Irrigation

irrigatedirrigateirrigation systemirrigatingirrigation systemsirrigated agricultureirrigated landirrigation ditchesirrigation canalirrigation scheme
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.wikipedia
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Rain

rainfallrainstormtorrential rain
Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation in areas lacking sufficient natural rainfall to support crops for rainfed agriculture.
It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianEgyptians
Ancient Egyptians practiced basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots which had been surrounded by dykes.
The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture.

Canal

canalsnavigationsartificial waterway
The Indus Valley Civilization developed sophisticated irrigation and water-storage systems, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, and an early canal irrigation system from c. In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists have found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon-dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE.
Aqueducts: water supply canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals and agriculture irrigation.

Agriculture

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Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall.
Irrigation, crop rotation, and fertilizers were greatly developed in the past 200 years, starting with the British Agricultural Revolution, allowing global population to rise significantly.

Qanat

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The Qanats, developed in ancient Persia about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today.
A qanāt or kārīz is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking.

Noria

pumping stationWater wheel on the Euphrates river
The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream (or by animals where the water source was still), first came into use at about this time among Roman settlers in North Africa.
A noria (ناعورة, nā‘ūra, from, nā‘urā) is a machine activated by water power and used for lifting water into a small aqueduct, either for the purpose of irrigation or for the use in towns and villages.

Peru

🇵🇪PerúPeruvian
In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists have found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon-dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE.
Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important.

Dujiangyan

Irrigation Systemcity's ancient irrigation systemDu Jiang Yan
In the Sichuan region belonging to the state of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System devised by the Qin Chinese hydrologist and irrigation engineer Li Bing was built in 256 BCE to irrigate a vast area of farmland that today still supplies water.
The Dujiangyan is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China.

6th millennium BC

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Ancient Persia (modern day Iran) used irrigation as far back as the 6th millennium BCE to grow barley in areas with insufficient natural rainfall.
c. 5400 BC: Irrigation and the beginning of the Sumerian civilization in Southern Iraq.

Rainfed agriculture

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Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation in areas lacking sufficient natural rainfall to support crops for rainfed agriculture.
The authors considered that managing rainwater and soil moisture more effectively, and using supplemental and small-scale irrigation, held the key to helping the greatest number of poor people.

Li Bing

In the Sichuan region belonging to the state of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System devised by the Qin Chinese hydrologist and irrigation engineer Li Bing was built in 256 BCE to irrigate a vast area of farmland that today still supplies water.
Because of the importance of this 2000-year-old irrigation system to the development of Sichuan and the Yangtze River region, Li Bing became a great Chinese cultural icon, hailed as a great civil administrator and water conservation expert.

Drainage

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Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.
Drier areas are often farmed by irrigation, and one would not consider drainage necessary.

Hydraulics

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The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects.
Early uses of water power date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, where irrigation has been used since the 6th millennium BC and water clocks had been used since the early 2nd millennium BC. Other early examples of water power include the Qanat system in ancient Persia and the Turpan water system in ancient Central Asia.

Jang Yeong-sil

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Korea, Jang Yeong-sil, a Korean engineer of the Joseon Dynasty, under the active direction of the king, Sejong the Great, invented the world's first rain-gauge, uryanggye (Korean:우량계) in 1441.
Jang's inventions, such as the Cheugugi (the rain gauge) and the water gauge, highlight the technological advancements of the Joseon dynasty.

Sakia

saqiyamechanical water lifting devicePersian wheel
The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia.
That device was either used like a sakia, to lift water from a well while being powered by oxen or people, or it was used to irrigate fields when it was powered in the manner of a water-wheel by being placed in a stream or large irrigation channel.

Irrigation district

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The irrigated area is surrounded by a berm and the water is delivered according to a schedule set by a local irrigation district.
It is a special-purpose district created by statute in order to develop large irrigation projects.

Ox

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These were powered by manual foot-pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotating mechanical wheels pulled by oxen.
Oxen are used for plowing, for transport (riding, pulling carts and hauling wagons), for threshing grain by trampling, and for powering machines that grind grain or supply irrigation among other purposes.

Sub-Saharan Africa

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In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet-season flooding and water harvesting.
In irrigation, SSA states represent almost all spending; in transport and energy a majority of investment is state spending; in ICT and water supply and sanitation, the private sector represents the majority of capital expenditure.

Water efficiency

water leakage and water wastage
The field water efficiency of drip irrigation is typically in the range of 80 to 90 percent when managed correctly.
Solutions for water efficiency focus not only on reducing the amount of potable water used, but also on reducing the use of non-potable water where appropriate (i.e. flushing toilet, watering landscape, etc.).

Valve

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High-tech solutions involve precisely calibrated emitters located along lines of tubing that extend from a computerized set of valves.
Valves have many uses, including controlling water for irrigation, industrial uses for controlling processes, residential uses such as on/off and pressure control to dish and clothes washers and taps in the home.

Sunshu Ao

The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects.
Sunshu Ao was entrusted with many endeavors of the state, and because of a large dam, reservoir, and irrigation project he had established, he is also credited as the first known hydraulic engineer of China.

Ximen Bao

The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects.
Although the earlier statesman Sunshu Ao is credited as China's first hydraulic engineer (damming a river to create a large irrigation reservoir), Ximen Bao is nonetheless credited as the first engineer in China to create a large canal irrigation system.

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamianancient MesopotamiaIraq
Farmers in the Mesopotamian plain used irrigation from at least the third millennium BCE.
This is why the development of irrigation was very important for settlers of Mesopotamia.

Controller (irrigation)

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Although manual systems are still used, most lawn sprinkler systems may be operated automatically using an irrigation controller, sometimes called a clock or timer.
An irrigation controller is a device to operate automatic irrigation systems such as lawn sprinklers and drip irrigation systems.

Subirrigation

passive subirrigationsubirrigatedsubsurface irrigation
Subirrigation has been used for many years in field crops in areas with high water tables.
Subirrigation also known as seepage irrigation, is a method of irrigation where water is delivered to the plant root zone The excess may be collected for reuse.