A report on Islam and Wahhabism

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
Document describing the historic meeting between Muhammad ibn Saud and Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
The First Saudi state (1744–1818)
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
The ruins of Dir'iyah, capital city of the First Saudi state
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
The Second Saudi state in 1850
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia circa. 1910
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Soldiers of the Ikhwan army
Muslim men reading the Quran
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
King Faisal with pan-Islamist leader Hajji Amin al-Husseini, former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Jamaat-e-Islami leader Abul A'la Maududi was influential in cementing the Islamist-Wahhabi alliance across South Asia
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
Dammam No. 7, the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia, which struck oil on 4th of March 1938
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Mass demonstrations during the 1979 Iranian revolution
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
Map of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, December 1979
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
An early photo of the Grand Mosque of Riyadh circa. 1922
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
Photo of a marketplace in the town of Al-Hasa circa. 1922
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
West Bay Skyline from Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, Qatar
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Muwahhidun (Wahhabi) movement is highly influenced by the doctrines of the classical Hanbali theologian Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328 C.E/ 728 A.H)
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Fath al-Majid (Divine Triumph); an explanatory treatise on Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism) by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hassan Aal ash-Shaykh (1780–1868 C.E)
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Compilation of ibn Mu'ammar's treatises and Legal verdicts published by Sayyid Rashid Rida in 1925-26 C.E
Islamic veils represent modesty
Photo of a group of Wahhabi soldiers dated 1935 C.E
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
British Expeditionary forces sacking the coastal city of Ras al-Khaimah in December 1809
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Fall of Ras al-Khaimah to the British troops during the Persian Gulf Campaign of 1819
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Portrait of a Wahhabi musketeer of Emirate of Diriyah
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

For more than two centuries through to the present, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teachings were championed as the official form of Islam and the dominant creed in three Saudi States.

- Wahhabism

During the 18th century in Arabia, Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, influenced by the works of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim, founded a movement, called Wahhabi with their self-designation as Muwahiddun, to return to what he saw as unadultered Islam.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

35 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).

Sunni Islam

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The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).
The Kaaba mosque in Mecca is the largest and most important mosque in the world.
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque of Uqba) in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia, was, particularly from the 9th—11th century, an important center of Islamic learning with an emphasis on the Maliki Madh'hab.
Muhammed accompanied by the archangels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil und Azrael. Turkish Siyer-i-Nebi-work, 1595
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.
TRT Diyanet kurumsal logo
Ahmed el-Tayeb, Great-Imam of Azhar, was one of the most important participants of the Sunni-conference in Grosny, distanced himself from the declaration
Countries with more than 95% Muslim population. 
Sunni
Shias
Ibadi

Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims.

It was later popularized by pan-Islamic scholars such as Muhammad Rashid Rida in his treatise as-Sunna wa-š-šiʿa au al-Wahhābīya wa-r-Rāfiḍa: Ḥaqāʾiq dīnīya taʾrīḫīya iǧtimaʿīya iṣlaḥīya ("The Sunna and the Shia, Or Wahhabism and Rāfidism: religious history, sociological und reformoriented facts“) published in 1928-29 C.E. The term "sunna" is usually used in Arabic discourse as designation for Sunni Muslims, when they are intended to be contrasted with Shias. The word pair "Sunnah-Shia" is also used on Western research literature to denote the Sunni-Shia contrast.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

Salafi movement

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Reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

Reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

The name refers to advocacy of a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (salaf), the first three generations of Muslims, who are believed to exemplify the pure form of Islam.

Some of the major Salafi reform movements in the Islamic world today include the Ahl-i Hadith movement, inspired by the teachings of Shah Waliullah Dehlvi and galvanized through the South Asian jihad of Sayyid Ahmad Shahid; the Wahhabi movement of the Arabia; the Padri movement of Indonesia; Algerian Salafism, spearheaded by 'Abd al-Hamid Bin Badis; and others.

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

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Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
 Sunnī
 Shīʿa
 Ibadi
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Shīʿa Islam or Shīʿīsm is the second-largest branch of Islam.

Most of the Shīʿa sacred places and heritage sites in Saudi Arabia have been destroyed by the Al Saud-Wahhabi armies of the Ikhwan, the most notable being the tombs of the Imams located in the Al-Baqi' cemetery in 1925.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Raqqa, Syria, 2014

Islamism

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Political ideology which posits that modern states and regions should be reconstituted in constitutional, economic and judicial terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its totality.

Political ideology which posits that modern states and regions should be reconstituted in constitutional, economic and judicial terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its totality.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Raqqa, Syria, 2014
Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani
Sayyid Qutb (سيد إبراهيم حسين قطب; 1906 – 1966) was an Egyptian Sunni islamist author and a leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s.
Ruhollah Khomeini(Persian: سید روح الله خمینی), anti-secularist leader of Islamic Revolution of Iran was a student of a mystic Sheikh, Muhammad Ali Shah-Abadi.
Flag of the Taliban
The FIS emblem
The Hamas flag
Necmettin Erbakan, elected in 1996, was the second Islamist Prime Minister of Turkey after Şemsettin Günaltay, but was removed from power by a "postmodern coup d'état" in 1997.
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015
Protests against Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, Christian governor of Jakarta, 2 December 2016
Salafi-Islamist protest against anti-Islamic film Innocence of Muslims in Sydney, 15 September 2012
Afghan mujahideen representatives with President Ronald Reagan at the White House in 1983.
Muhammad Kazim Khurasani (1839 – 12 December 1911), commonly known as Akhund Khurasani is one of the greatest theorists of Usuli Shi'ism in modern times.
The trio: (left to right) Akhund Khurasani, Mirza Husayn Tehrani and Abdullah Mazandarani
Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim (سيد محسن الطباطبائي الحكيم; 31 May 1889 – 2 June 1970) was a student of Akhund Khurasani.
Ayatullah Sayyid Mohammad Hadi al-Milani (July 1, 1895 – August 7, 1975) was a student of Ayatullah Na'ini.
Ali Shariati (1933 – 1977).
Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khoei (Persian: سید ابوالقاسم خویی), 1992-1899 was a student of Ayatullah Na'ini.
Syed Abulhassan Shamsabadi was killed by Islamists in 1976.
Murtaza Mutahhari (31 January 1919 – 1 May 1979) was a moderate islamist. He believed that a jurist only had a supervisory role and was not supposed to govern.
Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari (Persian: سید محمد کاظم شریعتمداری), 5 January 1906 – 3 April 1986, died under house arrest.
Ruhollah Khomeini in Tehran with Ahmad Khomeini and Mohammad-Ali Rajai.

Islamists may emphasize the implementation of sharia, pan-Islamic political unity, the creation of Islamic states, or the outright removal of non-Muslim influences; particularly of Western or universal economic, military, political, social, or cultural nature in the Muslim world; that they believe to be incompatible with Islam and a form of Western neocolonialism.

Another major division within Islamism is between what Graham E. Fuller has described as the fundamentalist "guardians of the tradition" (Salafis, such as those in the Wahhabi movement) and the "vanguard of change and Islamic reform" centered around the Muslim Brotherhood.

Saudi Arabia

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Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

The world's second-largest religion, Islam, emerged in what is now Saudi Arabia.

The ultraconservative Wahhabi religious movement within Sunni Islam has been described as a "predominant feature of Saudi culture", although the power of the religious establishment has been significantly eroded in the 2010s.

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

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Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy
An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula (circa 1740s)
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
A 20th century illustration of the Pact of Dir'iyah
Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state (1727–1818)
Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism), the most popular treatise of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, the national mosque of Qatar
Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh al-Najd by chronicler Uthman ibn 'Abdullah Ibn Bishr
A portrait of the entrance to the city of Diriyah

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab ibn Sulayman al-Tamimi (محمد ابن عبدالوهاب ابن سليمان; 1703–1792) was an Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, activist, religious leader, reformer, and theologian from Najd in central Arabia, considered as the eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement.

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud agreed that, together, they would bring the Arabs of the peninsula back to the "true" principles of Islam as they saw it.

Ibn Taymiyyah rendered in Islamic calligraphy.

Ibn Taymiyyah

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Sunni ʿĀlim, muhaddith, judge, philosopher, proto-Salafist theologian, and sometimes controversial thinker and political figure.

Sunni ʿĀlim, muhaddith, judge, philosopher, proto-Salafist theologian, and sometimes controversial thinker and political figure.

Ibn Taymiyyah rendered in Islamic calligraphy.
Ibn Taymiyyah rendered in Islamic calligraphy.
Umayyad Mosque, a place where Ibn Taimiyya used to give lessons.
An artist illustrated of Ghazan Khan, a historical figure harshly rebuked by Ibn Taymiyyah, mainly due to his constant state of hostility towards the Mamluks of Egypt.
Citadel of Cairo, the place where Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned for 18 months
The Citadel of Damascus, the prison Ibn Taymiyyah died in
Last page of a manuscript of Al-Risala al-Tadmuriyyah (The Palmyran Message) by Ibn Taymiyyah, an Athari creedal epistle that advocated Qur'anic literalism on the subject of names and attributes of God
Talaat Library Manuscript Copy of Ibn Taymiyya's ten-volume magnum opus Darʾ taʿāruḍ al-ʿaql wa-l-naql (Refutation of the contradiction of reason and revelation)
Ibn Taymiyyah witnessed conversions to Islam as a growing trend among many Mongols.

In the contemporary world, he may be considered at the root of Wahhabism, the Senussi order and other later reformist movements.

For Ibn Taymiyyah it was the Qur'an, the sayings and practices of Muhammad and the ideas of the early generations of Muslims that constituted the best understanding of Islam.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.

Sharia

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Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.
The jurists of Iran, (Grand Ayatollahs / ayetullâhi'l-uzmâ). Faqih is a title given to the ulama who derive social rules from the texts of the Qur'an and hadith.
Juristic exchange between Abu Dawood and Ibn Hanbal. One of the oldest literary manuscripts of the Islamic world, dated October 879 A.D.
Turkish mufti (17th-century Spanish drawing)
Execution of a Moroccan woman (Sol Hachuel) on the grounds of leaving Islam (apostasy) painting by Alfred Dehodencq
Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand (est. 1422)
The poet Saadi and a dervish go to settle their quarrel before a judge (16th century Persian miniature)
An unhappy wife complains to the kadı about her husband's impotence (18th century Ottoman miniature)
Warren Hastings initiated far-reaching legal reforms in the British India
An Ottoman courtroom (1879 A.D. drawing)
Mahkamah Syariyah (Sharia court) in Aceh, Indonesia
Muhammad Abduh exercised a powerful influence on liberal reformist thought
Shariah Court in Malacca, Malaysia.
Taliban religious police beating a woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001, as reported by RAWA. for opening her burqa (Face).
Protest against Sharia in the United Kingdom (2014)
Countries that criminalize apostasy from Islam as of 2013. Some Muslim-majority countries impose the death penalty or a prison sentence for apostasy from Islam, or ban non-Muslims from proselytizing.
Same-sex intercourse illegal:
Al-Qaeda ideologues have used their interpretation of sharia to justify terrorist attacks
13th century slave market, Yemen. Slaves and concubines are considered as possessions in Sharia; they can be bought, sold, rented, gifted, shared, and inherited when owners die.
Manuscripts found in Sana'a. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's Qur'an. Gerd R. Puin believed this to mean an evolving text. A similar phrase is used by Lawrence Conrad for biography of Muhammad. Because, according to his studies, Islamic scientific view on the date of birth of the Prophet until the second century A.H. had exhibited a diversity of 85 years.
Blasphemy laws worldwide:
Subnational restrictions
Fines and restrictions
Prison sentences
Death sentences

Sharia (شريعة ) is a body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

The Hanbali school, with its particularly strict adherence to the Quran and hadith, has inspired conservative currents of direct scriptural interpretation by the Salafi and Wahhabi movements.

Map of the Muslim world. Hanbali (dark green) is the predominant Sunni school in Saudi Arabia and Qatar.

Hanbali

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One of the four major traditional Sunni schools (madhahib) of Islamic jurisprudence.

One of the four major traditional Sunni schools (madhahib) of Islamic jurisprudence.

Map of the Muslim world. Hanbali (dark green) is the predominant Sunni school in Saudi Arabia and Qatar.

In cases where there is no clear answer in sacred texts of Islam, the Hanbali school does not accept istihsan (jurist discretion) or 'urf (customs of a community) as a sound basis to derive Islamic law, a method that Hanafi and Maliki Sunni madh'habs accept.

The Hanbali school experienced a reformation during the 18th-century Wahhabi movement.

Six Sufi masters, c. 1760

Sufism

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Six Sufi masters, c. 1760
Dancing dervishes, by Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād (c. 1480–1490)
A Sufi in Ecstasy in a Landscape. Isfahan, Safavid Persia (c. 1650–1660), LACMA.
A Mughal miniature dated from the early 1620s depicting the Mughal emperor Jahangir (d. 1627) preferring an audience with Sufi saint to his contemporaries, the Ottoman Sultan and the King of England James I (d. 1625); the picture is inscribed in Persian: "Though outwardly shahs stand before him, he fixes his gazes on dervishes."
Blagaj Tekke, built c. 1520 next to the Buna wellspring cavern beneath a high vertical karstic cliff, in Blagaj, Bosnia. The natural and architectural ensemble, proposed for UNESCO inscription, forms a spatially and topographically self-contained ensemble, and is National Monument of Bosnia.
Whirling dervishes of the Mevlevi Order photographed by Pascal Sébah (Istanbul, 1870)
Sufi Tanoura twirling in Muizz Street, Cairo
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam located in Multan, Pakistan. Known for its multitude of Sufi shrines, Multan is nicknamed the "City of Saints".
Man holding the hem of his beloved, an expression of a Sufi's agony of longing for the divine union
The name of Muhammad in Islamic calligraphy. Sufis believe the name of Muhammad is holy and sacred.
Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Tomb of Sayyid Ali Hamadani, Kulob, Tajikistan
The mausoleum (gongbei) of Ma Laichi in Linxia City, China
Sufi gathering engaged in dhikr
The name of Allah as written on the disciple's heart, according to the Sarwari Qadri Order
An Algerian Sufi in Murāqabah. La prière by Eugène Girardet.
Whirling Dervishes, at Rumi Fest 2007
A Persian miniature depicting the medieval saint and mystic Ahmad Ghazali (d. 1123), brother of the famous Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111), talking to a disciple, from the Meetings of the Lovers (1552)
Sufi mosque in Esfahan, Iran
The works of Al-Ghazali firmly defended the concepts of Sufism within the Islamic faith.
Geometric tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz
A manuscript of Sufi Islamic theology, Shams al-Ma'arif (The Book of the Sun of Gnosis), was written by the Algerian Sufi master Ahmad al-Buni during the 12th century.
A Mughal-era Sufi prayer book from the Chishti order
Depiction of Rabi'a grinding grain from a Persian dictionary
Muslim pilgrims gathered around the Ḍarīẖ covering the grave (qabr) of the 13th-century Sufi saint Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (shrine located in Sehwan Sharif, Pakistan); on 16 February 2017, ISIS claimed responsibility for a suicide attack on the shrine which resulted in the deaths of 90 people.
A choreographed Sufi performance on a Friday in Sudan
A 17th-century miniature of Nasreddin, a Seljuk satirical figure, currently in the Topkapı Palace Museum Library
Urs of Islamic Naqshbandi saints of Allo Mahar is celebrated on 23 March every year

Sufism (الصُّوفِيَّة aṣ-ṣūfiyya), also known as Tasawwuf (التَّصَوُّف at-taṣawwuf), is a mystic body of religious practice, found mainly within Sunni Islam which is characterized by a focus on Islamic spirituality, ritualism, asceticism and esotericism.

Despite a relative decline of Sufi orders in the modern era and attacks from revivalist Islamic movement (such as the Salafis and Wahhabis), Sufism has continued to play an important role in the Islamic world, especially in the neo-traditionalist strand of Sunni Islam.