A report on Isaac Asimov and Robotics

The Shadow robot hand system
Robert A. Heinlein and L. Sprague de Camp with Asimov (right), Philadelphia Navy Yard, 1944
Mechanical construction
Asimov with his second wife, Janet. "They became a permanent feature of my face, and it is now difficult to believe early photographs that show me without sideburns." (Photo by Jay Kay Klein.)
Electrical aspect
The first installment of Asimov's Tyrann was the cover story in the fourth issue of Galaxy Science Fiction in 1951. The novel was issued in book form later that year as The Stars Like Dust.
A level of programming
The first installment of Asimov's The Caves of Steel on the cover of the October 1953 issue of Galaxy Science Fiction, illustrated by Ed Emshwiller
The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom
The novelette "Legal Rites", a collaboration with Frederik Pohl, the only Asimov story to appear in Weird Tales
A robotic leg powered by air muscles
KUKA industrial robot operating in a foundry
Puma, one of the first industrial robots
Baxter, a modern and versatile industrial robot developed by Rodney Brooks
Lefty, first checker playing robot
Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya
TALON military robots used by the United States Army
Two robot snakes. Left one has 64 motors (with 2 degrees of freedom per segment), the right one 10.
Capuchin, a climbing robot
Robotic Fish: iSplash-II
The autonomous sailboat robot Vaimos
Radar, GPS, and lidar, are all combined to provide proper navigation and obstacle avoidance (vehicle developed for 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge)
Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions.
Puppet Magnus, a robot-manipulated marionette with complex control systems.
Experimental planar robot arm and sensor-based, open-architecture robot controller developed at Sunderland University, UK in 2000
RuBot II can manually resolve Rubik's cubes.
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo IREX 2009.
Two Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineers stand with three vehicles, providing a size comparison of three generations of Mars rovers. Front and center is the flight spare for the first Mars rover, Sojourner, which landed on Mars in 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Project. On the left is a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) test vehicle that is a working sibling to Spirit and Opportunity, which landed on Mars in 2004. On the right is a test rover for the Mars Science Laboratory, which landed Curiosity on Mars in 2012. Sojourner is 65 cm long. The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) are 1.6 m long. Curiosity on the right is 3 m long.
The SCORBOT-ER 4u educational robot
A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. (Courtesy: MobileRobots, Inc.)

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction.

- Robotics

The Oxford English Dictionary credits his science fiction for introducing into the English language the words "robotics", "positronic" (an entirely fictional technology), and "psychohistory" (which is also used for a different study on historical motivations).

- Isaac Asimov

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ASIMO (2000) at the Expo 2005

Robot

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Machine—especially one programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.

Machine—especially one programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.

ASIMO (2000) at the Expo 2005
Articulated welding robots used in a factory are a type of industrial robot
The quadrupedal military robot Cheetah, an evolution of BigDog (pictured), was clocked as the world's fastest legged robot in 2012, beating the record set by an MIT bipedal robot in 1989.
KITT (a fictional robot) is mentally anthropomorphic.
iCub is physically anthropomorphic.
Al-Jazari – A Musical Toy
Su Song's astronomical clock tower showing the mechanical figurines which chimed the hours.
Model of Leonardo's robot with inner workings. Possibly constructed by Leonardo da Vinci around 1495.
The Brennan torpedo, one of the earliest 'guided missiles'
W. H. Richards with "George", 1932
U.S. Patent 2,988,237, issued in 1961 to Devol.
A scene from Karel Čapek's 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), showing three robots
A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine
A pick and place robot in a factory
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo International Robot Exhibition (IREX) 2009
An android, or robot designed to resemble a human, can appear comforting to some people and disturbing to others
A general-purpose robot acts as a guide during the day and a security guard at night.
An intelligent AGV drops-off goods without needing lines or beacons in the workspace.
A U.S. Marine Corps technician prepares to use a telerobot to detonate a buried improvised explosive device near Camp Fallujah, Iraq.
The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a single, menial job
The Care-Providing Robot FRIEND
Toy robots on display at the Museo del Objeto del Objeto in Mexico City.
Italian movie The Mechanical Man (1921), the first film to have shown a battle between robots.

The branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing is robotics.

The word robotics, used to describe this field of study, was coined by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov.

Liar! (short story)

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"Liar!" is a science fiction short story by American writer Isaac Asimov.

contains the first recorded use of the word "robotics" according to the Oxford English Dictionary.

Early example of the term androides used to describe human-like mechanical devices, London Times, 22 December 1795

Android (robot)

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Humanoid robot or other artificial being often made from a flesh-like material.

Humanoid robot or other artificial being often made from a flesh-like material.

Early example of the term androides used to describe human-like mechanical devices, London Times, 22 December 1795
DER 01, a Japanese actroid
EveR-2, the first android that can sing
Dr. William Barry (left) with Maria Bot (right)
Dr. William Barry (right) and a fan pose with Maria Bot (center)

Historically, androids were completely within the domain of science fiction and frequently seen in film and television, but recent advances in robot technology now allow the design of functional and realistic humanoid robots.

Isaac Asimov pioneered the fictionalization of the science of robotics and artificial intelligence, notably in his 1950s series I, Robot.

Silver didrachma from Crete depicting Talos, an ancient mythical automaton with artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence

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Intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.

Intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.

Silver didrachma from Crete depicting Talos, an ancient mythical automaton with artificial intelligence
An ontology represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts.
A parse tree represents the syntactic structure of a sentence according to some formal grammar.
Feature detection (pictured: edge detection) helps AI compose informative abstract structures out of raw data.
Kismet, a robot with rudimentary social skills
A particle swarm seeking the global minimum
Expectation-maximization clustering of Old Faithful eruption data starts from a random guess but then successfully converges on an accurate clustering of the two physically distinct modes of eruption.
A neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.
Representing images on multiple layers of abstraction in deep learning
For this project the AI had to learn the typical patterns in the colors and brushstrokes of Renaissance painter Raphael. The portrait shows the face of the actress Ornella Muti, "painted" by AI in the style of Raphael.
AI Patent families for functional application categories and sub categories. Computer vision represents 49 percent of patent families related to a functional application in 2016.
The word "robot" itself was coined by Karel Čapek in his 1921 play R.U.R., the title standing for "Rossum's Universal Robots"

Robotics researchers, such as Rodney Brooks, rejected symbolic AI and focused on the basic engineering problems that would allow robots to move, survive, and learn their environment.

Isaac Asimov introduced the Three Laws of Robotics in many books and stories, most notably the "Multivac" series about a super-intelligent computer of the same name.