A report on Islam and Mecca

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
The Quran Gate
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
Muslim men reading the Quran
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Hajj terminal
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
Mecca Metro Route Map
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
Mecca, in the 1880s
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
Mecca in 1910
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah (مكة المكرمة, ) and commonly shortened to Makkah (مكة, ), is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

- Mecca

The cities of Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam, in descending order: Masjid al-Haram, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, and Al-Aqsa Mosque.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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Medina

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8th century rock inscription discovered in Madinah, refers to the city as 'Taybah'
17th century CE bronze token depicting prophet's Mosque, the inscription below reads 'Madinah Shareef' (Noble City)
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Three of the Seven Mosques at the site of the Battle of the Trench were combined into the modern Masjid al-Fath, here pictured with Jabal Sal'aa in the background and a shop selling local goods in the foreground.
The Green Dome was built in 1297 CE over Muhammad's rawdhah (residence) and site of burial.
The Gold dinar of Umar II, also known as 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz or the Fifth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
Tomb of Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, who started a tradition of greatly funding Medina and protecting pilgrims visiting the holy city.
The Medina sanctuary and Green Dome, photographed in 1880 by Muhammad Sadiq. The dome was built during the Mamluk period, but given its signature color by the Ottomans nearly 600 years later.
Muhammad Ali Pasha, who kept Medina in a peaceful and prosperous state for around 30 years after taking it from the First Saudi State.
The Hejaz railway track near Wadi Rum in Jordan. Jordan uses the railway today for transporting phosphate.
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right.
The train which Fakhri Pasha used to transport the Sacred Relics from Medina to Istanbul.
Mount Uhud at night. The mountain is currently the highest peak in Medina and stands at 1,077 m (3,533 ft) of elevation.
Panoramic view of the Prophet's Mosque, from the east at sunset.
Medina Sex Pyramid Chart as of 2018
Madinah Arts Center
Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.
Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz Airport
A government-run bus in Medina at Salam Rd. Station
Haramain high-speed railway station at Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (المدينة المنورة, ) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (المدينة, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam, and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia.

The city is considered to be the second-holiest of three key cities in Islamic tradition, with Mecca and Jerusalem serving as the holiest and third-holiest cities respectively.

"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina

Muhammad

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"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
"Muhammad" written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th–9th centuries)
Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh,, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. (Ilkhanate period)
The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from Gabriel in Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (1307)
The last verse from An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheism challenged the traditional order
The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.
"The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i Nebi
The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer
The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer (salat). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.
A depiction of Muhammad (with veiled face) advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.
Conquests of Muhammad (green lines) and the Rashidun caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).
Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasī’ during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).
A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Ottoman calligrapher Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698)
The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina)
The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God." in Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
Calligraphic rendering of "may God honor him and grant him peace", customarily added after Muhammad's name, encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFA..
Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Jammu and Kashmir, India, 1808.
Muhammad in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten Commandments.
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid
The Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram ash-Sharif or the Temple Mount, takes its name from the "farthest mosque" described in Surah 17, where Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE.
Muhammad, 622–632 CE.
Rashidun caliphate, 632–661 CE.
Umayyad caliphate, 661–750 CE.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (مُحَمَّد ٱبن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه, Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; c. undefined 570 – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.

Muhammad was born approximately 570CE in Mecca.

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

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Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
 Sunnī
 Shīʿa
 Ibadi
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Shīʿa Islam or Shīʿīsm is the second-largest branch of Islam.

After the four holy cities of Islam (Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, and Damascus), the cities of Najaf, Karbala, and Qom are the most revered by Shīʿa Muslims.

View of the Kaaba, 1718. Adriaan Reland: Verhandeling van de godsdienst der Mahometaanen

Kaaba

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View of the Kaaba, 1718. Adriaan Reland: Verhandeling van de godsdienst der Mahometaanen
Miniature from 1307 CE depicting Muhammad fixing the black stone into the Kaaba
The Kaaba and Masjid al-Haram depicted on a talismanic shirt, 16th or early 17th century
Ottoman tiles representing the Kaaba, 17th century.
The Black Stone is seen through a portal in the Kaaba
In 1910
The Kaaba during an expansion phase in 2013
A technical drawing of the Kaaba showing dimensions and elements
Rukn al-Yamani (The Yemeni Corner)
The Bāb at-Tawbah, "Door of Repentance"
The Kaaba with the signature minarets. A similar view is printed on the obverse side of 500-riyal (approximately 133 USD) notes in Saudi Arabia.
The Station of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim)
The Mīzāb al-Raḥmah
The Kaaba and the Masjid Al-Haram during Hajj, 2008

The Kaaba (ٱلْكَعْبَة, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Pilgrims at the Al-Masjid Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca on Hajj in 2010

Hajj

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Pilgrims at the Al-Masjid Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca on Hajj in 2010
Pilgrims at the Al-Masjid Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca on Hajj in 2010
Air-conditioned tents in Mina city (Saudi Arabia), 2 km away from Mecca.
A Hajj certificate dated 602 AH (1205 CE).
A 1907 photograph of people praying near the Kaaba in the Great Mosque of Mecca
Diagram of the locations and rites of Hajj
Direction of the Tawaf around the Kaaba
Pilgrims wearing Ihram near Mount Arafat on the day of Hajj
Mount Arafat during Hajj
Pilgrims at Muzdalifah
Pilgrims performing "Ramy Al-Jamarat" (Stoning of the Devil) ceremony during the 2006 Hajj
Pilgrims performing Tawaf around the Kaaba
A Saudi security officer on vigil
Sa'yee towards Safa
Central section reserved for the elderly and the disabled. It is also divided into two directions of travel.
Sa'yee returning from Safa
Pilgrim in supplication at the Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca.
The largest Jamarah (pillar) these pillars depict the evils in Islam and are stoned by the devotees.
Pilgrims visiting the well of Zamzam.
Mount Safa within the Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca.
Mount Marwah within the Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca.
Tents at Mina.
Mount Arafat during Ḥajj with Pilgrims supplicating.
Mount Arafat, a few miles away from Mecca.

The Hajj (حَجّ Ḥajj; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims.

Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule

Caliphate

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Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule
The Caliphate, 622–750
Mustansiriya Madrasah in Baghdad
Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000
The Almohad empire at its greatest extent, c. 1180–1212
Map of the Fatimid Caliphate at its largest extent in the early 11th century
Ayyubid Sultanate (in pink) at the death of Saladin in 1193
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, under Sultan Mehmed IV
Abdulmejid II, the last caliph of Sunni Islam from the Ottoman dynasty, with his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan
Official portrait of Abdulmejid II as caliph
Hafiz Muhiuddin Aurangzeb, unlike his predecessors, was considered to be a Caliph of India
The Ahmadiyya flag, first designed in 1939, during the leadership of the Second Caliph
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015
Military situation in Libya in early 2016:
Location dot grey.svg Ansar al-Sharia Location dot black.svg Islamic State
Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000

A caliphate or khilāfah (خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under Islamic rule.

The second caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate, was ruled by Banu Umayya, a Meccan clan descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams.

Quran

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Muhammad's first revelation, Surah Al-Alaq, later placed 96th in the Qur'anic regulations, in current writing style
Quran − in Mashhad, Iran − said to be written by Ali
The right page of the Stanford '07 binary manuscript. The upper layer is verses 265-271 of the surah Bakara. The double-layer reveals the additions made on the first text of the Qur'an and the differences with today's Qur'an.
While standing in prayers, worshipers recite the first chapter of the Quran, al-Fatiha, followed by any other section.
First sura of the Quran, Al-Fatiha, consisting of seven verses.
A 12th-century Quran manuscript at Reza Abbasi Museum.
Verse about the month of Ramadan, second sura, verse 185. from a Quran manuscript dated to 1510
Boys studying Quran, Touba, Senegal
An early interpretation of Sura 108 of the Quran
Men reading the Quran at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria
Shia Muslim girls reciting the Quran placed atop folding lecterns (rehal) during Ramadan in Qom, Iran
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
An 11th-century North African Quran at the British Museum
Page of the Quran with vocalization marks
Quran divided into 6 books. Published by Dar Ibn Kathir, Damascus-Beirut
Page from a Quran ('Umar-i Aqta'). Iran, Afghanistan, Timurid dynasty, c. 1400. Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper in the Muqaqqaq script. 170 ×. Historical region: Uzbekistan.
Calligraphy, 18th century. Brooklyn Museum.
Quranic inscriptions, Bara Gumbad mosque, Delhi, India.
Typical mosque lamp, of enamelled glass, with the Ayat an-Nur or "Verse of Light" (24:35).
Quranic verses, Shahizinda mausoleum, Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
Quran page decoration art, Ottoman period.
The leaves from this Quran written in gold and contoured with brown ink have a horizontal format. This is admirably suited to classical Kufic calligraphy, which became common under the early Abbasid caliphs.
Manuscript of the Quran at the Brooklyn Museum
1091 Quranic text in bold script with Persian translation and commentary in a lighter script.<ref>{{Cite web|author=Alya Karame|title=Qur'ans from the Eastern Islamic World between the 4 th /10 th and 6 th /12 th Centuries |url=https://era.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1842/28999/Karame2018%20text.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y |website=The University of Edinburgh |page=109|language=en}}</ref>
Arabic Quran with interlinear Persian translation from the Ilkhanid Era.
The first printed Quran in a European vernacular language: L'Alcoran de Mahomet, André du Ryer, 1647.
Title page of the first German translation (1772) of the Quran.
Verses 33 and 34 of surat Yā Sīn in this Chinese translation of the Quran.
Folio from the "Blue" Quran. Brooklyn Museum.
kufic script, Eighth or ninth century.
maghribi script, 13th–14th centuries.
muhaqqaq script, 14th–15th centuries.
shikasta nastaliq script, 18th–19th centuries.

The Quran (, ; القرآن al-Qurʾān, 'the recitation'), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation from God.

He studied various readings and their trustworthiness and chose seven 8th-century readers from the cities of Mecca, Medina, Kufa, Basra and Damascus.

Saudi Arabia

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Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

The country is home to Mecca and Medina, the two holiest cities in Islam.

The world's second-largest religion, Islam, emerged in what is now Saudi Arabia.

Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq's name in Arabic calligraphy

Abu Bakr

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The senior companion and was, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as the first caliph of Islam.

The senior companion and was, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as the first caliph of Islam.

Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq's name in Arabic calligraphy
Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq
The Mount Thawr in Mecca, where Abu Bakr and Muhammad refuged for three days
Modern view of Saqifah where Abu Bakr was elected
Abu Bakr's caliphate at its territorial peak in August 634.
The Green Dome in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi where Abu Bakr is buried
The name of Abu Bakr, inscribed in Islamic calligraphy at the Hagia Sophia in Turkey
Abu Bakr Abdallah stops Meccan Mobs, who are against Muslims.
Caliph Abu Bakr's caliphate at its territorial peak in August 634.
Abu Bakr dying beside Ali

Abu Bakr became one of the first converts to Islam and extensively contributed his wealth in support of Muhammad's work.

He was also reportedly referred to in the Quran as the "second of the two in the cave" in reference to the event of hijra, where with Muhammad he hid in the cave in Jabal Thawr from the Meccan party that was sent after them.

Sasanian-style silver dirham minted in the name of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in Fars in 690/91

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr

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Sasanian-style silver dirham minted in the name of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in Fars in 690/91
Sasanian-style silver dirham minted in the name of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in Fars in 690/91
The Ka'aba in 1882. Throughout his revolt, Ibn al-Zubayr used the sanctuary as his base of operations and it was twice besieged, in 683 and 692. He rebuilt it following severe damage during the first siege, but his changes were later reversed.
Map of the Caliphate c. 684, during the Second Muslim Civil War. Ibn al-Zubayr's sovereignty as caliph was recognized in the Hejaz, Yemen, Egypt, Iraq and the districts of Fars and Kerman (areas shaded in green)

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (عبد الله ابن الزبير ابن العوام; May 624 CE – October/November 692), was the leader of a caliphate based in Mecca that rivaled the Umayyads from 683 until his death.

The son of al-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Asma bint Abi Bakr, Ibn al-Zubayr belonged to the Quraysh, the leading tribe of the nascent Muslim community, and was the first child born to the Muhajirun, Islam's earliest converts.