A report on Islam and Sharia

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The jurists of Iran, (Grand Ayatollahs / ayetullâhi'l-uzmâ). Faqih is a title given to the ulama who derive social rules from the texts of the Qur'an and hadith.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
Juristic exchange between Abu Dawood and Ibn Hanbal. One of the oldest literary manuscripts of the Islamic world, dated October 879 A.D.
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Turkish mufti (17th-century Spanish drawing)
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Execution of a Moroccan woman (Sol Hachuel) on the grounds of leaving Islam (apostasy) painting by Alfred Dehodencq
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand (est. 1422)
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
The poet Saadi and a dervish go to settle their quarrel before a judge (16th century Persian miniature)
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
An unhappy wife complains to the kadı about her husband's impotence (18th century Ottoman miniature)
Muslim men reading the Quran
Warren Hastings initiated far-reaching legal reforms in the British India
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
An Ottoman courtroom (1879 A.D. drawing)
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Mahkamah Syariyah (Sharia court) in Aceh, Indonesia
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
Muhammad Abduh exercised a powerful influence on liberal reformist thought
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Shariah Court in Malacca, Malaysia.
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Taliban religious police beating a woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001, as reported by RAWA. for opening her burqa (Face).
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
Protest against Sharia in the United Kingdom (2014)
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
Countries that criminalize apostasy from Islam as of 2013. Some Muslim-majority countries impose the death penalty or a prison sentence for apostasy from Islam, or ban non-Muslims from proselytizing.
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
Same-sex intercourse illegal:
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
Al-Qaeda ideologues have used their interpretation of sharia to justify terrorist attacks
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
13th century slave market, Yemen. Slaves and concubines are considered as possessions in Sharia; they can be bought, sold, rented, gifted, shared, and inherited when owners die.
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Manuscripts found in Sana'a. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's Qur'an. Gerd R. Puin believed this to mean an evolving text. A similar phrase is used by Lawrence Conrad for biography of Muhammad. Because, according to his studies, Islamic scientific view on the date of birth of the Prophet until the second century A.H. had exhibited a diversity of 85 years.
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Blasphemy laws worldwide:
Subnational restrictions
Fines and restrictions
Prison sentences
Death sentences
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Sharia (شريعة ) is a body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

- Sharia

Sharia is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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Islamic schools of thought


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Islamic schools of thought
Legal systems of the world
Map of the Muslim world with the main madh'habs.

Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence.

Fiqh is often described as the human understanding and practices of the sharia, that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions).

The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).

Sunni Islam

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The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).
The Kaaba mosque in Mecca is the largest and most important mosque in the world.
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque of Uqba) in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia, was, particularly from the 9th—11th century, an important center of Islamic learning with an emphasis on the Maliki Madh'hab.
Muhammed accompanied by the archangels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil und Azrael. Turkish Siyer-i-Nebi-work, 1595
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.
TRT Diyanet kurumsal logo
Ahmed el-Tayeb, Great-Imam of Azhar, was one of the most important participants of the Sunni-conference in Grosny, distanced himself from the declaration
Countries with more than 95% Muslim population. 

Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims.

Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools.

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

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Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Shīʿa Islam or Shīʿīsm is the second-largest branch of Islam.

According to the doctrine of Twelver Shīʿīsm, the main goal of Imam Mahdi will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad.

The Sunan ad-Darakutni, an important work for the implication of the Sunnah


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The Sunan ad-Darakutni, an important work for the implication of the Sunnah

In Islam, ', also spelled ' (سنة), are the traditions and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad that constitute a model for Muslims to follow.

According to classical Islamic theories, the sunnah are documented by hadith (the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions or disapprovals of Muhammad), and along with the Quran (the book of Islam), are the divine revelation (Wahy) delivered through Muhammad that make up the primary sources of Islamic law and belief/theology.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Raqqa, Syria, 2014


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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Raqqa, Syria, 2014
Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani
Sayyid Qutb (سيد إبراهيم حسين قطب; 1906 – 1966) was an Egyptian Sunni islamist author and a leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.
Ruhollah Khomeini(Persian: سید روح الله خمینی), anti-secularist leader of Islamic Revolution of Iran was a student of a mystic Sheikh, Muhammad Ali Shah-Abadi.
Flag of the Taliban
The FIS emblem
The Hamas flag
Necmettin Erbakan, elected in 1996, was the second Islamist Prime Minister of Turkey after Şemsettin Günaltay, but was removed from power by a "postmodern coup d'état" in 1997.
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015
Protests against Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, Christian governor of Jakarta, 2 December 2016
Salafi-Islamist protest against anti-Islamic film Innocence of Muslims in Sydney, 15 September 2012
Afghan mujahideen representatives with President Ronald Reagan at the White House in 1983.
Muhammad Kazim Khurasani (1839 – 12 December 1911), commonly known as Akhund Khurasani is one of the greatest theorists of Usuli Shi'ism in modern times.
The trio: (left to right) Akhund Khurasani, Mirza Husayn Tehrani and Abdullah Mazandarani
Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim (سيد محسن الطباطبائي الحكيم; 31 May 1889 – 2 June 1970) was a student of Akhund Khurasani.
Ayatullah Sayyid Mohammad Hadi al-Milani (July 1, 1895 – August 7, 1975) was a student of Ayatullah Na'ini.
Ali Shariati (1933 – 1977).
Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khoei (Persian: سید ابوالقاسم خویی), 1992-1899 was a student of Ayatullah Na'ini.
Syed Abulhassan Shamsabadi was killed by Islamists in 1976.
Murtaza Mutahhari (31 January 1919 – 1 May 1979) was a moderate islamist. He believed that a jurist only had a supervisory role and was not supposed to govern.
Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Persian: سید محمد کاظم شریعتمداری), 5 January 1906 – 3 April 1986, died under house arrest.
Ruhollah Khomeini in Tehran with Ahmad Khomeini and Mohammad-Ali Rajai.

Islamism (also often called political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism) is a political ideology which posits that modern states and regions should be reconstituted in constitutional, economic and judicial terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its totality.

Islamists may emphasize the implementation of sharia, pan-Islamic political unity, the creation of Islamic states, or the outright removal of non-Muslim influences; particularly of Western or universal economic, military, political, social, or cultural nature in the Muslim world; that they believe to be incompatible with Islam and a form of Western neocolonialism.

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri. Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.


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Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri. Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.
Ijazah (diploma of competency) in Arabic calligraphy, written by 'Ali Ra'if Efendi in 1206 AH (1791 AD)
Endowment Charter (Waqfiyya) of the Hürrem Sultan Mosque, Madrasa and Imaret (soup-kitchen). AD 1556-1557 (AH 964). Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts
Seyh-ül-Islâm, watercolour, ca. 1809
Iranian Shaykh ul-Islam Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi (1627–1699)

In Islam, the ulama (علماء ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and aalimath [plural]) are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious knowledge in Islam, including Islamic doctrine and law.

The Quran and sunnah (authentic hadith) are the scriptural sources of traditional Islamic law.

An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s


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Sunni Islamic revivalist and fundamentalist movement associated with the reformist doctrines of the 18th-century Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, and activist Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (c.

Sunni Islamic revivalist and fundamentalist movement associated with the reformist doctrines of the 18th-century Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, and activist Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (c.

An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Document describing the historic meeting between Muhammad ibn Saud and Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
The First Saudi state (1744–1818)
The ruins of Dir'iyah, capital city of the First Saudi state
The Second Saudi state in 1850
Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia circa. 1910
Soldiers of the Ikhwan army
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932
King Faisal with pan-Islamist leader Hajji Amin al-Husseini, former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
Jamaat-e-Islami leader Abul A'la Maududi was influential in cementing the Islamist-Wahhabi alliance across South Asia
Dammam No. 7, the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia, which struck oil on 4th of March 1938
Mass demonstrations during the 1979 Iranian revolution
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979
Map of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, December 1979
Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman
An early photo of the Grand Mosque of Riyadh circa. 1922
Photo of a marketplace in the town of Al-Hasa circa. 1922
West Bay Skyline from Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, Qatar
Muwahhidun (Wahhabi) movement is highly influenced by the doctrines of the classical Hanbali theologian Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328 C.E/ 728 A.H)
Fath al-Majid (Divine Triumph); an explanatory treatise on Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism) by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hassan Aal ash-Shaykh (1780–1868 C.E)
Compilation of ibn Mu'ammar's treatises and Legal verdicts published by Sayyid Rashid Rida in 1925-26 C.E
Photo of a group of Wahhabi soldiers dated 1935 C.E
British Expeditionary forces sacking the coastal city of Ras al-Khaimah in December 1809
Fall of Ras al-Khaimah to the British troops during the Persian Gulf Campaign of 1819
Portrait of a Wahhabi musketeer of Emirate of Diriyah

For more than two centuries through to the present, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teachings were championed as the official form of Islam and the dominant creed in three Saudi States.

"pure Islam" (David Commins, paraphrasing supporters' definition), that does not deviate from Sharia (Islamic law) in any way and should be called Islam and not Wahhabism. ( Salman bin Abdul Aziz, King of Saudi Arabia)

"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina


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"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
"Muhammad" written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th–9th centuries)
Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh,, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. (Ilkhanate period)
The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from Gabriel in Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (1307)
The last verse from An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheism challenged the traditional order
The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.
"The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i Nebi
The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer
The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer (salat). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.
A depiction of Muhammad (with veiled face) advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.
Conquests of Muhammad (green lines) and the Rashidun caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).
Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasī’ during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).
A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Ottoman calligrapher Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698)
The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina)
The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God." in Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
Calligraphic rendering of "may God honor him and grant him peace", customarily added after Muhammad's name, encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFA..
Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Jammu and Kashmir, India, 1808.
Muhammad in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten Commandments.
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid
The Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram ash-Sharif or the Temple Mount, takes its name from the "farthest mosque" described in Surah 17, where Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE.
Muhammad, 622–632 CE.
Rashidun caliphate, 632–661 CE.
Umayyad caliphate, 661–750 CE.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (مُحَمَّد ٱبن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه, Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; c. undefined 570 – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.

Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).

Muhammad Rashid Rida

Rashid Rida

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Prominent Islamic scholar, reformer, theologian and revivalist.

Prominent Islamic scholar, reformer, theologian and revivalist.

Muhammad Rashid Rida
Wahhabi leader 'Abd al-'Azeez ibn Saud inspecting captured weapons after the Conquest of Ha'il (1921)
The city of Damascus in flames after French artillery shelling during the Syrian Revolt of 1925
Shaykh Rashid Rida with the Syrian Islamic scholar :a'Abd al-Qadir Al-Maghribi in early 1935 C.E
A rare photo of Muhammād Rashīd Rida accompanied by his acolytes

In 1919, he published Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's Kashf al-Shubuhat (Removal of Doubts); and by 1920, Rida had begun extolling ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab as a Mujadid of Islam in Nejd.

Rida's criticism of Taqlid extended well beyond the confines of Islamic law and theology to include socio-political developments.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

Salafi movement

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Reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

Reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

The name refers to advocacy of a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (salaf), the first three generations of Muslims, who are believed to exemplify the pure form of Islam.

Politically oriented scholars like Rashid Rida had also emphasized the necessity to establish an Islamic state that implements Sharia (Islamic law) and thus laid the intellectual foundations for a more conservative strand of Salafiyya, which would also influence the ideologues of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.