A report on IslamMuhammad and Jesus in Islam

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
Jesus' name in Islamic calligraphy followed by Peace be upon him
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
"Muhammad" written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
The Annunciation in miniature
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th–9th centuries)
According to the Quran, the pains of labor took Mary to the trunk of a palm tree.
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
The Jordan River, where Jesus was baptized by Yahya ibn Zakariya (John the Baptist).
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh,, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. (Ilkhanate period)
Timeline of Arrival of Jesus before Judgement Day
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation
The Minaret of Isa in the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from Gabriel in Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (1307)
Jesus and Mary in an old Persian miniature
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
The last verse from An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheism challenged the traditional order
Muhammad leads Jesus, Abraham, Moses and others in prayer. Medieval Persian miniature.
Muslim men reading the Quran
The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
"The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i Nebi
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer (salat). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
A depiction of Muhammad (with veiled face) advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
Conquests of Muhammad (green lines) and the Rashidun caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasī’ during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Ottoman calligrapher Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698)
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina)
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God." in Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Calligraphic rendering of "may God honor him and grant him peace", customarily added after Muhammad's name, encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFA..
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Jammu and Kashmir, India, 1808.
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Muhammad in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten Commandments.
Islamic veils represent modesty
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
The Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram ash-Sharif or the Temple Mount, takes its name from the "farthest mosque" described in Surah 17, where Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE.
Muhammad, 622–632 CE.
Rashidun caliphate, 632–661 CE.
Umayyad caliphate, 661–750 CE.
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Islam (الإسلام, ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion, centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

- Islam

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (مُحَمَّد ٱبن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه, Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; c. undefined 570 – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.

- Muhammad

In Islam, Jesus (عِيسَى ٱبْنُ مَرْيَمَ) is believed to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God (Allah) and the Messiah.

- Jesus in Islam

According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet divinely inspired to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.

- Muhammad

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times through earlier prophets such as Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, among others; these earlier revelations are attributed to Judaism and Christianity, which are regarded in Islam as spiritual predecessor faiths.

- Islam

Qadi al-Nu'man explains that Jesus was from the pure progeny of Abraham, just as Ali and his sons were from the pure progeny of Muhammad, through Fatima.

- Jesus in Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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'Muhammad' in Islamic calligraphy

Muhammad in Islam

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Believed to be the seal of the messengers and prophets of God in all the main branches of Islam.

Believed to be the seal of the messengers and prophets of God in all the main branches of Islam.

'Muhammad' in Islamic calligraphy
The name Muhammad written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
The birthplace of Muhammad. After his migration, the house was taken and sold by Aqil ibn Abi Talib. In modern times, the house was demolished and converted into a library in 1951.
Inside view of Quba Mosque
The place where the people of Medina welcomed Muhammad when he came from Mecca
A map of the Badr campaign
Artifact of Muhammad's letter to the Muqawqis, ruler of Egypt- actual document on the right with transcription on the left- Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul
Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
Al-Aqsa Mosque, in the Old City of Jerusalem, is said to be the location to which Muhammad traveled in his night journey. The location is the third holiest place for the Muslims.
A view of Taif with a road at the foreground and mountains at the background. Muhammad went there to preach Islam
Masjid an-Nabawi
Inside view of Masjid an-Nabawi
The Green Dome built over Muhammad's tomb
Part of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi where Muhammad's tomb is situated
Masjid an-Nabawi at sunset
Facsimile of a letter sent by Muhammad to the Munzir Bin Sawa Al-Tamimi, governor of Bahrain
Muhammad's letter To Heraclius
Masjid Al-Aqsa, in the Old City of Jerusalem, is said to be the location to which Muhammad traveled in his night journey. The location is the third holiest place for the Muslims.

Muslims believe that the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad by God, and that Muhammad was sent to restore Islam, which they believe did not originate with Muhammad but is the true unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.

According to the Quran, the coming of Muhammad was predicted by Jesus: "And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: ‘O children of Israel! I am God;s messenger to you, confirming the law (which came) before me, and giving glad tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad'" (Quran 61:6).

Prophets and messengers in Islam

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Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God's message on Earth and to serve as models of ideal human behaviour.

Many of the revelations delivered by the 48 prophets in Judaism and many prophets of Christianity are mentioned as such in the Quran but usually with Arabic versions of their names; for example, the Jewish Elisha is called Alyasa', Job is Ayyub, Jesus is 'Isa, etc. The Torah given to Moses (Musa) is called Tawrat, the Psalms given to David (Dawud) is the Zabur, the Gospel given to Jesus is Injil.

The last prophet in Islam is Muhammad ibn ʿAbdullāh, whom Muslims believe to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin), to whom the Quran was revealed in a series of revelations (and written down by his companions).

A rock carved with the text of "al-'Aqida al-Murshida" (the Guiding Creed) by Ibn Tumart (d. 524/1130) — the student of al-Ghazali (d. 505/ 1111) and the founder of the Almohad dynasty — praised and approved by Fakhr al-Din Ibn 'Asakir (d. 620/1223), located at al-Salah Islamic secondary school in Baalbek, Lebanon.

God in Islam

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Eternal being who originated the creation, preserves all things and then will resurrect all the humans.

Eternal being who originated the creation, preserves all things and then will resurrect all the humans.

A rock carved with the text of "al-'Aqida al-Murshida" (the Guiding Creed) by Ibn Tumart (d. 524/1130) — the student of al-Ghazali (d. 505/ 1111) and the founder of the Almohad dynasty — praised and approved by Fakhr al-Din Ibn 'Asakir (d. 620/1223), located at al-Salah Islamic secondary school in Baalbek, Lebanon.

In Islam, God is conceived as absolutely one, unique, and perfect, free from all faults, deficiencies, and defects, and further held to be omnipotent, omniscient, and completely infinite in all of his attributes, having no partner or equal, and being the sole creator of everything in existence.

Muslims reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism.

Hadith are the records of Muhammad's sayings and example, and Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, which Muslims regard as the words of God repeated by Muhammad.

The name ʾIbrāhīm written in Islamic calligraphy, followed by "Peace be upon him".

Abraham in Islam

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Prophet and messenger of God, and an ancestor to the Ishmaelite Arabs and Israelites.

Prophet and messenger of God, and an ancestor to the Ishmaelite Arabs and Israelites.

The name ʾIbrāhīm written in Islamic calligraphy, followed by "Peace be upon him".
Ibrahim's Sacrifice; Timurid Anthology, 1410–1411
The most significant mosque in Islam, that is the Mosque of the Kaaba in the Hejazi city of Mecca, is believed to date to the time of Abraham and Ishmael
The Maqam (Station) of Abraham which is believed by Muslims to contain his footprints, near the Kaaba in Al-Masjid Al-Haram
Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Temple Mount, Old City of Jerusalem in Shaam, is also believed to date to the lifetime of Abraham
Exterior view of the Cave of the Patriarchs in the Old City of Hebron, the Holy Land
Cenotaph over Abraham's grave in his mosque
In the section of the cave which is a mosque, this grate allows visitors to look down into a shaft measuring {{convert|40|ft|m|abbr=off}}, which leads to the ground level of the cave where Abraham and Sarah are buried
Masjid Al-Aqsa, also known as the Temple Mount, Old City of Jerusalem in Shaam, is also believed to date to the lifetime of Abraham

Abraham plays a prominent role as an example of faith in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Other scholars, however, wrote of a certain Testament of Abraham, which they explained was available at the time of Muhammad.

Muslims recognize Abraham as the ancestor through whom many other prophets and saints (Wali) came, including Moses, Jesus (Isa) and Muhammad.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box

Judaism

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Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Abrahamic, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people.

Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
A man reads a torah using a yad
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Judaism's texts, traditions, and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and Islam.

While both religions are monotheistic and share many commonalities, they differ based on the fact that Jews do not consider Jesus or Muhammad to be prophets.