A report on Irish War of Independence

Seán Hogan's flying column of the IRA's 3rd Tipperary Brigade during the war
Result of the 1918 UK general election in Ireland
RIC and British Army personnel near Limerick, c.1920
West Connemara IRA flying column
Police wanted poster for Dan Breen, one of those involved in the Soloheadbeg Ambush in 1919.
Wall plaque in Great Denmark Street, Dublin where the Dublin IRA Active Service Unit was founded.
A group of RIC officers in 1917
Michael Collins
A group of "Black and Tans" and Auxiliaries in Dublin, April 1921
British soldiers and relatives of the victims outside Jervis Street Hospital during the military enquiry into the Bloody Sunday shootings at Croke Park
Aftermath of the burning of Cork by British forces
A crowd gathers at the Mansion House in Dublin in the days before the truce
Members of the Irish negotiation committee returning to Ireland in December 1921
The funeral of Michael Collins
St. Mary's Pro-Cathedral, Dublin, August 1922
Catholic-owned businesses destroyed by loyalists in Lisburn, August 1920.
Unionist leader James Craig.
The Lord Lieutenant inspecting troops outside Belfast City Hall on the day Northern Ireland's parliament first met.
A mural in Belfast depicting revenge killings by police in Belfast.
Irish republican internees at Ballykinlar Internment Camp 1920
The symbol of the Republic:
The Irish tricolour which dated back to the Young Ireland rebellion of 1848.
A symbol of British rule:
The standard of the Lord Lieutenant, using the union flag created under the Act of Union 1800.
Monument to IRA fighters in Phibsborough, Dublin
Soldiers of a British cavalry regiment leaving Dublin in 1922
Constance Markievicz was a member of the Irish Citizen Army and fought in the Easter Rising. In 1919 she was appointed Minister for Labour in the Government of the Irish Republic
Conflict deaths in Belfast 1920–1922.
50–100 deaths per km2
100–150 deaths per km2
over 150 deaths per km2

Guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and British forces: the British Army, along with the quasi-military Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) and its paramilitary forces the Auxiliaries and Ulster Special Constabulary (USC).

- Irish War of Independence
Seán Hogan's flying column of the IRA's 3rd Tipperary Brigade during the war

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Collins as Minister for Finance in 1920

Michael Collins (Irish leader)

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Irish revolutionary, soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the early-20th century struggle for Irish independence.

Irish revolutionary, soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the early-20th century struggle for Irish independence.

Collins as Minister for Finance in 1920
Michael Collins at the age of 8 with his family.
Collins as a young recruit.
Captured Irish soldiers in Stafford Gaol after the failed Easter Rising. Collins is fifth from the right with an 'x' over his head.
Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith
Members of the First Dáil
First row, left to right: Laurence Ginnell, Michael Collins, Cathal Brugha, Arthur Griffith, Éamon de Valera, Count Plunkett, Eoin MacNeill, W. T. Cosgrave, Kevin O'Higgins (third row, right)
Harry Boland (left), Michael Collins (middle), and Éamon de Valera (right).
Collins inspects a soldier.
Collins in London as delegate to the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations.
Michael Collins addresses a crowd in Cork on Saint Patrick's Day, 1922.
The Provisional Government, led by Collins, gave the order to bombard the Four Courts with artillery shells in an attempt to remove the anti-Treaty IRA. This was the start of the Irish Civil War.
Michael Collins as Commander-in-Chief of the Irish National Forces.
Michael Collins and Richard Mulcahy at Arthur Griffith's funeral, a few days before Collins's own death.
A newspaper in Boston—a U.S. city with a large population of Irish immigrants—described Collins with adulation, describing his "contempt for danger" through several prior attempts on his life, including a separate attempt only a few days prior.
Sean Collins behind the coffin of his brother Michael.
Funeral of Michael Collins in the Pro-Cathedral, Dublin (contemporary newspaper depiction of the state funeral)
Kitty Kiernan
Memorial cross at Béal na Bláth.
Michael Collins grave at Glasnevin Cemetery
Love of Ireland by John Lavery.
Bust of Michael Collins at Merrion Square Park, Dublin, Ireland.
Wax figure of Michael Collins at the National Wax Plus Museum, Dublin, Ireland.

In the ensuing War of Independence, he was Director of Organisation and Adjutant General for the Irish Volunteers, and Director of Intelligence of the Irish Republican Army.

The traditional counties of Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland

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Part of the United Kingdom that is variously described as a country, province, territory or region.

Part of the United Kingdom that is variously described as a country, province, territory or region.

The traditional counties of Northern Ireland
Cannon on the Derry city walls
Scrabo Tower, County Down
Signing of the Ulster Covenant in 1912 in opposition to Home Rule
Result of the 1918 general election in Ireland
Crowds in Belfast for the state opening of the Northern Ireland Parliament on 22 June 1921
The Coat of arms of Northern Ireland used between 1924 and 1973
James Craig (centre) with members of the first government of Northern Ireland
Opening of the Northern Ireland parliament buildings (Stormont) in 1932
Responsibility for Troubles-related deaths between 1969 and 2001
First Minister Ian Paisley (DUP) centre, and deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness (Sinn Féin) left, and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond right in 2008
A flowchart illustrating all the political parties that have existed throughout the history of Northern Ireland and leading up to its formation (covering 1889 to 2020).
Parliament Buildings at Stormont, Belfast, seat of the assembly
Unionist mural in Belfast
ESA Sentinel-2 image of Northern Ireland
Köppen climate types of Northern Ireland
Lough Neagh
Hare's Gap, Mourne Mountains
The Giant's Causeway, County Antrim
Marble Arch Caves
Goliath crane of Harland & Wolff in Belfast
An NIR C3K railcar
2011 census: differences in proportions of those who are, or were brought up, either Catholic or Protestant/Other Christians
Map of predominant national identity in the 2011 census
Map of most commonly held passport
Approximate boundaries of the current and historical English/Scots dialects in Ulster. South to north, the colour bands represent Hiberno-English, South-Ulster English, Mid-Ulster English and the three traditional Ulster Scots areas. The Irish-speaking Gaeltacht is not shown.
Percentage of people aged 3+ claiming to have some ability in Irish in the 2011 census
Percentage of people aged 3+ claiming to have some ability in Ulster Scots in the 2011 census
An Orange march
The logo for the Northern Ireland assembly is based on the flower of the flax plant.
People carrying the Irish flag, overlooking those with the unionist Ulster Banner
George Best, Northern Irish international footballer and 1968 Ballon d'Or
Peter Canavan, Tyrone captain 2003
Prominent Northern Irish golfer Rory McIlroy
Queen's University Belfast
Broadcasting House, Belfast, home of BBC Northern Ireland

The creation of Northern Ireland was accompanied by violence both in defence of and against partition.

National Army soldiers armed with Lewis machine guns aboard a troop transport in the Civil War

Irish Civil War

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National Army soldiers armed with Lewis machine guns aboard a troop transport in the Civil War
Third Tipperary Brigade Flying Column No. 2 under Seán Hogan during the War of Independence. Most of the IRA units in Munster were against the treaty.
National Army soldiers during the Civil War
The Four Courts along the River Liffey quayside. The building was occupied by anti-treaty forces during the Civil War, whom the National Army subsequently bombarded into surrender. The Irish national archives in the buildings were destroyed in the subsequent fire. The building was badly damaged but was fully restored after the war.
Dan Breen's appeal to Free State troops
National Army soldiers escorting an IRA prisoner of war
A National Army Peerless armoured car in Passage West, August 1922
Memorial to the Republican soldiers executed by Free State forces at Ballyseedy, County Kerry, designed by Yann Goulet
Red Cross ambulance passing the G.P.O. on Sackville Street
W. T. Cosgrave

The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

The Seán Hogan flying column during the War of Independence

Irish Republican Army (1919–1922)

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Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation.

Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation.

The Seán Hogan flying column during the War of Independence
The signed last page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

Thereafter, the IRA waged a guerrilla campaign against the British occupation of Ireland in the 1919–1921 Irish War of Independence.

Political map of Ireland

Partition of Ireland

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The process by which the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland divided Ireland into two self-governing polities: Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.

The process by which the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland divided Ireland into two self-governing polities: Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.

Political map of Ireland
Result in Ireland of the December 1910 United Kingdom general election showing a large majority for the Irish Parliamentary Party.
Ulster Volunteers marching in Belfast, 1914
Result of the 1918 general election in Ireland showing the dramatic swing in support for Sinn Féin
Catholic-owned businesses destroyed by loyalists in Lisburn, August 1920
Crowds in Belfast for the state opening of the Northern Ireland Parliament on 22 June 1921
Members of the Irish negotiation committee returning to Ireland in December 1921
North East Boundary Bureau recommendations May 1923
James Craig (centre) with members of the first government of Northern Ireland
The Boundary Commission's proposed changes to the border
A republican anti-partition march in London, 1980s

This led to the Irish War of Independence (1919–21), a guerrilla conflict between the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and British forces.

Election campaigning on a busy Irish street, 1918

1918 Irish general election

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The part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election which took place in Ireland.

The part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election which took place in Ireland.

Election campaigning on a busy Irish street, 1918
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Constance Markievicz was the first woman ever to be elected to the British House of Commons. She did not take her seat, instead joining the First Dáil. In 1919 she was appointed Minister for Labour, the first female minister in a democratic government cabinet.

The Irish War of Independence was conducted under this revolutionary government which sought international recognition, and set about the process of state-building.

Irish Republic

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Unrecognised revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom in January 1919.

Unrecognised revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom in January 1919.

Territory claimed by the Irish Republic
A retouched copy of the original Proclamation.
Territory claimed by the Irish Republic
Signatures on the Anglo-Irish Treaty

At the same time, the Irish Volunteers, who came under the control of the Dáil and became known as the Irish Republican Army, fought against British state forces in the Irish War of Independence.

O'Connell Street, Dublin, after the Rising. The GPO is at left, and Nelson's Pillar at right.

Easter Rising

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Armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week in April 1916.

Armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week in April 1916.

O'Connell Street, Dublin, after the Rising. The GPO is at left, and Nelson's Pillar at right.
Members of the Irish Citizen Army outside Liberty Hall, under the slogan "We serve neither King nor Kaiser, but Ireland"
The signatories of the Proclamation: Tom Clarke, Seán Mac Diarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, Patrick Pearse, Éamonn Ceannt, James Connolly, Joseph Plunkett
Proclamation of the Republic, Easter 1916
The General Post Office in Dublin – the rebel headquarters
One of two flags flown over the GPO during the Rising
Positions of rebel and British forces in central Dublin
A street barricade erected by the rebels in Dublin during the Rising
British armoured truck, hastily built from the smokeboxes of several steam locomotives at Inchicore railway works
British soldiers in position behind a stack of barrels during the Rising in Dublin
Birth of the Irish Republic by Walter Paget, depicting the GPO during the shelling
British soldiers marching rebel prisoners away after the surrender
Irish War News, produced by the rebels during the Rising
Enniscorthy in the 1890s
Memorial in Deansgrange Cemetery, where various civilians and members of the Irish Volunteer Army, Irish Citizen Army and British Army are buried
Ruins of the Metropole Hotel on Sackville Street, next to the GPO
The spot at Kilmainham Gaol where most of the leaders were executed
The burial spot of the leaders of the Rising, in the old prison yard of Arbour Hill Prison. The Proclamation of 1916 is inscribed on the wall in both Irish and English
British soldiers searching the River Tolka in Dublin for arms and ammunition after the Easter Rising. May 1916
View of O'Connell Bridge, 1916, on a German postcard. The caption reads: Rising of the Sinn Feiners in Ireland. O'Connell bridge with Dublin city, where the fiercest clashes took place.
Grave in Donaghcumper, Celbridge of Peter Connolly, one of 15 civilians murdered in the North King Street Massacre.
Commemoration of Connolly's execution, 12 May 1917
Crowds in Dublin waiting to welcome republican prisoners released in 1917
Document from the 1940s which lists the deceased members of the Stephen's Green garrison
Plaque commemorating the Easter Rising at the General Post Office, Dublin, with the Irish text in Gaelic script, and the English text in regular Latin script
Memorial in Cobh, County Cork, to the Volunteers from that town
Mural in Belfast depicting the Easter Rising of 1916
Memorial in Clonmacnoise commemorating men of County Offaly (then King's County) who fought in 1916: James Kenny, Kieran Kenny and Paddy McDonnell are named
Flag and copy of the Proclamation in Clonegal

The Fingal Battalion's tactics during the Rising foreshadowed those of the IRA during the War of Independence that followed.

de Valera, photographed

Éamon de Valera

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Prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.

Prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland.

de Valera, photographed
De Valera in March 1918
De Valera addressing a crowd on the steps of Ennis Courthouse, County Clare, in July 1917
The Kilmainham Gaol cell of Éamon de Valera
De Valera in academic dress to receive an honorary degree from College of the Holy Cross in Massachusetts in 1920
De Valera c. 1918–1921
De Valera on the cover of Time magazine in 1932
De Valera (right) with Mayor of Boston John F. Collins and his wife Mary
De Valera in the 1960s while President of Ireland
Éamon de Valera's grave in Glasnevin Cemetery in Dublin. His wife, Sinéad, and son, Brian (who was killed in a horse-riding accident in 1936) are buried there also.
Éamon de Valera's heraldry as knight of the Supreme Order of Christ

He returned to Ireland after being jailed in England and became one of the leading political figures of the War of Independence.

First Dáil

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Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919 to 1921.

Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919 to 1921.

The Mansion House, Dublin
Cathal Brugha, the Dáil's first speaker and president
Cover page of the Declaration of Independence

Its first meeting happened on the same day as one of the first engagements of what became the Irish War of Independence.