# Isaac Newton

**NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonianNewtonian scienceIssac NewtonNewton, IsaacApple(Sir Isaac) NEWTONan apple falling from a treeDr Newton**

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.wikipedia

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### Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

**PrincipiaPhilosophiae Naturalis Principia MathematicaPrincipia Mathematica**

His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

### Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

**LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz**

Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus.

As a representative of the seventeenth-century tradition of rationalism, Leibniz's most prominent accomplishment was conceiving the ideas of differential and integral calculus, independently of Isaac Newton's contemporaneous developments.

### Scientific Revolution

**scientificscientific revolutionsscience**

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

The completion of the Scientific Revolution is attributed to the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia.

### Natural philosophy

**natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural**

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

Isaac Newton's book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687), whose title translates to "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", reflects the then-current use of the words "natural philosophy", akin to "systematic study of nature".

### Classical mechanics

**Newtonian mechanicsNewtonian physicsclassical**

His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics.

It consists of the physical concepts employed and the mathematical methods invented by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others in the 17th century to describe the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces.

### Newton's laws of motion

**Newton's second lawNewton's third lawNewton's second law of motion**

In Principia, Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity.

The three laws of motion were first compiled by Isaac Newton in his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687.

### Calculus

**infinitesimal calculusdifferential and integral calculusclassical calculus**

Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus.

Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.

### Theory of relativity

**relativityrelativisticrelativity theory**

In Principia, Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity.

The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century, superseding a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton.

### Opticks

**OpticsNewton's ''OpticksNewton's theories of refraction**

His work on light was collected in his highly influential book Opticks, published in 1704.

Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.

### Newton's method

**Newton–Raphson methodNewton-RaphsonNewton–Raphson**

In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves.

In numerical analysis, Newton's method, also known as the Newton–Raphson method, named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson, is a root-finding algorithm which produces successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function.

### Celestial mechanics

**celestialcelestial dynamicscelestial mechanician**

He demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles.

Modern analytic celestial mechanics started with Isaac Newton's Principia of 1687.

### Physics

**physicistphysicalphysicists**

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

Many later European scholars and fellow polymaths, from Robert Grosseteste and Leonardo da Vinci to René Descartes, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, were in his debt.

### Optics

**opticalopticoptical system**

Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus.

In the late 1660s and early 1670s, Isaac Newton expanded Descartes' ideas into a corpuscle theory of light, famously determining that white light was a mix of colours which can be separated into its component parts with a prism.

### Trinity College, Cambridge

**Trinity CollegeTrinityTrinity College Cambridge**

Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.

Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers (all Tory or Whig/Liberal), physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historians Lord Macaulay, G. M. Trevelyan and E.H. Carr, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell (whom it expelled before reaccepting), and Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, and Anthony Blunt.

### Astronomy

**astronomicalastronomerastronomers**

It was Isaac Newton, with his invention of celestial dynamics and his law of gravitation, who finally explained the motions of the planets.

### Dynamics (mechanics)

**dynamicsdynamicDynamics (physics)**

He demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles.

Isaac Newton defined the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics, especially his second law of motion.

### Pierre Louis Maupertuis

**MaupertuisPierre-Louis Moreau de MaupertuisPierre Louis de Maupertuis**

Newton's inference that the Earth is an oblate spheroid was later confirmed by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, convincing most European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over earlier systems.

His early mathematical work revolved around the vis viva controversy, for which Maupertuis developed and extended the work of Isaac Newton (whose theories were not yet widely accepted outside England) and argued against the waning Cartesian mechanics.

### University of Cambridge

**Cambridge UniversityCambridgeUniversity**

Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.

From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained an especially strong emphasis on applied mathematics, particularly mathematical physics.

### Tide

**tidalhigh tidelow tide**

Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to prove Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentricity.

Isaac Newton (1642–1727) was the first person to explain tides as the product of the gravitational attraction of astronomical masses.

### Gravity

**gravitationgravitationalgravitational force**

Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to prove Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentricity.

In 1687, English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton published Principia, which hypothesizes the inverse-square law of universal gravitation.

### Johannes Kepler

**KeplerDioptriceJohan Kepler**

At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, whom Newton supplemented with modern philosophers such as Descartes, and astronomers such as Galileo and Thomas Street, through whom he learned of Kepler's work.

These works also provided one of the foundations for Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

### Lucasian Professor of Mathematics

**Lucasian ProfessorLucasian Chair of MathematicsLucasian Chair**

Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.

It was described by The Daily Telegraph as one of the most prestigious academic posts in the world and its former holders include Isaac Newton, Charles Babbage, George Stokes, Joseph Larmor, Paul Dirac and Stephen Hawking.

### Visible spectrum

**visiblevisible lightspectrum**

Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of colour based on the observation that a prism separates white light into the colours of the visible spectrum.

In the 17th century, Isaac Newton discovered that prisms could disassemble and reassemble white light, and described the phenomenon in his book Opticks.

### Charles Marie de La Condamine

**Charles-Marie de La CondamineLa CondamineDe La Condamine**

Newton's inference that the Earth is an oblate spheroid was later confirmed by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, convincing most European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over earlier systems.

Three years later he joined the French Geodesic Mission to present-day Ecuador which had the aim of testing a hypothesis of Isaac Newton.

### Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

**1661 Cambridge student notebookQuaestiones**

He set down in his notebook a series of "Quaestiones" about mechanical philosophy as he found it.

Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his earlier years in Cambridge.