Islam

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

281 related topics

Alpha

"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina

Muhammad

"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
"Muhammad" written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th–9th centuries)
Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh,, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. (Ilkhanate period)
The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from Gabriel in Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (1307)
The last verse from An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheism challenged the traditional order
The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.
"The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i Nebi
The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer
The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer (salat). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.
A depiction of Muhammad (with veiled face) advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.
Conquests of Muhammad (green lines) and the Rashidun caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).
Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasī’ during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).
A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Ottoman calligrapher Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698)
The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina)
The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God." in Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
Calligraphic rendering of "may God honor him and grant him peace", customarily added after Muhammad's name, encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFA..
Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Jammu and Kashmir, India, 1808.
Muhammad in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten Commandments.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (مُحَمَّد ٱبن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه, Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; c. undefined 570 – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
 Sunnī
 Shīʿa
 Ibadi
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Shīʿa Islam or Shīʿīsm is the second-largest branch of Islam.

Quran

Muhammad's first revelation, Surah Al-Alaq, later placed 96th in the Qur'anic regulations, in current writing style
Quran − in Mashhad, Iran − said to be written by Ali
The right page of the Stanford '07 binary manuscript. The upper layer is verses 265-271 of the surah Bakara. The double-layer reveals the additions made on the first text of the Qur'an and the differences with today's Qur'an.
While standing in prayers, worshipers recite the first chapter of the Quran, al-Fatiha, followed by any other section.
First sura of the Quran, Al-Fatiha, consisting of seven verses.
A 12th-century Quran manuscript at Reza Abbasi Museum.
Verse about the month of Ramadan, second sura, verse 185. from a Quran manuscript dated to 1510
Boys studying Quran, Touba, Senegal
An early interpretation of Sura 108 of the Quran
Men reading the Quran at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria
Shia Muslim girls reciting the Quran placed atop folding lecterns (rehal) during Ramadan in Qom, Iran
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
An 11th-century North African Quran at the British Museum
Page of the Quran with vocalization marks
Quran divided into 6 books. Published by Dar Ibn Kathir, Damascus-Beirut
Page from a Quran ('Umar-i Aqta'). Iran, Afghanistan, Timurid dynasty, c. 1400. Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper in the Muqaqqaq script. 170 ×. Historical region: Uzbekistan.
Calligraphy, 18th century. Brooklyn Museum.
Quranic inscriptions, Bara Gumbad mosque, Delhi, India.
Typical mosque lamp, of enamelled glass, with the Ayat an-Nur or "Verse of Light" (24:35).
Quranic verses, Shahizinda mausoleum, Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
Quran page decoration art, Ottoman period.
The leaves from this Quran written in gold and contoured with brown ink have a horizontal format. This is admirably suited to classical Kufic calligraphy, which became common under the early Abbasid caliphs.
Manuscript of the Quran at the Brooklyn Museum
1091 Quranic text in bold script with Persian translation and commentary in a lighter script.<ref>{{Cite web|author=Alya Karame|title=Qur'ans from the Eastern Islamic World between the 4 th /10 th and 6 th /12 th Centuries |url=https://era.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1842/28999/Karame2018%20text.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y |website=The University of Edinburgh |page=109|language=en}}</ref>
Arabic Quran with interlinear Persian translation from the Ilkhanid Era.
The first printed Quran in a European vernacular language: L'Alcoran de Mahomet, André du Ryer, 1647.
Title page of the first German translation (1772) of the Quran.
Verses 33 and 34 of surat Yā Sīn in this Chinese translation of the Quran.
Folio from the "Blue" Quran. Brooklyn Museum.
kufic script, Eighth or ninth century.
maghribi script, 13th–14th centuries.
muhaqqaq script, 14th–15th centuries.
shikasta nastaliq script, 18th–19th centuries.

The Quran (, ; القرآن al-Qurʾān, 'the recitation'), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation from God.

The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).

Sunni Islam

The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).
The Kaaba mosque in Mecca is the largest and most important mosque in the world.
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque of Uqba) in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia, was, particularly from the 9th—11th century, an important center of Islamic learning with an emphasis on the Maliki Madh'hab.
Muhammed accompanied by the archangels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil und Azrael. Turkish Siyer-i-Nebi-work, 1595
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.
TRT Diyanet kurumsal logo
Ahmed el-Tayeb, Great-Imam of Azhar, was one of the most important participants of the Sunni-conference in Grosny, distanced himself from the declaration

Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims.

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.

Sharia

Coin of the Rashidun Caliphate. Dated AH 36 (AD 656). Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II, bismillah in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; In many cases, reliefs and pictures, which were not a problem at first, considered sin by the interpretations of the ulama, and symbols representing other faiths are considered blasphemy, and are completely excluded from social life later.
The jurists of Iran, (Grand Ayatollahs / ayetullâhi'l-uzmâ). Faqih is a title given to the ulama who derive social rules from the texts of the Qur'an and hadith.
Juristic exchange between Abu Dawood and Ibn Hanbal. One of the oldest literary manuscripts of the Islamic world, dated October 879 A.D.
Turkish mufti (17th-century Spanish drawing)
Execution of a Moroccan woman (Sol Hachuel) on the grounds of leaving Islam (apostasy) painting by Alfred Dehodencq
Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand (est. 1422)
The poet Saadi and a dervish go to settle their quarrel before a judge (16th century Persian miniature)
An unhappy wife complains to the kadı about her husband's impotence (18th century Ottoman miniature)
Warren Hastings initiated far-reaching legal reforms in the British India
An Ottoman courtroom (1879 A.D. drawing)
Mahkamah Syariyah (Sharia court) in Aceh, Indonesia
Muhammad Abduh exercised a powerful influence on liberal reformist thought
Shariah Court in Malacca, Malaysia.
Taliban religious police beating a woman in Kabul on 26 August 2001, as reported by RAWA. for opening her burqa (Face).
Protest against Sharia in the United Kingdom (2014)
Countries that criminalize apostasy from Islam as of 2013. Some Muslim-majority countries impose the death penalty or a prison sentence for apostasy from Islam, or ban non-Muslims from proselytizing.
Same-sex intercourse illegal:
Al-Qaeda ideologues have used their interpretation of sharia to justify terrorist attacks
13th century slave market, Yemen. Slaves and concubines are considered as possessions in Sharia; they can be bought, sold, rented, gifted, shared, and inherited when owners die.
Manuscripts found in Sana'a. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's Qur'an. Gerd R. Puin believed this to mean an evolving text. A similar phrase is used by Lawrence Conrad for biography of Muhammad. Because, according to his studies, Islamic scientific view on the date of birth of the Prophet until the second century A.H. had exhibited a diversity of 85 years.

Sharia (شريعة ) is a body of religious law that forms part of the Islamic tradition.

Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule

Caliphate

Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule
The Caliphate, 622–750
Mustansiriya Madrasah in Baghdad
Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000
The Almohad empire at its greatest extent, c. 1180–1212
Map of the Fatimid Caliphate at its largest extent in the early 11th century
Ayyubid Sultanate (in pink) at the death of Saladin in 1193
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, under Sultan Mehmed IV
Abdulmejid II, the last caliph of Sunni Islam from the Ottoman dynasty, with his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan
Official portrait of Abdulmejid II as caliph
Hafiz Muhiuddin Aurangzeb, unlike his predecessors, was considered to be a Caliph of India
The Ahmadiyya flag, first designed in 1939, during the leadership of the Second Caliph
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015
Military situation in Libya in early 2016:
Location dot grey.svg Ansar al-Sharia Location dot black.svg Islamic State

A caliphate or khilāfah (خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under Islamic rule.

An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s

Wahhabism

Sunni revivalist and fundamentalist movement associated with the reformist doctrines of the 18th-century Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, and activist Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (c.

Sunni revivalist and fundamentalist movement associated with the reformist doctrines of the 18th-century Arabian Islamic scholar, theologian, preacher, and activist Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (c.

An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula circa. 1740s
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Document describing the historic meeting between Muhammad ibn Saud and Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
The First Saudi state (1744–1818)
The ruins of Dir'iyah, capital city of the First Saudi state
The Second Saudi state in 1850
Ibn Saud, the first king of Saudi Arabia circa. 1910
Soldiers of the Ikhwan army
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932
King Faisal with pan-Islamist leader Hajji Amin al-Husseini, former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
Jamaat-e-Islami leader Abul A'la Maududi was influential in cementing the Islamist-Wahhabi alliance across South Asia
Dammam No. 7, the first commercial oil well in Saudi Arabia, which struck oil on 4th of March 1938
Mass demonstrations during the 1979 Iranian revolution
Smoke rising from the Grand Mosque during the assault on the Marwa-Safa gallery, 1979
Map of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, December 1979
Saudi Crown Prince Muhammad Bin Salman
An early photo of the Grand Mosque of Riyadh circa. 1922
Photo of a marketplace in the town of Al-Hasa circa. 1922
West Bay Skyline from Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, Qatar
Muwahhidun (Wahhabi) movement is highly influenced by the doctrines of the classical Hanbali theologian Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328 C.E/ 728 A.H)
Fath al-Majid (Divine Triumph); an explanatory treatise on Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism) by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Hassan Aal ash-Shaykh (1780–1868 C.E)
Compilation of ibn Mu'ammar's treatises and Legal verdicts published by Sayyid Rashid Rida in 1925-26 C.E
Photo of a group of Wahhabi soldiers dated 1935 C.E

For more than two centuries through to the present, Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's teachings were championed as the official form of Islam and the dominant creed in three Saudi States.

Mecca

Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910

Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah (مكة المكرمة, ) and commonly shortened to Makkah (مكة, ), is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

Prayer in Cairo (1865)
Jean-Léon Gérôme

Muslims

Prayer in Cairo (1865)
Jean-Léon Gérôme
World Muslim population by percentage ( from Pew Research Center)
A map of Muslim populations by absolute number

Muslims (مسلم, ) are people who adhere to Islam, an Abrahamic religion.

Six Sufi masters, c. 1760

Sufism

Six Sufi masters, c. 1760
Dancing dervishes, by Kamāl ud-Dīn Behzād (c. 1480–1490)
A Sufi in Ecstasy in a Landscape. Isfahan, Safavid Persia (c. 1650–1660), LACMA.
A Mughal miniature dated from the early 1620s depicting the Mughal emperor Jahangir (d. 1627) preferring an audience with Sufi saint to his contemporaries, the Ottoman Sultan and the King of England James I (d. 1625); the picture is inscribed in Persian: "Though outwardly shahs stand before him, he fixes his gazes on dervishes."
Blagaj Tekke, built c. 1520 next to the Buna wellspring cavern beneath a high vertical karstic cliff, in Blagaj, Bosnia. The natural and architectural ensemble, proposed for UNESCO inscription, forms a spatially and topographically self-contained ensemble, and is National Monument of Bosnia.
Whirling dervishes of the Mevlevi Order photographed by Pascal Sébah (Istanbul, 1870)
Sufi Tanoura twirling in Muizz Street, Cairo
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam located in Multan, Pakistan. Known for its multitude of Sufi shrines, Multan is nicknamed the "City of Saints".
Man holding the hem of his beloved, an expression of a Sufi's agony of longing for the divine union
The name of Muhammad in Islamic calligraphy. Sufis believe the name of Muhammad is holy and sacred.
Tomb of Salim Chishti, Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Tomb of Sayyid Ali Hamadani, Kulob, Tajikistan
The mausoleum (gongbei) of Ma Laichi in Linxia City, China
Sufi gathering engaged in dhikr
The name of Allah as written on the disciple's heart, according to the Sarwari Qadri Order
An Algerian Sufi in Murāqabah. La prière by Eugène Girardet.
Whirling Dervishes, at Rumi Fest 2007
A Persian miniature depicting the medieval saint and mystic Ahmad Ghazali (d. 1123), brother of the famous Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111), talking to a disciple, from the Meetings of the Lovers (1552)
Sufi mosque in Esfahan, Iran
The works of Al-Ghazali firmly defended the concepts of Sufism within the Islamic faith.
Geometric tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz
A manuscript of Sufi Islamic theology, Shams al-Ma'arif (The Book of the Sun of Gnosis), was written by the Algerian Sufi master Ahmad al-Buni during the 12th century.
A Mughal-era Sufi prayer book from the Chishti order
Depiction of Rabi'a grinding grain from a Persian dictionary
Muslim pilgrims gathered around the Ḍarīẖ covering the grave (qabr) of the 13th-century Sufi saint Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (shrine located in Sehwan Sharif, Pakistan); on 16 February 2017, ISIS claimed responsibility for a suicide attack on the shrine which resulted in the deaths of 90 people.
A choreographed Sufi performance on a Friday in Sudan
A 17th-century miniature of Nasreddin, a Seljuk satirical figure, currently in the Topkapı Palace Museum Library
Urs of Islamic Naqshbandi saints of Allo Mahar is celebrated on 23 March every year

Sufism (الصُّوفِيَّة aṣ-ṣūfiyya), also known as Tasawwuf (التَّصَوُّف at-taṣawwuf), is a mystic body of religious practice within Islam characterized by a focus on Islamic spirituality, ritualism, asceticism and esotericism.