Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSbowelirritable bowelirritable bowel diseaseIrritable bowl syndrome (IBS)spastic colon
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.wikipedia
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Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachstomachache
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Common causes of pain in the abdomen include gastroenteritis and irritable bowel syndrome.

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively).
Common causes include slow movement of stool within the colon, irritable bowel syndrome, and pelvic floor disorders.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively).
These include lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hyperthyroidism, bile acid diarrhea, and a number of medications.

Fibromyalgia

fibrositismuscular rheumatismfibromyalgia syndrome
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS are clinically indistinguishable from those of NCGS, but the presence of any of the following non-intestinal manifestations suggest a possible NCGS: headache or migraine, "foggy mind", chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders, allergy to one or more inhalants, foods or metals (such as mites, graminaceae, parietaria, cat or dog hair, shellfish, or nickel ), depression, anxiety, anemia, iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, asthma, rhinitis, eating disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ) or autoimmune diseases.
Some people also report restless legs syndrome, bowel or bladder problems, numbness and tingling and sensitivity to noise, lights or temperature.

Blastocystosis

Protozoal infections can cause symptoms that mirror specific IBS subtypes, e.g., infection by certain substypes of blastocystis hominis (blastocystosis).
Blastocystis colonisation is positively associated with IBS and is a possible risk factor for developing IBS.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS are clinically indistinguishable from those of NCGS, but the presence of any of the following non-intestinal manifestations suggest a possible NCGS: headache or migraine, "foggy mind", chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders, allergy to one or more inhalants, foods or metals (such as mites, graminaceae, parietaria, cat or dog hair, shellfish, or nickel ), depression, anxiety, anemia, iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, asthma, rhinitis, eating disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ) or autoimmune diseases.
Stress hormones released in an anxious state have an impact on bowel function and can manifest physical symptoms that may contribute to or exacerbate IBS.

FODMAP

Low-FODMAP dietdiet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyolslow-FODMAP diets
Dietary measures include increasing soluble fiber intake, a gluten-free diet, or a short-term diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs).
FODMAPs are not the cause of these disorders, but FODMAPs restriction (a low-FODMAP diet) might help to improve short-term digestive symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID).

Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac
Other conditions that may present similarly include celiac disease, microscopic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, bile acid malabsorption, and colon cancer. An improvement with a gluten-free diet of immune-mediated symptoms, including autoimmune diseases, once having reasonably ruled out coeliac disease and wheat allergy, is another way to realize a differential diagnosis. These include gastrointestinal infections, lactose intolerance, and coeliac disease.
Frequently, the symptoms are ascribed to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), only later to be recognised as coeliac disease; a small proportion of people with symptoms of IBS have underlying coeliac disease, and screening for coeliac disease is recommended for those with IBS symptoms.

Chronic fatigue syndrome

myalgic encephalomyelitisMEchronic fatigue
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Disorders such as anxiety, major depression, and chronic fatigue syndrome are common among people with IBS.
Tentative evidence suggests a relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and diseases such as CFS, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis.

Abdominal distension

abdominal distentiondistensiondistended
There may also be urgency for bowel movements, a feeling of incomplete evacuation (tenesmus), bloating, or abdominal distension.
Other causes of bloating include inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, functional dyspepsia or transient constipation.

Headache

headacheschronic headacheheadach
People with IBS, more commonly than others, have gastroesophageal reflux, symptoms relating to the genitourinary system, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, and psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS are clinically indistinguishable from those of NCGS, but the presence of any of the following non-intestinal manifestations suggest a possible NCGS: headache or migraine, "foggy mind", chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders, allergy to one or more inhalants, foods or metals (such as mites, graminaceae, parietaria, cat or dog hair, shellfish, or nickel ), depression, anxiety, anemia, iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, asthma, rhinitis, eating disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ) or autoimmune diseases.
Gastrointestinal disorders may cause headaches, including Helicobacter pylori infection, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastroparesis, and hepatobiliary disorders.

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
Some people, managed for years for IBS, may have non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS).
Many people have not been diagnosed following strict criteria and there is a "fad component" to the recent rise in popularity of the gluten-free diet, which leads to debate surrounding the evidence for this condition, its relationship to celiac disease and to irritable bowel syndrome.

Inflammatory bowel disease

inflammatory bowel diseasesIBDindeterminate colitis
Worrisome features include onset at greater than 50 years of age, weight loss, blood in the stool, or a family history of inflammatory bowel disease.
Conditions with similar symptoms as Crohn's disease includes intestinal tuberculosis, Behçet's disease, ulcerative colitis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy, irritable bowel syndrome and coeliac disease.

Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free diet
An improvement with a gluten-free diet of immune-mediated symptoms, including autoimmune diseases, once having reasonably ruled out coeliac disease and wheat allergy, is another way to realize a differential diagnosis.
In addition, a gluten-free diet may, in at least some cases, improve gastrointestinal or systemic symptoms in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis or HIV enteropathy, among others.

Interstitial cystitis

neuromyopathypelvic floor therapybladder pain syndrome
Other chronic disorders: Interstitial cystitis may be associated with other chronic pain syndromes, such as irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. The connection between these syndromes is unknown.
Many of those affected also have irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia.

Fructose malabsorption

fructose intolerancefructoseDietary fructose intolerance
Reduction of fructose and fructan has been shown to reduce IBS symptoms in a dose-dependent manner in people with fructose malabsorption and IBS.
Occurrence in patients identified to be suffering symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome is not higher than occurrence in the normal population.

Schizophrenia

schizophrenicschizophrenicspositive symptoms
Gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS are clinically indistinguishable from those of NCGS, but the presence of any of the following non-intestinal manifestations suggest a possible NCGS: headache or migraine, "foggy mind", chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders, allergy to one or more inhalants, foods or metals (such as mites, graminaceae, parietaria, cat or dog hair, shellfish, or nickel ), depression, anxiety, anemia, iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, asthma, rhinitis, eating disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ) or autoimmune diseases.
People with schizophrenia may have a high rate of irritable bowel syndrome, but they often do not mention it unless specifically asked.

Endometriosis

Endomentriosendometriosis,endometriotic cell
Endometriosis: One study reported a statistically significant link between migraine headaches, IBS, and endometriosis.
Other causes of similar symptoms include pelvic inflammatory disease, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and fibromyalgia.

Lactose intolerance

lactose intolerantlactose-intolerantlactase deficiency
These include gastrointestinal infections, lactose intolerance, and coeliac disease.
Other conditions that may produce similar symptoms include irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Flatulence

fartflatusflatulent
The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence.
In the past, functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome that produced symptoms of bloating were attributed to increased production of intestinal gas.

Food intolerance

intolerancefood sensitivityFood Intolerances
Theories include combinations of gut–brain axis problems, gut motility disorders, pain sensitivity, infections including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, neurotransmitters, genetic factors, and food sensitivity.
GIT symptoms include mouth ulcers, abdominal cramp, nausea, gas, intermittent diarrhea, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS),

Opioid

opioidsopioid analgesicendogenous opioids
Medications may consist of stool softeners and laxatives in IBS-C and antidiarrheals (e.g., opiate, opioid, or opioid analogs such as loperamide, codeine, diphenoxylate) if diarrhea is predominant.
In cases of diarrhea-predominate irritable bowel syndrome, opioids may be used to suppress diarrhea.

Functional gastrointestinal disorder

functional gastrointestinal disordersFunctional bowel disorderFunctional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders
IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.
C1. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Visceral pain

visceral hypersensitivityvisceral disorder
A 2015 review noted that both H1-antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers have shown efficacy in reducing pain associated with visceral hypersensitivity in IBS; other lower quality studies have also suggested the benefit of these agents for IBS.
The two major single entities among functional disorders of the gut are functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome.

Codeine

codeine phosphatecodeine hydrochlorideCod'ine
Medications may consist of stool softeners and laxatives in IBS-C and antidiarrheals (e.g., opiate, opioid, or opioid analogs such as loperamide, codeine, diphenoxylate) if diarrhea is predominant.
Codeine is also used to treat diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, although loperamide (which is available without a prescription for milder diarrhea), diphenoxylate, paregoric or even laudanum are more frequently used to treat severe diarrhea.