Ischemia

ischemicischaemiaischaemicischemic injurycardiac ischemiapoor blood flowischemic damagestarved of oxygenanti-ischemiccold ischemia
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).wikipedia
811 Related Articles

Pain

physical painacute painnociceptive pain
Clinical manifestations of acute limb ischemia (which can be summarized as the "six P's") include pain, pallor, pulseless, paresthesia, paralysis, and poikilothermia.
Visceral structures are highly sensitive to stretch, ischemia and inflammation, but relatively insensitive to other stimuli that normally evoke pain in other structures, such as burning and cutting.

Perfusion

perfusedperfusetissue perfusion
Ischemia can be partial (poor perfusion) or total.
Poor perfusion (malperfusion), that is, ischemia, causes health problems, as seen in cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and many other conditions.

Gangrene

gangrenousfesteringdry gangrene
Without immediate intervention, ischemia may progress quickly to tissue necrosis and gangrene within a few hours.
Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.

Paresthesia

paraesthesiatinglingpins and needles
Clinical manifestations of acute limb ischemia (which can be summarized as the "six P's") include pain, pallor, pulseless, paresthesia, paralysis, and poikilothermia.
Reactive hyperaemia, which occurs when blood flow is restored after a period of ischemia, such as on rewarming after a cold episode in patients with Raynaud's disease, may be accompanied by paresthesia.

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
Cardiac ischemia may be asymptomatic or may cause chest pain, known as angina pectoris.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

Ischemic colitis

colitis, ischemicintestinal ischemiaIschemic bowel
Ischemia of the large intestine may result in an inflammatory process known as ischemic colitis.
Although uncommon in the general population, ischemic colitis occurs with greater frequency in the elderly, and is the most common form of bowel ischemia.

Nerve injury

nerve damageperipheral nerve injurynerve injuries
Foot drop may occur as a result of nerve damage.
Most commonly, this involves compression of the nerve or disruption to the blood supply (ischemia).

Revascularization

revascularisationre-vascularisationrevascularized
Because nerves are extremely sensitive to hypoxia, limb paralysis or ischemic neuropathy may persist after revascularization and may be permanent.
In medical and surgical therapy, revascularization is the restoration of perfusion to a body part or organ that has suffered ischemia.

Transient ischemic attack

transient ischaemic attacktransient ischemic attacksmini-stroke
A brief episode of ischemia affecting the brain is called a transient ischemic attack (TIA), often called a mini-stroke.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).

Necrosis

necroticnecrotizingnecrotic tissue
Without immediate intervention, ischemia may progress quickly to tissue necrosis and gangrene within a few hours.
1) Coagulative necrosis is characterized by the formation of a gelatinous (gel-like) substance in dead tissues in which the architecture of the tissue is maintained, and can be observed by light microscopy. Coagulation occurs as a result of protein denaturation, causing albumin to transform into a firm and opaque state. This pattern of necrosis is typically seen in hypoxic (low-oxygen) environments, such as infarction. Coagulative necrosis occurs primarily in tissues such as the kidney, heart and adrenal glands. Severe ischemia most commonly causes necrosis of this form.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
This most frequently results from atherosclerosis, which is the long-term accumulation of cholesterol-rich plaques in the coronary arteries.
Abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias—the heart beating either too slowly or too quickly—are another consequence of ischemia.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis or embolism).
The roots of the words anemia and ischemia both refer to the basic idea of "lack of blood", but anemia and ischemia are not the same thing in modern medical terminology.

Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
Acute ischemic stroke is a neurologic emergency that may be reversible if treated rapidly.
Strokes can be classified into two major categories: ischemic and hemorrhagic.

Peripheral neuropathy

neuropathyneuropathicneuropathies
Because nerves are extremely sensitive to hypoxia, limb paralysis or ischemic neuropathy may persist after revascularization and may be permanent.
Direct injury to a nerve, interruption of its blood supply resulting in (ischemia), or inflammation also may cause mononeuropathy.

Hypoxia (medical)

hypoxiahypoxicanoxia
Because nerves are extremely sensitive to hypoxia, limb paralysis or ischemic neuropathy may persist after revascularization and may be permanent. Since oxygen is carried to tissues in the blood, insufficient blood supply causes tissue to become starved of oxygen.
Ischemia, meaning insufficient blood flow to a tissue, can also result in hypoxia.

Large intestine

coloncolorectallarge bowel
Ischemia of the large intestine may result in an inflammatory process known as ischemic colitis.
The "watershed" area between these two blood supplies, which represents the embryologic division between the midgut and hindgut, is an area sensitive to ischemia.

Thrombosis

blood clotsthromboticblood clot
It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis or embolism).
Venous thrombosis leads to congestion of the affected part of the body, while arterial thrombosis (and rarely severe venous thrombosis) affects the blood supply and leads to damage of the tissue supplied by that artery (ischemia and necrosis).

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of death in most Western countries and a major cause of hospital admissions.
Limitation of blood flow to the heart causes ischemia (cell starvation secondary to a lack of oxygen) of the heart's muscle cells.

Atrial fibrillation

paroxysmal atrial fibrillationatrial fibrilationatrial arrhythmia
Other causes are heart conditions including myocardial infarction, mitral valve disease, chronic atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathies, and prosthesis, in all of which thrombi are prone to develop.
Rapid and irregular heart rates may be perceived as the sensation of the heart beating too fast, irregularly, or skipping beats (palpitations) or exercise intolerance and occasionally may produce anginal chest pain (if the high heart rate causes the heart's demand for oxygen to increase beyond the supply of available oxygen (ischemia)).

Mottle

mottledmottlingmottles
Reduced blood flow to the skin layers may result in mottling or uneven, patchy discoloration of the skin
Mottling is sometimes used to describe uneven discolored patches on the skin of humans as a result of cutaneous ischemia (lowered blood flow to the surfaces of the skin) or Herpes zoster infections.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue.
In contrast, occlusion of the blood vessel by atherosclerotic plaque, by an embolised blood clot or a foreign body leads to downstream ischemia (insufficient blood supply) and possibly necrosis.

Pulse

pulse ratepulsationheartbeat
Clinical manifestations of acute limb ischemia (which can be summarized as the "six P's") include pain, pallor, pulseless, paresthesia, paralysis, and poikilothermia.
Carotid pulse: located in the neck (carotid artery). The carotid artery should be palpated gently and while the patient is sitting or lying down. Stimulating its baroreceptors with low palpitation can provoke severe bradycardia or even stop the heart in some sensitive persons. Also, a person's two carotid arteries should not be palpated at the same time. Doing so may limit the flow of blood to the head, possibly leading to fainting or brain ischemia. It can be felt between the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, above the hyoid bone and lateral to the thyroid cartilage.

Embolus

embolibreaking off, and then traveling in the bloodstreamembolic event
The thrombi may dislodge and may travel anywhere in the circulatory system, where they may lead to pulmonary embolus, an acute arterial occlusion causing the oxygen and blood supply distal to the embolus to decrease suddenly.
Vessel obstruction will then lead to different pathological issues such as blood stasis and ischemia.

Sickle cell disease

sickle cell anemiasickle-cell diseasesickle-cell anemia
Sickle cell disease (abnormally shaped red blood cells)
The vaso-occlusive crisis is caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells that obstruct capillaries and restrict blood flow to an organ resulting in ischaemia, pain, necrosis, and often organ damage.

Ischemic cascade

ischemic neuronal injuryreperfusion
Ischemia results in tissue damage in a process known as ischemic cascade.
The ischemic (ischaemic) cascade is a series of biochemical reactions that are initiated in the brain and other aerobic tissues after seconds to minutes of ischemia (inadequate blood supply).