Iron ore

ironiron mineiron-oreiron miningoreiron minesiron oresfinesIron ore pelletsironstone
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.wikipedia
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Iron

FeFe 2+ Fe(III)
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
Iron ores, by contrast, are among the most abundant in the Earth's crust, although extracting usable metal from them requires kilns or furnaces capable of reaching 1500 °C or higher, about 500 °C higher than what is enough to smelt copper.

Magnetite

titanomagnetitebiomagnetiteFe 3 O 4
The iron is usually found in the form of magnetite (, 72.4% Fe), hematite (, 69.9% Fe), goethite (, 62.9% Fe), limonite (, 55% Fe) or siderite (, 48.2% Fe). Increasing iron ore demand, coupled with the depletion of high-grade hematite ores in the United States, after World War II led to development of lower-grade iron ore sources, principally the utilization of magnetite and taconite.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe 3 O 4.

Limonite

limoniticbrown haematiteBrown hematite
The iron is usually found in the form of magnetite (, 72.4% Fe), hematite (, 69.9% Fe), goethite (, 62.9% Fe), limonite (, 55% Fe) or siderite (, 48.2% Fe).
Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-hydroxides in varying composition.

Hematite

haematitehematitichaematite iron ore
The iron is usually found in the form of magnetite (, 72.4% Fe), hematite (, 69.9% Fe), goethite (, 62.9% Fe), limonite (, 55% Fe) or siderite (, 48.2% Fe). The thermodynamic barriers to separating pure iron from these minerals are formidable and energy-intensive, therefore all sources of iron used by human industry exploit comparatively rarer iron oxide minerals, primarily hematite. Direct-shipping iron-ore (DSO) deposits (typically composed of hematite) are currently exploited on all continents except Antarctica, with the largest intensity in South America, Australia and Asia.
It is mined as the main ore of iron.

Pig iron

pig-ironiron pigspig
Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel.
Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry, also known as crude iron, which is obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.

Iron oxide

iron oxidesiron hydroxideferruginous
The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red.
They are used as iron ores, pigments, catalysts, and in thermite, and occur in hemoglobin.

Blast furnace

blast furnacesiron furnacefurnace
Ores containing very high quantities of hematite or magnetite (greater than about 60% iron) are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces.
However, the term has usually been limited to those used for smelting iron ore to produce pig iron, an intermediate material used in the production of commercial iron and steel, and the shaft furnaces used in combination with sinter plants in base metals smelting.

Steel

steel industrysteelworkersteels
Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel.
Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon which is then lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

Carbonate

carbonatescarbonaceousCO 3
Although iron is the fourth-most abundant element in the Earth's crust, composing about 5%, the vast majority is bound in silicate or more rarely carbonate minerals (for more information, see iron cycle).
The most common are calcite or calcium carbonate, CaCO 3, the chief constituent of limestone (as well as the main component of mollusc shells and coral skeletons); dolomite, a calcium-magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 ; and siderite, or iron(II) carbonate, FeCO 3, an important iron ore.

Ore

oresore depositmineral deposit
The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red.

Taconite

Precambrian sedimentarytaconite extraction
Increasing iron ore demand, coupled with the depletion of high-grade hematite ores in the United States, after World War II led to development of lower-grade iron ore sources, principally the utilization of magnetite and taconite.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the United States was mining such an abundance of iron ore of high quality that taconite was considered an uneconomic waste product.

Oxide

oxidesmetal oxideO
The thermodynamic barriers to separating pure iron from these minerals are formidable and energy-intensive, therefore all sources of iron used by human industry exploit comparatively rarer iron oxide minerals, primarily hematite.

South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
Direct-shipping iron-ore (DSO) deposits (typically composed of hematite) are currently exploited on all continents except Antarctica, with the largest intensity in South America, Australia and Asia.
South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum.

Direct reduced iron

sponge irondirect reductionDRI
Direct reduction is used to produce sponge iron (Fe) to be used for steel making.
Direct reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets, or fines) to iron by a reducing gas or elemental carbon produced from natural gas or coal.

Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
Metallic iron is virtually unknown on the surface of the Earth except as iron-nickel alloys from meteorites and very rare forms of deep mantle xenoliths.
Iron is usually found as iron ore on Earth, except for one deposit of native iron in Greenland, which was used by the Inuit people.

Minnesota

MNState of MinnesotaMinnesota, USA
Currently magnetite iron ore is mined in Minnesota and Michigan in the U.S., Eastern Canada and Northern Sweden.
Minnesota was famous for its soft-ore mines, which produced a significant portion of the world's iron ore for over a century.

Vale (company)

ValeCompanhia Vale do Rio DoceVale S.A.
The world's largest producer of iron ore is the Brazilian mining corporation Vale, followed by Anglo-Australian companies Rio Tinto Group and then BHP Billiton.
Vale, formerly Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (the Sweet River Valley Company, referring to the Doce River), is the largest producer of iron ore and nickel in the world.

Vanadium

Vvanadium steelV 3 Si
Another, minor, source of iron ores are magmatic accumulations in layered intrusions which contain a typically titanium-bearing magnetite often with vanadium.
In 1831, Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores.

Fortescue Metals Group

Fortescue MetalsFortescueFortescue Railway
A further Australian supplier, Fortescue Metals Group Ltd, has helped bring Australia's production to first in the world.
Fortescue Metals Group Ltd (Often referred to as FMG) is an Australian iron ore company.

Goethite

The iron is usually found in the form of magnetite (, 72.4% Fe), hematite (, 69.9% Fe), goethite (, 62.9% Fe), limonite (, 55% Fe) or siderite (, 48.2% Fe).
Its main modern use is as an iron ore, being referred to as brown iron ore.

Western Australia

WAWestern AustralianWest Australia
In Australia iron ore is won from three main sources: pisolite "channel iron deposit" ore derived by mechanical erosion of primary banded-iron formations and accumulated in alluvial channels such as at Pannawonica, Western Australia; and the dominant metasomatically-altered banded iron formation-related ores such as at Newman, the Chichester Range, the Hamersley Range and Koolyanobbing, Western Australia.
Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world.

Brazil

BRABrasilBrazilian
Magnetite-bearing banded iron formation is currently mined extensively in Brazil, which exports significant quantities to Asia, and there is a nascent and large magnetite iron-ore industry in Australia.
Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.

Koolyanobbing, Western Australia

KoolyanobbingKoolyanobbing mine
In Australia iron ore is won from three main sources: pisolite "channel iron deposit" ore derived by mechanical erosion of primary banded-iron formations and accumulated in alluvial channels such as at Pannawonica, Western Australia; and the dominant metasomatically-altered banded iron formation-related ores such as at Newman, the Chichester Range, the Hamersley Range and Koolyanobbing, Western Australia.
Iron ore is mined here by a subsidiary of Cliffs Natural Resources of Cleveland, Ohio.

Savage River, Tasmania

Savage River
Other sources of magnetite iron ore include metamorphic accumulations of massive magnetite ore such as at Savage River, Tasmania, formed by shearing of ophiolite ultramafics.
The Savage River Mine is an open-cut iron ore mine operated by Grange Resources.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
Currently magnetite iron ore is mined in Minnesota and Michigan in the U.S., Eastern Canada and Northern Sweden.
Canada's Department of Natural Resources provides statistics regarding its major exports; the country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, platinoids, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal, lead, copper, molybdenum, cobalt, and cadmium.