home Rule by constitutional means.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury

Lord SalisburyThe Marquess of SalisburyMarquess of Salisbury
They allied with the Lord Salisbury's Conservatives until 1914 on the issue of Home Rule.
When Gladstone came out in favour of Home Rule for Ireland, Salisbury opposed him and formed an alliance with the breakaway Liberal Unionists, winning the subsequent general election.

William O'Brien

O'Brien, WilliamO'Brien, William MPO'Brienites
Eventually it was steered through the Commons by William O'Brien, with a majority of 30 votes, only to be defeated in the Conservative's pro-unionist majority controlled House of Lords.
He was particularly associated with the campaigns for land reform in Ireland during the late 19th and early 20th centuries as well as his conciliatory approach to attaining Irish Home Rule.

William Shaw (Irish politician)

William Shaw
In November 1873, under the chairmanship of William Shaw, it reconstituted itself as the Home Rule League.
He was a Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and one of the founders of the Irish home rule movement.

Government of Ireland Bill 1893

Second Home Rule Bill18931893 Home Rule Bill
After Parnell's death, Gladstone introduced the Second Home Rule Bill in 1893; it passed the Commons but was defeated in the House of Lords.
Gladstone had become personally committed to the granting of Irish home rule in 1885, a fact revealed (possibly accidentally) in what became known as the Hawarden Kite.

Irish Free State

Free StateIrelandIrish independence
Following the Anglo-Irish Treaty that ended the Anglo-Irish War, the 26 southern and western counties of Ireland became the Irish Free State, which evolved into the present Republic of Ireland.
Although less than expected by the Sinn Féin leadership, this deal offered substantially more than the initial form of home rule within the United Kingdom sought by Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, and represented a serious advance on the Home Rule Bill of 1914 that the Irish nationalist leader John Redmond had achieved through parliamentary proceedings.

1885 United Kingdom general election

1885 general election1885general election of 1885
In the 1885 general election, the IPP won 85 out of the 103 Irish seats; another Home Rule MP was elected for Liverpool Scotland.
As the Irish Nationalists held the balance of power between them and the Conservatives who sat with an increasing number of allied Unionist MPs (referring to the Union of Great Britain and Ireland), this exacerbated divisions within the Liberals over Irish Home Rule and led to a Liberal split and another general election the following year.

H. H. Asquith

AsquithAsquithianHerbert Henry Asquith
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith came to an understanding with Redmond, that if he supported his move to break the power of the Lords to have the finance bill passed, Asquith would then in return introduce a new Home Rule Bill.
Asquith was less successful in dealing with Irish Home Rule.

Rome Rule

Catholic NationalistCatholic-dominatedCatholic-Nationalist
The Third Home Rule Bill introduced in 1912 was as in 1886 and 1893 ferociously opposed by Ulster unionists, for whom Home Rule was synonymous with Rome Rule as well as being indicative of economic decline and a threat to their cultural and industrial identity.
"Rome Rule" was a term used by Irish unionists to describe their belief that with the passage of a Home Rule Bill, the Roman Catholic Church would gain political power over their interests in Ireland.

Government of Ireland Act 1914

Third Home Rule BillHome RuleHome Rule Bill
After the removal of the Lords' veto in 1911, the Third Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912, leading to the Home Rule Crisis. The Third Home Rule Bill introduced in 1912 was as in 1886 and 1893 ferociously opposed by Ulster unionists, for whom Home Rule was synonymous with Rome Rule as well as being indicative of economic decline and a threat to their cultural and industrial identity.
It was the third such bill introduced by a Liberal government in a 28-year period in response to the Irish Home Rule movement.