Seán Hogan's flying column of the IRA's 3rd Tipperary Brigade during the war
Ulster Volunteers in Belfast, 1914
Political map of Ireland
The Union Flag, Ulster Banner and Orange Order flags are often flown by loyalists in Northern Ireland
Result of the 1918 UK general election in Ireland
Ulster Volunteers in Belfast, 1914
Result in Ireland of the December 1910 United Kingdom general election showing a large majority for the Irish Parliamentary Party.
Ulster Volunteers in Belfast c.1914
RIC and British Army personnel near Limerick, c.1920
Ulster Volunteer Force in 1914
Ulster Volunteers marching in Belfast, 1914
Loyalist graffiti and banner on a building in a side street off the Shankill Road, Belfast (1970)
Ulster (coloured), showing Northern Ireland in pink and the Republic of Ireland part in green
West Connemara IRA flying column
A mural in Belfast showing four recipients of the Victoria Cross from the 36th (Ulster) Division, with the UVF logo in the middle
Result of the 1918 general election in Ireland showing the dramatic swing in support for Sinn Féin
A UDA/UFF mural in Belfast
A bronze statue commemorating The Flight of the Earls at Rathmullan in north County Donegal.
Police wanted poster for Dan Breen, one of those involved in the Soloheadbeg Ambush in 1919.
Catholic-owned businesses destroyed by loyalists in Lisburn, August 1920
A UVF mural in Belfast
A modern Protestant mural in Belfast celebrating Oliver Cromwell and his activities.
Wall plaque in Great Denmark Street, Dublin where the Dublin IRA Active Service Unit was founded.
Crowds in Belfast for the state opening of the Northern Ireland Parliament on 22 June 1921
A loyalist marching band on The Twelfth, 2011
Royal Avenue, Belfast. Photochrom print circa 1890–1900.
A group of RIC officers in 1917
Members of the Irish negotiation committee returning to Ireland in December 1921
The results of the 1918 Irish general election, in which Sinn Féin and the Irish Parliamentary Party won the majority of votes on the island of Ireland, shown in the color green and light green respectively, with the exception being primarily in the East of the province of Ulster.
Michael Collins
North East Boundary Bureau recommendations May 1923
At White Park Bay
A group of "Black and Tans" and Auxiliaries in Dublin, April 1921
James Craig (centre) with members of the first government of Northern Ireland
Countryside west of Ballynahinch
British soldiers and relatives of the victims outside Jervis Street Hospital during the military enquiry into the Bloody Sunday shootings at Croke Park
The Boundary Commission's proposed changes to the border
Mourne country cottage
Aftermath of the burning of Cork by British forces
A republican anti-partition march in London, 1980s
The track of the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee (CDRJC) restored next to Lough Finn, near Fintown station.
A crowd gathers at the Mansion House in Dublin in the days before the truce
The approach of autumn, Tardree forest
Members of the Irish negotiation committee returning to Ireland in December 1921
The funeral of Michael Collins
St. Mary's Pro-Cathedral, Dublin, August 1922
Catholic-owned businesses destroyed by loyalists in Lisburn, August 1920.
Unionist leader James Craig.
The Lord Lieutenant inspecting troops outside Belfast City Hall on the day Northern Ireland's parliament first met.
A mural in Belfast depicting revenge killings by police in Belfast.
Irish republican internees at Ballykinlar Internment Camp 1920
The symbol of the Republic:
The Irish tricolour which dated back to the Young Ireland rebellion of 1848.
A symbol of British rule:
The standard of the Lord Lieutenant, using the union flag created under the Act of Union 1800.
Monument to IRA fighters in Phibsborough, Dublin
Soldiers of a British cavalry regiment leaving Dublin in 1922
Constance Markievicz was a member of the Irish Citizen Army and fought in the Easter Rising. In 1919 she was appointed Minister for Labour in the Government of the Irish Republic
Conflict deaths in Belfast 1920–1922.
50–100 deaths per km2
100–150 deaths per km2
over 150 deaths per km2

The Ulster Volunteers was a unionist, loyalist militia founded in 1912 to block domestic self-government ("Home Rule") for Ireland, which was then part of the United Kingdom.

- Ulster Volunteers

The Ulster Volunteers were based in the northern province of Ulster.

- Ulster Volunteers

The territory that became Northern Ireland, within the Irish province of Ulster, had a Protestant and Unionist majority who wanted to maintain ties to Britain.

- Partition of Ireland

After the war, the British Government decided to partition Ireland into two self-governing regions: Northern Ireland (which overall had a Protestant/unionist majority) and Southern Ireland.

- Ulster Volunteers

Although Ireland had a Catholic majority who wanted self-government, the province of Ulster had a Protestant and unionist majority, largely due to the Plantation of Ulster.

- Ulster loyalism

However, by 1920 the Irish War of Independence was raging and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) was launching attacks on British forces in Ireland.

- Ulster Volunteers

During the Home Rule Crisis (1912–14), loyalists founded the paramilitary Ulster Volunteers to prevent Ulster becoming part of a self-governing Ireland.

- Ulster loyalism

This led to the Home Rule Crisis (1912–14), when Ulster unionists/loyalists founded a paramilitary movement, the Ulster Volunteers, to prevent Ulster being ruled by an Irish government.

- Partition of Ireland

This was followed by the Irish War of Independence (1919–21) and partition of Ireland: most of Ireland became an independent state, while most of Ulster remained within the United Kingdom as the self-governing territory of Northern Ireland.

- Ulster loyalism

This led to the Irish War of Independence (1919–21), a guerrilla conflict between the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and British forces.

- Partition of Ireland

The conflict in north-east Ulster had a sectarian aspect (see Belfast Pogrom of 1920 and Bloody Sunday (1921)).

- Irish War of Independence

While the Catholic minority there mostly backed Irish independence, the Protestant majority were mostly unionist/loyalist.

- Irish War of Independence

This, and the subsequent Irish War of Independence, led to the partition of Ireland.

- Ulster

In May 1921, Ireland was partitioned under British law by the Government of Ireland Act, which created Northern Ireland.

- Irish War of Independence

The demand for Home Rule was eventually granted by the British Government in 1912, immediately prompting a prolonged crisis within the United Kingdom as Ulster unionists formed an armed organisation – the Ulster Volunteers (UVF) – to resist this measure of devolution, at least in territory they could control.

- Irish War of Independence

The war provided Protestant loyalists with the iconic victories of the Siege of Derry, the Battle of the Boyne (1 July 1690) and the Battle of Aughrim (12 July 1691), all of which the Orange Order commemorate each year.

- Ulster

This movement also set up the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF).

- Ulster
Seán Hogan's flying column of the IRA's 3rd Tipperary Brigade during the war

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The traditional counties of Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland

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Part of the United Kingdom that is variously described as a country, province, territory or region.

Part of the United Kingdom that is variously described as a country, province, territory or region.

The traditional counties of Northern Ireland
Cannon on the Derry city walls
Scrabo Tower, County Down
Signing of the Ulster Covenant in 1912 in opposition to Home Rule
Result of the 1918 general election in Ireland
Crowds in Belfast for the state opening of the Northern Ireland Parliament on 22 June 1921
The Coat of arms of Northern Ireland used between 1924 and 1973
James Craig (centre) with members of the first government of Northern Ireland
Opening of the Northern Ireland parliament buildings (Stormont) in 1932
Responsibility for Troubles-related deaths between 1969 and 2001
First Minister Ian Paisley (DUP) centre, and deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness (Sinn Féin) left, and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond right in 2008
A flowchart illustrating all the political parties that have existed throughout the history of Northern Ireland and leading up to its formation (covering 1889 to 2020).
Parliament Buildings at Stormont, Belfast, seat of the assembly
Unionist mural in Belfast
ESA Sentinel-2 image of Northern Ireland
Köppen climate types of Northern Ireland
Lough Neagh
Hare's Gap, Mourne Mountains
The Giant's Causeway, County Antrim
Marble Arch Caves
Goliath crane of Harland & Wolff in Belfast
An NIR C3K railcar
2011 census: differences in proportions of those who are, or were brought up, either Catholic or Protestant/Other Christians
Map of predominant national identity in the 2011 census
Map of most commonly held passport
Approximate boundaries of the current and historical English/Scots dialects in Ulster. South to north, the colour bands represent Hiberno-English, South-Ulster English, Mid-Ulster English and the three traditional Ulster Scots areas. The Irish-speaking Gaeltacht is not shown.
Percentage of people aged 3+ claiming to have some ability in Irish in the 2011 census
Percentage of people aged 3+ claiming to have some ability in Ulster Scots in the 2011 census
An Orange march
The logo for the Northern Ireland assembly is based on the flower of the flax plant.
People carrying the Irish flag, overlooking those with the unionist Ulster Banner
George Best, Northern Irish international footballer and 1968 Ballon d'Or
Peter Canavan, Tyrone captain 2003
Prominent Northern Irish golfer Rory McIlroy
Queen's University Belfast
Broadcasting House, Belfast, home of BBC Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, creating a devolved government for the six northeastern counties.

Today, the former generally see themselves as British and the latter generally see themselves as Irish, while a Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed by a large minority from all backgrounds.

The creation of Northern Ireland was accompanied by violence both in defence of and against partition.

In the late 1960s, a campaign to end discrimination against Catholics and nationalists was opposed by loyalists, who saw it as a republican front.

In 1914, unionists smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers (UVF), a paramilitary organisation formed to oppose Home Rule.

Edward Carson signing the Ulster Covenant, 1912.

Home Rule Crisis

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Political and military crisis in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that followed the introduction of the Third Home Rule Bill in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in 1912.

Political and military crisis in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that followed the introduction of the Third Home Rule Bill in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom in 1912.

Edward Carson signing the Ulster Covenant, 1912.
Unionist march in Belfast, 9 April 1912

Unionists in Ulster, determined to prevent any measure of home rule for Ireland, formed a paramilitary force, the Ulster Volunteers, which threatened to resist by force of arms the implementation of the Act and the authority of any Dublin Parliament.

HM Government's ability to face down unionist defiance was thrown into question by the "Curragh incident", when dozens of British Army officers tendered their resignations rather than secure arms against Ulster loyalist seizure, forcing a climb-down by the government.

Unionists continued to demand that Ulster be excluded, the solution of partition appealing to Craig; Carson, however, as a Dublin man, did not want partition, which would leave 250,000 Southern Unionists at the mercy of a huge nationalist majority.

The Anglo-Irish Treaty, which ended the Irish War of Independence, led to the creation of the self-governing Irish Free State in 1922.

Election campaigning on a busy Irish street, 1918

1918 Irish general election

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The part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election which took place in Ireland.

The part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election which took place in Ireland.

Election campaigning on a busy Irish street, 1918
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Constance Markievicz was the first woman ever to be elected to the British House of Commons. She did not take her seat, instead joining the First Dáil. In 1919 she was appointed Minister for Labour, the first female minister in a democratic government cabinet.

In Ulster, however, the Unionist Party was the most successful party.

The Irish War of Independence was conducted under this revolutionary government which sought international recognition, and set about the process of state-building.

This was due to the failure to have the Home Rule Bill implemented when the IPP resisted the partition of Ireland demanded by Ulster Unionists in 1914, 1916 and 1917, but also popular antagonism towards the British authorities created by the execution of most of the leaders of the 1916 rebels and by their botched attempt to introduce Home Rule on the conclusion of the Irish Convention linked with military conscription in Ireland (see Conscription Crisis of 1918).

Whereas the IPP had conceded a temporary form of partition in 1914, as a measure to pacify Ulster loyalists, Sinn Féin felt that that would worsen and prolong any differences between north and south.

Unionist fear of Home Rule, or worse, separation, solidified after the Rising, and the Unionist vote was enhanced in Ulster by the increased electorate. It was the first election since the Ulster Covenant, the formation of the Ulster Volunteers (UVF), and the Battle of the Somme.