A report on Islam

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Abrahamic monotheistic religion, centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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Overall

"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina

Muhammad

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"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
"Muhammad" written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th–9th centuries)
Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh,, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. (Ilkhanate period)
The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from Gabriel in Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (1307)
The last verse from An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheism challenged the traditional order
The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.
"The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i Nebi
The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer
The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer (salat). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.
A depiction of Muhammad (with veiled face) advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.
Conquests of Muhammad (green lines) and the Rashidun caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).
Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasī’ during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).
A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Ottoman calligrapher Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698)
The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina)
The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God." in Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
Calligraphic rendering of "may God honor him and grant him peace", customarily added after Muhammad's name, encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFA..
Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Jammu and Kashmir, India, 1808.
Muhammad in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten Commandments.
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid
The Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram ash-Sharif or the Temple Mount, takes its name from the "farthest mosque" described in Surah 17, where Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE.
Muhammad, 622–632 CE.
Rashidun caliphate, 632–661 CE.
Umayyad caliphate, 661–750 CE.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (مُحَمَّد ٱبن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه, Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; c. undefined 570 – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

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Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
 Sunnī
 Shīʿa
 Ibadi
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Shīʿa Islam or Shīʿīsm is the second-largest branch of Islam.

The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).

Sunni Islam

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The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).
The Kaaba mosque in Mecca is the largest and most important mosque in the world.
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque of Uqba) in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia, was, particularly from the 9th—11th century, an important center of Islamic learning with an emphasis on the Maliki Madh'hab.
Muhammed accompanied by the archangels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil und Azrael. Turkish Siyer-i-Nebi-work, 1595
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.
TRT Diyanet kurumsal logo
Ahmed el-Tayeb, Great-Imam of Azhar, was one of the most important participants of the Sunni-conference in Grosny, distanced himself from the declaration
Countries with more than 95% Muslim population. 
Sunni
Shias
Ibadi

Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims.

Quran

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Muhammad's first revelation, Surah Al-Alaq, later placed 96th in the Qur'anic regulations, in current writing style
Quran − in Mashhad, Iran − said to be written by Ali
The right page of the Stanford '07 binary manuscript. The upper layer is verses 265-271 of the surah Bakara. The double-layer reveals the additions made on the first text of the Qur'an and the differences with today's Qur'an.
While standing in prayers, worshipers recite the first chapter of the Quran, al-Fatiha, followed by any other section.
First sura of the Quran, Al-Fatiha, consisting of seven verses.
A 12th-century Quran manuscript at Reza Abbasi Museum.
Verse about the month of Ramadan, second sura, verse 185. from a Quran manuscript dated to 1510
Boys studying Quran, Touba, Senegal
An early interpretation of Sura 108 of the Quran
Men reading the Quran at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria
Shia Muslim girls reciting the Quran placed atop folding lecterns (rehal) during Ramadan in Qom, Iran
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
An 11th-century North African Quran at the British Museum
Page of the Quran with vocalization marks
Quran divided into 6 books. Published by Dar Ibn Kathir, Damascus-Beirut
Page from a Quran ('Umar-i Aqta'). Iran, Afghanistan, Timurid dynasty, c. 1400. Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper in the Muqaqqaq script. 170 ×. Historical region: Uzbekistan.
Calligraphy, 18th century. Brooklyn Museum.
Quranic inscriptions, Bara Gumbad mosque, Delhi, India.
Typical mosque lamp, of enamelled glass, with the Ayat an-Nur or "Verse of Light" (24:35).
Quranic verses, Shahizinda mausoleum, Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
Quran page decoration art, Ottoman period.
The leaves from this Quran written in gold and contoured with brown ink have a horizontal format. This is admirably suited to classical Kufic calligraphy, which became common under the early Abbasid caliphs.
Manuscript of the Quran at the Brooklyn Museum
1091 Quranic text in bold script with Persian translation and commentary in a lighter script.<ref>{{Cite web|author=Alya Karame|title=Qur'ans from the Eastern Islamic World between the 4 th /10 th and 6 th /12 th Centuries |url=https://era.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1842/28999/Karame2018%20text.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y |website=The University of Edinburgh |page=109|language=en}}</ref>
Arabic Quran with interlinear Persian translation from the Ilkhanid Era.
The first printed Quran in a European vernacular language: L'Alcoran de Mahomet, André du Ryer, 1647.
Title page of the first German translation (1772) of the Quran.
Verses 33 and 34 of surat Yā Sīn in this Chinese translation of the Quran.
Folio from the "Blue" Quran. Brooklyn Museum.
kufic script, Eighth or ninth century.
maghribi script, 13th–14th centuries.
muhaqqaq script, 14th–15th centuries.
shikasta nastaliq script, 18th–19th centuries.

The Quran (, ; القرآن al-Qurʾān, 'the recitation'), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation from God.

Mecca

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Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid

Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah (مكة المكرمة, ) and commonly shortened to Makkah (مكة, ), is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

Medina

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8th century rock inscription discovered in Madinah, refers to the city as 'Taybah'
17th century CE bronze token depicting prophet's Mosque, the inscription below reads 'Madinah Shareef' (Noble City)
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Three of the Seven Mosques at the site of the Battle of the Trench were combined into the modern Masjid al-Fath, here pictured with Jabal Sal'aa in the background and a shop selling local goods in the foreground.
The Green Dome was built in 1297 CE over Muhammad's rawdhah (residence) and site of burial.
The Gold dinar of Umar II, also known as 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz or the Fifth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
Tomb of Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, who started a tradition of greatly funding Medina and protecting pilgrims visiting the holy city.
The Medina sanctuary and Green Dome, photographed in 1880 by Muhammad Sadiq. The dome was built during the Mamluk period, but given its signature color by the Ottomans nearly 600 years later.
Muhammad Ali Pasha, who kept Medina in a peaceful and prosperous state for around 30 years after taking it from the First Saudi State.
The Hejaz railway track near Wadi Rum in Jordan. Jordan uses the railway today for transporting phosphate.
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right.
The train which Fakhri Pasha used to transport the Sacred Relics from Medina to Istanbul.
Mount Uhud at night. The mountain is currently the highest peak in Medina and stands at 1,077 m (3,533 ft) of elevation.
Panoramic view of the Prophet's Mosque, from the east at sunset.
Medina Sex Pyramid Chart as of 2018
Madinah Arts Center
Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.
Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz Airport
A government-run bus in Medina at Salam Rd. Station
Haramain high-speed railway station at Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (المدينة المنورة, ) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (المدينة, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam, and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia.

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)

Muslim world

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World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)
A Seljuq, shatranj (chess) set, glazed fritware, 12th century.
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Muslim polymath from Al Andalus.
The Spinning wheel is believed to have been invented in the medieval era (of what is now the Greater Middle East), it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. (scene from Al-Maqamat, painted by al-Wasiti 1237)
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim communities found in various lands. Note: the map is here shown upside-down from the original to match current North/Up, South/Down map design
Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim world).
Indonesia is currently the most populous Muslim-majority country.
Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister of Pakistan became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim-majority country.
Islamic schools of law across the Muslim world
Muslim Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni receiving a richly decorated robe of honor from the caliph al-Qadir in 1000. Miniature from the Rashid al-Din's Jami‘ al-Tawarikh
Battle between Ismail of the Safaviyya and the ruler of Shirvan, Farrukh Yassar
Shah of Safavid Empire Abbas I meet with Vali Muhammad Khan
Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the Quran, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
Portrait of a painter during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II
A Persian miniature of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar
Ilkhanate Empire ruler, Ghazan, studying the Quran
Layla and Majnun studying together, from a Persian miniature painting
Hadiqatus-suada by Oghuz Turkic poet Fuzûlî
The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree.<ref>The Thousand and One Nights; Or, The Arabian Night's Entertainments - David Claypoole Johnston - Google Books {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200517214353/https://books.google.com/books?id=ATkQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA543&dq=princess+parizade#v=onepage&q=princess%20parizade&f=false |date=17 May 2020 }}. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved on 23 September 2013.</ref>
Cassim in the Cave by Maxfield Parrish.
The Magic carpet.
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's ''Astrolabe. (13th century)
One of Mansur ibn Ilyas (Ak Koyunlu era) colored illustrations of human anatomy.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-Tasrif
A self-trimming lamp from Banū Mūsā's work On Mechanical Devices on Automation.
An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon.
The Elephant Clock was one of the most famous inventions of Al-Jazari.
"Cubic equations and intersections of conic sections", of Omar Khayyam.
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi's rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving.
The city of Baghdad being besieged during the Mongolian invasions.
Mongol armies capture of the Alamut, Persian miniature.
Safavid Empire's Zamburak.
Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor Akbar's Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568.<ref>{{cite web|last=Unknown|url=http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|title=Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort|date=1590–95|website=the Akbarnama|access-date=19 May 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140519132308/http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|archive-date=19 May 2014|url-status=dead}}</ref>
The Mughal Army under the command of Islamist Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries in combat against the Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522.
Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate (in modern Indonesia).
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar.
East India Company's Robert Clive meeting the Nawabs of Bengal before the Battle of Plassey
Siege of Ochakov (1788), an armed conflict between the Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom.
Combat during the Russo-Persian Wars.
French campaign in Egypt and Syria against the Mamluks and Ottomans
The Java War between the Netherlands and Javanese aristocracy led by Prince Diponegoro, from 1825 to 1830
The French conquest of Algeria, from 1830 to 1903
The Hispano-Moroccan War between Spain and Morocco, from 1859 to 1860
The Italo-Turkish War between Italy and the Ottoman Empire from 1911 to 1912
The Christian reconquest of Buda, Ottoman Hungary, 1686, painted by Frans Geffels
French conquest of Algeria (1830–1857)
Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899
The Melilla War between Spain and Rif Berbers of Morocco in 1909
Turkish Muslims at the Eyüp Sultan Mosque on Eid al-Adha
Shi'a Muslims in Iran commemorate Ashura
Friday prayer for Sunni Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh
A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman, Sudan
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of Muhammad in Hittin
Ibadis living in the M'zab valley in Algerian Sahara
Zaydi Imams ruled in Yemen until 1962
Most of the inhabitants of the Hunza Valley in Pakistan are Ismaili Muslims
Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
A primary classroom in Niger.
Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009.
Medical students of anatomy, before an exam in moulage, Iran
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Taj Mahal in Agra city of India was constructed during the Mughal Empire
Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Selangor, Malaysia
Great Mosque of Córdoba in Spain is a Moorish-style mosque.
The Charminar in Hyderabad, India
"Tower of Introspection" (省心楼) at the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
The design of Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan is inspired by Bedouin's tent.
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Girih tiles
The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih pattern on the spandrel.
Girih pattern that can be drawn with compass and straight edge.
Kufic script from an early Qur'an manuscript, 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87)
Bismallah calligraphy.
Islamic calligraphy represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire.
Islamic calligraphy praising Ali.
Modern Islamic calligraphy representing various planets.
A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque
A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the Quran.
Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta
A tribal delegation in Chad
Minangkabau people (Padang, Western Sumatra) reciting Al-Qur'an
Muslim girls walking for school in Bangladesh

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community, which is also known as the Ummah.

'Muhammad' in Islamic calligraphy

Muhammad in Islam

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Believed to be the seal of the messengers and prophets of God in all the main branches of Islam.

Believed to be the seal of the messengers and prophets of God in all the main branches of Islam.

'Muhammad' in Islamic calligraphy
The name Muhammad written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
The birthplace of Muhammad. After his migration, the house was taken and sold by Aqil ibn Abi Talib. In modern times, the house was demolished and converted into a library in 1951.
Inside view of Quba Mosque
The place where the people of Medina welcomed Muhammad when he came from Mecca
A map of the Badr campaign
Artifact of Muhammad's letter to the Muqawqis, ruler of Egypt- actual document on the right with transcription on the left- Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul
Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
Al-Aqsa Mosque, in the Old City of Jerusalem, is said to be the location to which Muhammad traveled in his night journey. The location is the third holiest place for the Muslims.
A view of Taif with a road at the foreground and mountains at the background. Muhammad went there to preach Islam
Masjid an-Nabawi
Inside view of Masjid an-Nabawi
The Green Dome built over Muhammad's tomb
Part of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi where Muhammad's tomb is situated
Masjid an-Nabawi at sunset
Facsimile of a letter sent by Muhammad to the Munzir Bin Sawa Al-Tamimi, governor of Bahrain
Muhammad's letter To Heraclius
Masjid Al-Aqsa, in the Old City of Jerusalem, is said to be the location to which Muhammad traveled in his night journey. The location is the third holiest place for the Muslims.

Muslims believe that the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad by God, and that Muhammad was sent to restore Islam, which they believe did not originate with Muhammad but is the true unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.

Ottoman Empire

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Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, depicted in an Ottoman miniature from 1523
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
An Ottoman miniature of the Battle of Mohács in 1526
Map of Ottoman territorial acquisitions up to 1683
The Second Siege of Vienna in 1683, by Frans Geffels (1624–1694).
Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy captured Belgrade in 1717. Austrian control in Serbia lasted until the Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739). With the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar.
Ottoman troops attempting to halt the advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace. Painting by Konstantin Kapıdağlı.
The siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.
Ottoman troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856
The Empire in 1875 under sultan Abdul-Aziz
Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908
Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, who commanded the Black Sea Raid on 29 October 1914, and his officers in Ottoman naval uniforms
The Armenian genocide was the result of the Ottoman government's deportation and ethnic cleansing policies regarding its Armenian citizens after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915) and the collapse of the Caucasus Front against the Imperial Russian Army and Armenian volunteer units during World War I. An estimated 600,000 to more than 1 million, or up to 1.5 million people were killed.
Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922
Ambassadors at the Topkapı Palace
Inside Harem, the private residence of the sultan in Topkapı Palace
Yusuf Ziya Pasha, Ottoman ambassador to the United States, in Washington, 1913
An Ottoman trial, 1877
An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence as depicted in an Ottoman miniature.
Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt)
Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order) troops, in 1793
A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I. At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.
Ottoman pilots in early 1912
Administrative divisions in 1899 (year 1317 Hijri)
A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1481
The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Constantinople. On 26 August 1896, the bank was occupied by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
View of Galata (Karaköy) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn, c. 1880–1893
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian and French.
Abdülmecid II was the last caliph of Islam and a member of the Ottoman dynasty.
Mehmed the Conqueror and Patriarch Gennadius II
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.
Depiction of a hookah shop in Lebanon, Ottoman Empire
Beyazıt State Library was founded in 1884.
Ahmet Nedîm Efendi, one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, designed by Sinan in the 16th century and a major example of the Classical Ottoman style
Ottoman miniature lost its function with the Westernization of Ottoman culture.
Turkish women baking bread, 1790
Observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903
Members of Galatasaray S.K. (football) in 1905
Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries
The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720.
A Musical Gathering - 18th century
Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun
Dome of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne.
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.

The Ghaza thesis popular during the twentieth century credited their success to their rallying of religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, but it is no longer generally accepted.

Islamic schools of thought

Fiqh

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Islamic schools of thought
Legal systems of the world
Map of the Muslim world with the main madh'habs.

Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence.