A report on IslamJudaism and Umayyad Caliphate

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candlesticks, handwashing cup, Chumash and Tanakh, Torah pointer, shofar and etrog box
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
Maccabees by Wojciech Stattler (1842)
The Umayyad Caliphate in 750 CE
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A painting of Moses decorates the Dura-Europos synagogue dating from 244 CE
Map of Islamic Syria (Bilad al-Sham), the metropolis of the Umayyad Caliphate. The founder of the Umayyad Caliphate, Mu'awiya I, had originally been governor of the junds (military districts) of Damascus (Dimashq) and Jordan (al-Urdunn) in 639 before gaining authority over the rest of Syria's junds during the caliphate of Uthman (644–656), a member of the Umayyad family
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
The Western Wall in Jerusalem is a remnant of the wall encircling the Second Temple. The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism.
A Greek inscription crediting Mu'awiya for restoring Roman bathhouses near Tiberias in 663, the only known epigraphic attestation to Mu'awiya's rule in Syria
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Kennicott Bible, a 1476 Spanish Tanakh
Sasanian-style Umayyad coin minted in Basra in 675/76 in the name of the Umayyad governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad. The latter's governorship later spanned all of the eastern caliphate. His father Ziyad ibn Abihi was adopted as a half-brother by Mu'awiya I, who made him his practical viceroy over the eastern caliphate.
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
Aleppo Codex, a Tanakh produced in Tiberias in the 10th century
Genealogical tree of the Sufyanids. The names in red indicate caliphs.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
A man holds up a Sephardi-style torah at the Western Wall, Jerusalem
Map of the Caliphate during the Second Fitna in c. 686. The area shaded in red represents the approximate territory of the Umayyads, while the areas shaded in blue, green and yellow respectively represent the territories of the Mecca-based caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, the pro-Alid ruler of Kufa Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, and the Kharijites
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain
Abd al-Malik introduced an independent Islamic currency, the gold dinar, in 693, which originally depicted a human figure, likely the caliph, as shown in this coin minted in 695. In 697, the figural depictions were replaced solely by Qur'anic and other Islamic inscriptions
Muslim men reading the Quran
Conservative women rabbis, Israel
The expansion of the Muslim Caliphate until 750, from William R. Shepherd's Historical Atlas.
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
El Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia
Umayyad coinage in India, from the time of the first Governor of Sind Muhammad ibn Qasim. Minted in India "al-Hind"(possibly in the city of Multan ), dated AH 97 (715-6 CE): obverse circular legend "in the name of Allah, struck this dirham in al-Hind (India in Abd al-Malik al-Hind coin 715 CE (detail).jpg لهند l'Hind) in the year seven and ninety".
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Beta Israeli Kahen at the Western Wall
A 14th-century illustration of the siege of Constantinople
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
A Yemenite Jew at morning prayers, wearing a kippah skullcap, prayer shawl and tefillin
The city of Resafa, site of Hisham's palace and court
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
An Israeli female soldier prays at the Western Wall
The Umayyad Caliphate in 750 CE
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Jewish boys wearing tzitzit and kippot play soccer in Jerusalem
The Caliphate at the beginning of the Abbasid revolt, before the Battle of the Zab
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
Men wearing tallitot pray at the Western Wall
Ivory (circa 8th century) discovered in the Abbasid homestead in Humeima, Jordan. The style indicates an origin in northeastern Iran, the base of Hashimiyya military power.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
Two braided Shabbat challahs placed under an embroidered challah cover at the start of the Shabbat meal
Map of the Caliphate's expansion
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
Jews in Mumbai break the Yom Kippur fast with roti and samosas
Umayyad Mosque of Damascus
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
Purim street scene in Jerusalem
Genealogic tree of the Umayyad family. In blue: Caliph Uthman, one of the four Rashidun Caliphs. In green, the Umayyad Caliphs of Damascus. In yellow, the Umayyad emirs of Córdoba. In orange, the Umayyad Caliphs of Córdoba. Abd Al-Rahman III was an emir until 929 when he proclaimed himself Caliph. Muhammad is included (in caps) to show the kinship of the Umayyads with him. See interactive version of chart
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
Jewish personnel of the US Navy light candles on Hanukkah
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
A man reads a torah using a yad
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
The Sarajevo Synagogue in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Great Synagogue (Jerusalem)
Islamic veils represent modesty
Congregation Emanu-El of New York
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
18th-century circumcision chair Museum of Jewish Art and History
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Two boys wearing tallit at a bar mitzvah. The torah is visible in the foreground.
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
The Bereavement (Yahrtzeit) Hasidic tish, Bnei Brak, Israel
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, Uzbekistan c. 1910.
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
Magen David Synagogue in Kolkata, India
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
A Yemeni sofer writing a torah in the 1930s
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Judaism is practiced around the world. This is an 1889 siddur published in Hebrew and Marathi for use by the Bene Israel community
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands
The 12th century Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca in Toledo, Spain was converted to a church shortly after anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391
Muslim women in the mellah of Essaouira
The bimah of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times through earlier prophets such as Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, among others; these earlier revelations are attributed to Judaism and Christianity, which are regarded in Islam as spiritual predecessor faiths.

- Islam

Through various caliphates, the religion later spread outside of Arabia shortly after Muhammad's death, and by the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate had imposed Islamic rule from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus Valley in the east.

- Islam

Judaism's texts, traditions, and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and Islam.

- Judaism

Christians, who still constituted a majority of the caliphate's population, and Jews were allowed to practice their own religion but had to pay a head tax (the jizya) from which Muslims were exempt.

- Umayyad Caliphate

In his efforts to spread Islam, he established liberties for the Mawali by abolishing the jizya tax for converts to Islam.

- Umayyad Caliphate

Indeed, the years 712 to 1066 CE under the Ummayad and the Abbasid rulers have been called the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain.

- Judaism
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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Jerusalem

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City in Western Asia.

City in Western Asia.

Close up of the Khirbet Beit Lei inscription, showing the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem, dated to the seventh or sixth century BCE
Stepped Stone Structure in the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem during the Bronze Age and Iron Age
The Siloam Inscription, written in Biblical Hebrew, commemorates the construction of the Siloam tunnel (c. 700 BCE)
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). Solomon's Temple appears on top.
Holyland Model of Jerusalem, depicting the city during the late Second Temple period. First created in 1966, it is continuously updated according to advancing archaeological knowledge
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount thrown during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE
The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (David Roberts, 1850)
Jerusalem mural depicting the Cardo during the Byzantine period.
1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the octagonal Dome of the Rock stands left of Al-Aqsa, shown as a church, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the left side of the picture.
Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099.
Jerusalem, from 'Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam' by Bernhard von Breydenbach (1486)
Topographic map of the city, c. 1600.
1844 daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (the earliest photograph of the city).
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem on VE Day, 8 May 1945.
Map of East Jerusalem (2010)
The Knesset houses the legislature of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel
Israeli Foreign Ministry building
Orient House in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.
Snow visible on roofs in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Rehavia and Kiryat Wolfson, two Jewish neighborhoods, as seen from Givat Ram
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus.
Sign in Armenian in the Armenian Quarter.
The Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance for the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Bank of Israel
Har Hotzvim high-tech park
Mamilla Mall adorned with upscale shops stands just outside the Old City Walls.
Holyland Tower, Jerusalem's tallest building
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Light Rail tram on Jaffa Road
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem
Hebron Yeshiva in Givat Mordechai neighborhood
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
National Library of Israel
Teddy Stadium, Malha
Pais Arena
Tower of David citadel and the Ottoman walls
Ben-Zakai synagogue, photo taken in 1893
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem (1860), on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate ({{Circa|1950}}).
King Hussein of Jordan flying over the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965.
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem.
Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives.
The Temple Mount, the site of the two former Jewish Temples, is the holiest spot in Judaism
The Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall and the Kotel, is a remnant of the Second Temple and the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre contains the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is believed by Christians to have been buried and resurrected.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Sunni Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to this location during the Night Journey.
The Garden Tomb – a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century
Demographic history of Jerusalem by religion based on available data
Teddy Stadium, Malha

Situated on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, it is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy for the three major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of a shrine on the Temple Mount, now known as the Dome of the Rock, in the late 7th century.