Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSSplenic flexure syndromeSplenic-flexure syndromeirritable bowel diseasebowelIBDirritable bowelIrritable bowl syndrome (IBS)Rome II Conferencespastic colon
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.wikipedia
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Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Common causes of pain in the abdomen include gastroenteritis and irritable bowel syndrome.

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively).
Common causes include slow movement of stool within the colon, irritable bowel syndrome, and pelvic floor disorders.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively).
These include lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis, hyperthyroidism, bile acid diarrhea, and a number of medications.

Fibromyalgia

fibrositisFibromyalgia syndromemuscular rheumatism
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety.
Some people also report restless legs syndrome, bowel or bladder problems, numbness and tingling and sensitivity to noise, lights or temperature.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

myalgic encephalomyelitisMEME/CFS
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Disorders such as anxiety, major depression, and chronic fatigue syndrome are common among people with IBS.
Tentative evidence suggests a relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and diseases such as CFS, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis.

FODMAP

Low-FODMAP dietdiet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyolsFODMAP diet
Dietary measures include increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs).
They are not the cause of these disorders, but a low-FODMAP diet, restricting FODMAPs, might help to improve short-term digestive symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID).

Inflammatory bowel disease

inflammatory bowel diseasesIBDindeterminate colitis
Worrisome features include onset at greater than 50 years of age, weight loss, blood in the stool, or a family history of inflammatory bowel disease.
Conditions with similar symptoms as Crohn's disease includes intestinal tuberculosis, Behçet's disease, ulcerative colitis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy, irritable bowel syndrome and coeliac disease.

Abdominal distension

abdominal distentiondistensiondistended
There may also be urgency for bowel movements, a feeling of incomplete evacuation (tenesmus), bloating, or abdominal distension.
Other causes of bloating include inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, functional dyspepsia or transient constipation.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety.
Stress hormones released in an anxious state have an impact on bowel function and can manifest physical symptoms that may contribute to or exacerbate IBS.

Headache

headacheschronic headacheheadach
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety.
Gastrointestinal disorders may cause headaches, including Helicobacter pylori infection, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastroparesis, and hepatobiliary disorders.

Food intolerance

intoleranceFood intolerancesfood sensitivity
Theories include combinations of gut–brain axis problems, gut motility disorders, pain sensitivity, infections including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, neurotransmitters, genetic factors, and food sensitivity.
GIT symptoms include mouth ulcers, abdominal cramp, nausea, gas, intermittent diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS),

Blastocystosis

Protozoal infections can cause symptoms that mirror specific IBS subtypes, e.g., infection by certain substypes of blastocystis hominis (blastocystosis).
Blastocystis colonisation is positively associated with IBS and is a possible risk factor for developing IBS.

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroides
Generally Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria are increased and Actinobacteria, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus are decreased.
Reduced abundance of the Bacteroidetes in some cases is associated with obesity and irritable bowel syndrome.

Functional gastrointestinal disorder

functional gastrointestinal disordersFunctional bowel disorderFunctional colonic disease
IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

Lactobacillus

lactobacilliDöderlein vaginal bacilluslactic acid bacteria
Generally Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria are increased and Actinobacteria, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus are decreased.
Lactobacillus species administered in combination with other probiotics benefits cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although the extent of efficacy is still uncertain.

Bifidobacterium

bifidobacteriaBifidobacterium sppBifidus
Generally Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria are increased and Actinobacteria, Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus are decreased.
Bifidobacteria may also improve abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) though studies to date have been inconclusive.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
Some people, managed for years for IBS, may have non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS).
Many people have not been diagnosed following strict criteria and there is a "fad component" to the recent rise in popularity of the gluten-free diet, which leads to debate surrounding the evidence for this condition, its relationship to celiac disease and to irritable bowel syndrome.

Rectal tenesmus

tenesmusA constant feeling of having to go to the toileta feeling of incomplete emptying
There may also be urgency for bowel movements, a feeling of incomplete evacuation (tenesmus), bloating, or abdominal distension.

Tropical sprue

spruesprue, tropical
A link between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and tropical sprue has been proposed to be involved in the cause of post-infectious IBS.
A link between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and tropical sprue has been proposed to be involved in the aetiology of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Intestinal permeability

bacterial translocationgut permeabilityIncreased intestinal permeability
Evidence has demonstrated that the release of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines during acute enteric infection causes increased gut permeability leading to translocation of the commensal bacteria across the epithelial barrier; this in turn can result in significant damage to local tissues, which can develop into chronic gut abnormalities in sensitive individuals.
Increased intestinal permeability is a factor in several diseases, such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, schizophrenia, certain types of cancer, obesity, fatty liver, atopy and allergic diseases, among others.

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Dietary measures include increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs).
Most of these people have a long history of health complaints and unsuccessful consultations with numerous physicians, trying to get a diagnosis of celiac disease, but they are only labeled as irritable bowel syndrome.

Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free diet
An improvement with a gluten-free diet of immune-mediated symptoms, including autoimmune diseases, once having reasonably ruled out coeliac disease and wheat allergy, is another way to realize a differential diagnosis.
In addition, a gluten-free diet may, in at least some cases, improve gastrointestinal or systemic symptoms in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis or HIV enteropathy, among others.

Blastocystis

Blastocystis hominisblastocystis infectionsBlastocystae
Protozoal infections can cause symptoms that mirror specific IBS subtypes, e.g., infection by certain substypes of blastocystis hominis (blastocystosis).
Most cases of the infection appear to become diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome, according to studies from Denmark, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, and Italy.

Coeliac disease

celiac diseaseceliac spruecoeliac
An improvement with a gluten-free diet of immune-mediated symptoms, including autoimmune diseases, once having reasonably ruled out coeliac disease and wheat allergy, is another way to realize a differential diagnosis. Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, and colon cancer.
Frequently, the symptoms are ascribed to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), only later to be recognised as coeliac disease.

Probiotic

probioticsVSL#3beneficial
This may include dietary changes, medication, probiotics, and counseling.
Probiotics are under study for their potential to affect irritable bowel syndrome, although uncertainty remains around which type of probiotic works best, and around the size of possible effect.