Irrealis mood

irrealispotential moodpotentialjussiveprecativepotentialityPresumptiveirrealis moodspotential indicativeprecative mood
In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated ) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking.wikipedia
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Subjunctive mood

subjunctivePresent subjunctiveconjunctive
In English, too, the would + infinitive construct can be employed in main clauses, with a subjunctive sense: "If you would only tell me what is troubling you, I might be able to help".
The subjunctive is an irrealis mood (one that does not refer directly to what is necessarily real) – it is often contrasted with the indicative, which is a realis mood (used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact).

Realis mood

indicativeindicative moodrealis
This contrasts with the realis moods.
By contrast, an irrealis mood is used to express something that is not known to be the case in reality.

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmode
In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated ) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking.
Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential.

List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviations
In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated ) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking.

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
It is one of the irrealis moods.

Optative mood

optativeOPTopt.
In Ancient Greek, the optative is used to express wishes and potentiality in independent clauses.

Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
However, this is not a universal trait: among others in German (as above) and in Finnish the conditional mood is used in both the apodosis and the protasis. Few languages have an optative as a distinct mood; some that do are Albanian, Ancient Greek, Sanskrit, Finnish, Avestan (it was also present in Proto-Indo-European, the ancestor of the aforementioned languages except for Finnish).
"probably will fix" (absence of the potential mood)

Arabic

Arabic-languageArabArabic language
It is found in Arabic, where it is called the مجزوم (majzūm), and also in Hebrew and in the constructed language Esperanto.
They are conjugated in two major paradigms (past and non-past); two voices (active and passive); and six moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, jussive, shorter energetic and longer energetic), the fifth and sixth moods, the energetics, exist only in Classical Arabic but not in MSA.

Lakota language

LakotaLakhotaStandard Lakota Orthography
In addition, waŋží is an indefinite article used with hypothetical or irrealis objects, and k’uŋ is a definite article used with nouns that have been mentioned previously.

Bulgarian language

BulgarianBulgarian:Bulgarian Cyrillic
When referring to Bulgarian and other Balkan languages, it is often called renarrative mood; when referring to Estonian, it is called oblique mood. The inferential is usually impossible to distinguish when translated into English.
The past tense of this verb – щях is conjugated to form the past conditional ('would have' – again, with да, since it is irrealis):

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languagero
The presumptive mood is used in Romanian to express presupposition or hypothesis, regardless of the fact denoted by the verb, as well as other more or less similar attitudes: doubt, curiosity, concern, condition, indifference, inevitability.
Verbs can be put in five moods that are inflected for the person (indicative, conditional/optative, imperative, subjunctive, and presumptive) and four impersonal moods (infinitive, gerund, supine, and participle).

Necessitative mood

necessitative
The necessitative mood (abbreviated ) is a grammatical mood found in Turkish and Armenian, which combines elements of both the cohortative (which is typically used in only the first person) and the jussive moods (which is typically only used in the first and third persons ).

Sonority hierarchy

sonoritysonoroussonorities
This simplification occurs progressively (*rne → rre) with the resonant consonants l, r, and s, and regressively with stops (*tne → nne) and is meant to prevent the violation of phonotactical rules concerning sonority hierarchy.
Some languages also have assimilation rules based on sonority hierarchy, for example, the Finnish potential mood, in which a less sonorous segment changes to copy a more sonorous adjacent segment (e.g. -tne- → -nne-).

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In linguistics, irrealis moods (abbreviated ) are the main set of grammatical moods that indicate that a certain situation or action is not known to have happened as the speaker is talking.

Algonquian languages

AlgonquianAlgonquian languageAlgonquin
Some languages incorporate several different forms of the irrealis moods, especially among Algonquian languages such as Blackfoot.

Blackfoot Confederacy

BlackfeetBlackfootBlackfeet Indians
Some languages incorporate several different forms of the irrealis moods, especially among Algonquian languages such as Blackfoot.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomance philologist
The subjunctive mood figures prominently in the grammar of the Romance languages, which require this mood for certain types of dependent clauses.

Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-EuropeanIndo-EuropeanPIE
Few languages have an optative as a distinct mood; some that do are Albanian, Ancient Greek, Sanskrit, Finnish, Avestan (it was also present in Proto-Indo-European, the ancestor of the aforementioned languages except for Finnish).

Conditional mood

conditionalconditional tenseconditionals
The optative may further be used instead of a conditional mood.