Isaaq genocide

destroyed much of the cityGenocide of Isaaqs
The Isaaq genocide or Hargeisa Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1987 and 1989 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.wikipedia
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Siad Barre

Mohamed Siad BarreMuhammad Siad BarreBarre
The Isaaq genocide or Hargeisa Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1987 and 1989 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.
Opposition grew in the 1980s due to his increasingly dictatorial rule, growth of tribal politics, abuses of the National Security Service including the Isaaq genocide, and the sharp decline of Somalia's economy.

Hargeisa

HargeysaHargaysa
This genocide also included the levelling and complete destruction of the second and third largest cities in Somalia, Hargeisa (which was 90 per cent destroyed) and Burao (70 per cent destroyed) respectively, and had caused up to 500,000 Somalis (primarily of the Isaaq clan) to flee their land and cross the border to Hartasheikh in Ethiopia as refugees, in what was described as "one of the fastest and largest forced movements of people recorded in Africa", and resulted in the creation of the world's largest refugee camp then (1988), with another 400,000 being displaced.
The ensuing bombing raids and crossfire claimed thousands of casualties and destroyed much of the city.

Somali Democratic Republic

SomaliaDemocratic Republic of SomaliaCommunist Somalia
The Isaaq genocide or Hargeisa Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1987 and 1989 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.
The government became increasingly totalitarian, culminating in the Isaaq genocide (1987-1988), largely destroying several major cities and targeting members of the Isaaq clan.

National Security Service (Somalia)

National Security ServiceNSSNational Security Agency
Detainees were taken to a number of locations including Birjeeh (a former military headquarters of the 26th sector of the Somali Armed Forces), Malka-Durduro (a military compound), the Central Prison of Hargeisa, the headquarters of NSS (National Security Service), the headquarters of the Military Police as well as other secret detention centres.
The NSS has been accused of secret police activities against Barre's opponents and also accused of participating in the Isaaq genocide.

Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan

Mohammed Said Hersi "MorganHersi "MorganHersi Morgan
In January 1986, Barre's son-in-law and viceroy in the north General Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan, who was Barre's bodyguard before he married his daughter reportedly told Isaaq nomads at a waterhole "if you Isaaqs resist, we will destroy your towns, and you will inherit only ashes".

Isaaq

Habar JecloArapSheikh Isaaq Bin Ahmed Al Hashimi
The Isaaq genocide or Hargeisa Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1987 and 1989 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.

Somali Civil War

civil warSomaliaSomalian Civil War
The killings happened during the Somali Civil War and have been referred to as a "forgotten genocide".

Somali Armed Forces

Somali National ArmySomali ArmySomali military
Detainees were taken to a number of locations including Birjeeh (a former military headquarters of the 26th sector of the Somali Armed Forces), Malka-Durduro (a military compound), the Central Prison of Hargeisa, the headquarters of NSS (National Security Service), the headquarters of the Military Police as well as other secret detention centres. In the countryside the persecution of Isaaq included the creation of a mechanised section of the Somali Armed Forces called Dabar Goynta Isaaka (The Isaaq Exterminators) consisting entirely of non-Isaaqs (mainly Ogaden), this unit conducted a "systematic pattern of attacks against unarmed, civilian villages, watering points and grazing areas of northern Somalia [Somaliland], killing many of their residents and forcing survivors to flee for safety to remote areas", this resulted in entire villages being depopulated and towns getting plundered.

Human Rights Watch

HRWAmericas WatchHuman Right Watch
Human Rights Watch states that this unit along with other branches of the military were responsible for terrorising Isaaq nomads in the countryside.

United Nations

UNU.N.the United Nations
In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia, specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

United Nations High Commissioner for Human RightsUN High Commissioner for Human RightsHigh Commissioner for Human Rights
The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

British Somaliland

SomalilandSomaliland ProtectorateBritish Somaliland Protectorate
The first Somali state to be granted its independence from colonial powers was Somaliland, a former British protectorate that gained independence on 26 June 1960.

Somali Republic

SomaliaRepublic of Somalia1960 independence
The rest of what came to be known as Somali Republic was under Italian rule under the title Trust Territory of Somaliland (also known as Somalia Italiana).

Trust Territory of Somaliland

Trust Territory of Somaliatrusteeship periodSomalia
The rest of what came to be known as Somali Republic was under Italian rule under the title Trust Territory of Somaliland (also known as Somalia Italiana).

Somaliland

RegionRepublic of SomalilandDistrict
Shortly after Somaliland gained independence, it was to form a hasty union with its southern neighbour to create the Somali Republic.

Dir (clan)

DirDir clanBajimaal
Within British Somaliland the Isaaq constituted the majority group within the protectorate with Dir and Harti groups also having sizeable populations to the west and east of Isaaq respectively.

Abdirashid Shermarke

Abdirashid Ali ShermarkeAbdirashid Ali SharmarkeA. A. Shermarke
In October 1969 the military seized power in a coup following the assassination of President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke and the ensuing political parliamentary debate on succession which ended in a deadlock.

Scientific socialism

scientific socialistsocialismScientific
The new regime became a client state of the Soviet Union and on the first anniversary of the coup officially adopted 'Scientific socialism as its core ideology.

Greater Somalia

Pan-Somalismpan-Somalistannex
Successive Somali governments had continually supported the cause of Somali irredentism and the concept of 'Greater Somalia', a powerful sentiment many Somalis carried, as a core goal of the state.

Supreme Revolutionary Council (Somalia)

Supreme Revolutionary CouncilSomali Women's Democratic Organization1969–1976; 1980–1991
Barre along with the Supreme Revolutionary Council, to entrench their rule and in an attempt to regain the Somali Region of Ethiopia, launched a war against Ethiopia in 1977, this war was referred to in Somalia as 'The War for Western Somalia'.

Somali Region

SomaliSomali Regional State eastern Ethiopia
Barre along with the Supreme Revolutionary Council, to entrench their rule and in an attempt to regain the Somali Region of Ethiopia, launched a war against Ethiopia in 1977, this war was referred to in Somalia as 'The War for Western Somalia'.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Barre along with the Supreme Revolutionary Council, to entrench their rule and in an attempt to regain the Somali Region of Ethiopia, launched a war against Ethiopia in 1977, this war was referred to in Somalia as 'The War for Western Somalia'.

Ogaden War

Ethio-Somali WarOgaden campaign1977–1978 conflict with Ethiopia
Somalia's defeat in the Ethio-Somali War caused an influx of Ethiopian refugees (mostly ethnic Somalis and some Oromo) across the border to Somalia.

Oromo people

OromoOromosGalla
Somalia's defeat in the Ethio-Somali War caused an influx of Ethiopian refugees (mostly ethnic Somalis and some Oromo) across the border to Somalia.