A report on Islam and Sunni Islam

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The Kaaba mosque in Mecca is the largest and most important mosque in the world.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque of Uqba) in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia, was, particularly from the 9th—11th century, an important center of Islamic learning with an emphasis on the Maliki Madh'hab.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muhammed accompanied by the archangels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil und Azrael. Turkish Siyer-i-Nebi-work, 1595
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
TRT Diyanet kurumsal logo
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Ahmed el-Tayeb, Great-Imam of Azhar, was one of the most important participants of the Sunni-conference in Grosny, distanced himself from the declaration
Muslim men reading the Quran
Countries with more than 95% Muslim population. 
Sunni
Shias
Ibadi
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims.

- Sunni Islam

Most of the world's Muslims belong to two notable Islamic denominations: Sunni (85–90 percent) or Shia (10–15 percent); combined, they make up a majority of the population in 49 countries.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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Overall

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

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Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
 Sunnī
 Shīʿa
 Ibadi
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Shīʿa Islam or Shīʿīsm is the second-largest branch of Islam.

This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunnī Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor before his death and consider Abū Bakr, who was appointed caliph by a group of senior Muslims at Saqifah, to be the first rightful (rāshidūn) caliph after Muhammad.

An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s

Wahhabism

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An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Document describing the historic meeting between Muhammad ibn Saud and Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
The First Saudi state (1744–1818)
The ruins of Dir'iyah, capital city of the First Saudi state
The Second Saudi state in 1850
Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia circa. 1910
Soldiers of the Ikhwan army
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932
King Faisal with pan-Islamist leader Hajji Amin al-Husseini, former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
Jamaat-e-Islami leader Abul A'la Maududi was influential in cementing the Islamist-Wahhabi alliance across South Asia
Dammam No. 7, the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia, which struck oil on 4th of March 1938
Mass demonstrations during the 1979 Iranian revolution
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979
Map of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, December 1979
Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman
An early photo of the Grand Mosque of Riyadh circa. 1922
Photo of a marketplace in the town of Al-Hasa circa. 1922
West Bay Skyline from Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, Qatar
Muwahhidun (Wahhabi) movement is highly influenced by the doctrines of the classical Hanbali theologian Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328 C.E/ 728 A.H)
Fath al-Majid (Divine Triumph); an explanatory treatise on Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism) by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hassan Aal ash-Shaykh (1780–1868 C.E)
Compilation of ibn Mu'ammar's treatises and Legal verdicts published by Sayyid Rashid Rida in 1925-26 C.E
Photo of a group of Wahhabi soldiers dated 1935 C.E
British Expeditionary forces sacking the coastal city of Ras al-Khaimah in December 1809
Fall of Ras al-Khaimah to the British troops during the Persian Gulf Campaign of 1819
Portrait of a Wahhabi musketeer of Emirate of Diriyah

Wahhabism (الوهّابية) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist and fundamentalist movement associated with the reformist doctrines of the 18th-century Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, and activist Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (c.

For more than two centuries through to the present, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teachings were championed as the official form of Islam and the dominant creed in three Saudi States.

Quran

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Muhammad's first revelation, Surah Al-Alaq, later placed 96th in the Qur'anic regulations, in current writing style
Quran − in Mashhad, Iran − said to be written by Ali
The right page of the Stanford '07 binary manuscript. The upper layer is verses 265-271 of the surah Bakara. The double-layer reveals the additions made on the first text of the Qur'an and the differences with today's Qur'an.
While standing in prayers, worshipers recite the first chapter of the Quran, al-Fatiha, followed by any other section.
First sura of the Quran, Al-Fatiha, consisting of seven verses.
A 12th-century Quran manuscript at Reza Abbasi Museum.
Verse about the month of Ramadan, second sura, verse 185. from a Quran manuscript dated to 1510
Boys studying Quran, Touba, Senegal
An early interpretation of Sura 108 of the Quran
Men reading the Quran at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria
Shia Muslim girls reciting the Quran placed atop folding lecterns (rehal) during Ramadan in Qom, Iran
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
An 11th-century North African Quran at the British Museum
Page of the Quran with vocalization marks
Quran divided into 6 books. Published by Dar Ibn Kathir, Damascus-Beirut
Page from a Quran ('Umar-i Aqta'). Iran, Afghanistan, Timurid dynasty, c. 1400. Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper in the Muqaqqaq script. 170 ×. Historical region: Uzbekistan.
Calligraphy, 18th century. Brooklyn Museum.
Quranic inscriptions, Bara Gumbad mosque, Delhi, India.
Typical mosque lamp, of enamelled glass, with the Ayat an-Nur or "Verse of Light" (24:35).
Quranic verses, Shahizinda mausoleum, Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
Quran page decoration art, Ottoman period.
The leaves from this Quran written in gold and contoured with brown ink have a horizontal format. This is admirably suited to classical Kufic calligraphy, which became common under the early Abbasid caliphs.
Manuscript of the Quran at the Brooklyn Museum
1091 Quranic text in bold script with Persian translation and commentary in a lighter script.<ref>{{Cite web|author=Alya Karame|title=Qur'ans from the Eastern Islamic World between the 4 th /10 th and 6 th /12 th Centuries |url=https://era.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1842/28999/Karame2018%20text.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y |website=The University of Edinburgh |page=109|language=en}}</ref>
Arabic Quran with interlinear Persian translation from the Ilkhanid Era.
The first printed Quran in a European vernacular language: L'Alcoran de Mahomet, André du Ryer, 1647.
Title page of the first German translation (1772) of the Quran.
Verses 33 and 34 of surat Yā Sīn in this Chinese translation of the Quran.
Folio from the "Blue" Quran. Brooklyn Museum.
kufic script, Eighth or ninth century.
maghribi script, 13th–14th centuries.
muhaqqaq script, 14th–15th centuries.
shikasta nastaliq script, 18th–19th centuries.

The Quran (, ; القرآن al-Qurʾān, 'the recitation'), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation from God.

Most suras were in use amongst early Muslims since they are mentioned in numerous sayings by both Sunni and Shia sources, relating Muhammad's use of the Quran as a call to Islam, the making of prayer and the manner of recitation.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

Salafi movement

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A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

The Salafi movement or Salafism (سلفیة) is a reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

The name refers to advocacy of a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (salaf), the first three generations of Muslims, who are believed to exemplify the pure form of Islam.

"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina

Muhammad

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"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
"Muhammad" written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th–9th centuries)
Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh,, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. (Ilkhanate period)
The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from Gabriel in Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (1307)
The last verse from An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheism challenged the traditional order
The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.
"The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i Nebi
The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer
The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer (salat). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.
A depiction of Muhammad (with veiled face) advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.
Conquests of Muhammad (green lines) and the Rashidun caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).
Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasī’ during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).
A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Ottoman calligrapher Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698)
The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina)
The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God." in Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
Calligraphic rendering of "may God honor him and grant him peace", customarily added after Muhammad's name, encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFA..
Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Jammu and Kashmir, India, 1808.
Muhammad in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten Commandments.
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid
The Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram ash-Sharif or the Temple Mount, takes its name from the "farthest mosque" described in Surah 17, where Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE.
Muhammad, 622–632 CE.
Rashidun caliphate, 632–661 CE.
Umayyad caliphate, 661–750 CE.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (مُحَمَّد ٱبن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه, Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; c. undefined 570 – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.

According to Sunni tafsir, the following Quranic verse was delivered during this event: "Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you" (Quran ).

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Raqqa, Syria, 2014

Islamism

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Political ideology which posits that modern states and regions should be reconstituted in constitutional, economic and judicial terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its totality.

Political ideology which posits that modern states and regions should be reconstituted in constitutional, economic and judicial terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its totality.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Raqqa, Syria, 2014
Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani
Sayyid Qutb (سيد إبراهيم حسين قطب; 1906 – 1966) was an Egyptian Sunni islamist author and a leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.
Ruhollah Khomeini(Persian: سید روح الله خمینی), anti-secularist leader of Islamic Revolution of Iran was a student of a mystic Sheikh, Muhammad Ali Shah-Abadi.
Flag of the Taliban
The FIS emblem
The Hamas flag
Necmettin Erbakan, elected in 1996, was the second Islamist Prime Minister of Turkey after Şemsettin Günaltay, but was removed from power by a "postmodern coup d'état" in 1997.
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015
Protests against Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, Christian governor of Jakarta, 2 December 2016
Salafi-Islamist protest against anti-Islamic film Innocence of Muslims in Sydney, 15 September 2012
Afghan mujahideen representatives with President Ronald Reagan at the White House in 1983.
Muhammad Kazim Khurasani (1839 – 12 December 1911), commonly known as Akhund Khurasani is one of the greatest theorists of Usuli Shi'ism in modern times.
The trio: (left to right) Akhund Khurasani, Mirza Husayn Tehrani and Abdullah Mazandarani
Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim (سيد محسن الطباطبائي الحكيم; 31 May 1889 – 2 June 1970) was a student of Akhund Khurasani.
Ayatullah Sayyid Mohammad Hadi al-Milani (July 1, 1895 – August 7, 1975) was a student of Ayatullah Na'ini.
Ali Shariati (1933 – 1977).
Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khoei (Persian: سید ابوالقاسم خویی), 1992-1899 was a student of Ayatullah Na'ini.
Syed Abulhassan Shamsabadi was killed by Islamists in 1976.
Murtaza Mutahhari (31 January 1919 – 1 May 1979) was a moderate islamist. He believed that a jurist only had a supervisory role and was not supposed to govern.
Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Persian: سید محمد کاظم شریعتمداری), 5 January 1906 – 3 April 1986, died under house arrest.
Ruhollah Khomeini in Tehran with Ahmad Khomeini and Mohammad-Ali Rajai.

Islamists may emphasize the implementation of sharia, pan-Islamic political unity, the creation of Islamic states, or the outright removal of non-Muslim influences; particularly of Western or universal economic, military, political, social, or cultural nature in the Muslim world; that they believe to be incompatible with Islam and a form of Western neocolonialism.

Olivier Roy argues that "Sunni pan-Islamism underwent a remarkable shift in the second half of the 20th century" when the Muslim Brotherhood movement and its focus on Islamisation of pan-Arabism was eclipsed by the Salafi movement with its emphasis on "sharia rather than the building of Islamic institutions," and rejection of Shia Islam.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.

Sharia

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Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.
The jurists of Iran, (Grand Ayatollahs / ayetullâhi'l-uzmâ). Faqih is a title given to the ulama who derive social rules from the texts of the Qur'an and hadith.
Juristic exchange between Abu Dawood and Ibn Hanbal. One of the oldest literary manuscripts of the Islamic world, dated October 879 A.D.
Turkish mufti (17th-century Spanish drawing)
Execution of a Moroccan woman (Sol Hachuel) on the grounds of leaving Islam (apostasy) painting by Alfred Dehodencq
Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand (est. 1422)
The poet Saadi and a dervish go to settle their quarrel before a judge (16th century Persian miniature)
An unhappy wife complains to the kadı about her husband's impotence (18th century Ottoman miniature)
Warren Hastings initiated far-reaching legal reforms in the British India
An Ottoman courtroom (1879 A.D. drawing)
Mahkamah Syariyah (Sharia court) in Aceh, Indonesia
Muhammad Abduh exercised a powerful influence on liberal reformist thought
Shariah Court in Malacca, Malaysia.
Taliban religious police beating a woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001, as reported by RAWA. for opening her burqa (Face).
Protest against Sharia in the United Kingdom (2014)
Countries that criminalize apostasy from Islam as of 2013. Some Muslim-majority countries impose the death penalty or a prison sentence for apostasy from Islam, or ban non-Muslims from proselytizing.
Same-sex intercourse illegal:
Al-Qaeda ideologues have used their interpretation of sharia to justify terrorist attacks
13th century slave market, Yemen. Slaves and concubines are considered as possessions in Sharia; they can be bought, sold, rented, gifted, shared, and inherited when owners die.
Manuscripts found in Sana'a. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's Qur'an. Gerd R. Puin believed this to mean an evolving text. A similar phrase is used by Lawrence Conrad for biography of Muhammad. Because, according to his studies, Islamic scientific view on the date of birth of the Prophet until the second century A.H. had exhibited a diversity of 85 years.
Blasphemy laws worldwide:
Subnational restrictions
Fines and restrictions
Prison sentences
Death sentences

Sharia (شريعة ) is a body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

Qiyas: It is the Analogical reasoning that is used to derive a ruling for a situation not addressed in the scripture by analogy with a scripturally based rule. In a classic example, the Quranic prohibition of drinking wine is extended to all intoxicating substances, on the basis of the "cause" (ʿilla) shared by these situations, which in this case is identified to be intoxication. Since the cause of a rule may not be apparent, its selection commonly occasioned controversy and extensive debate. Majority of Sunni Muslims view Qiyas as a central Pillar of Ijtihad. On the other hand; Zahirites, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Bukhari, early Hanbalites, etc rejected Qiyas amongst the Sunnis. Twelver Shia jurisprudence also does not recognize the use of qiyas, but relies on reason (ʿaql) in its place.

Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule

Caliphate

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Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule
The Caliphate, 622–750
Mustansiriya Madrasah in Baghdad
Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000
The Almohad empire at its greatest extent, c. 1180–1212
Map of the Fatimid Caliphate at its largest extent in the early 11th century
Ayyubid Sultanate (in pink) at the death of Saladin in 1193
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, under Sultan Mehmed IV
Abdulmejid II, the last caliph of Sunni Islam from the Ottoman dynasty, with his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan
Official portrait of Abdulmejid II as caliph
Hafiz Muhiuddin Aurangzeb, unlike his predecessors, was considered to be a Caliph of India
The Ahmadiyya flag, first designed in 1939, during the leadership of the Second Caliph
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015
Military situation in Libya in early 2016:
Location dot grey.svg Ansar al-Sharia Location dot black.svg Islamic State
Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000

A caliphate or khilāfah (خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under Islamic rule.

In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517 and maintained Sunni Islam as the official religion.

Islamic schools of thought

Fiqh

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Islamic schools of thought
Legal systems of the world
Map of the Muslim world with the main madh'habs.

Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence.

In the modern era, there are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two (or three) within Shi'a practice.

The Sunan ad-Darakutni, an important work for the implication of the Sunnah

Sunnah

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The Sunan ad-Darakutni, an important work for the implication of the Sunnah

In Islam, ', also spelled ' (سنة), are the traditions and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad that constitute a model for Muslims to follow.

Sunni Muslims are also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa'l-Jamā'ah ("people of the tradition and the community (of Muhammad)") or Ahl as-Sunnah for short.