Islam

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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Ibn Taymiyyah rendered in Islamic calligraphy.

Ibn Taymiyyah

Sunni Islamic scholar, muhaddith, judge, philosopher, and sometimes controversial thinker and political figure.

Sunni Islamic scholar, muhaddith, judge, philosopher, and sometimes controversial thinker and political figure.

Ibn Taymiyyah rendered in Islamic calligraphy.
Umayyad Mosque, a place where Ibn Taimiyya used to give lessons.
An artist illustrated of Ghazan Khan, a historical figure harshly rebuked by Ibn Taymiyyah, mainly due to his constant state of hostility towards the Mamluks of Egypt.
Citadel of Cairo, the place where Ibn Taymiyyah was imprisoned for 18 months
The Citadel of Damascus, the prison Ibn Taymiyyah died in
Last page of a manuscript of Al-Risala al-Tadmuriyyah (The Palmyran Message) by Ibn Taymiyyah, an Athari creedal epistle that advocated Qur'anic literalism on the subject of names and attributes of God
Talaat Library Manuscript Copy of Ibn Taymiyya's ten-volume magnum opus Darʾ taʿāruḍ al-ʿaql wa-l-naql (Refutation of the contradiction of reason and revelation)
Ibn Taymiyyah witnessed conversions to Islam as a growing trend among many Mongols.

For Ibn Taymiyyah it was the Qur'an, the sayings and practices of Muhammad and the ideas of the early generations of Muslims that constituted the best understanding of Islam.

Medina

8th century rock inscription discovered in Madinah, refers to the city as 'Taybah'
17th century CE bronze token depicting prophet's Mosque, the inscription below reads 'Madinah Shareef' (Noble City)
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Three of the Seven Mosques at the site of the Battle of the Trench were combined into the modern Masjid al-Fath, here pictured with Jabal Sal'aa in the background and a shop selling local goods in the foreground.
The Green Dome was built in 1297 CE over Muhammad's rawdhah (residence) and site of burial.
The Gold dinar of Umar II, also known as 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz or the Fifth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
Tomb of Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, who started a tradition of greatly funding Medina and protecting pilgrims visiting the holy city.
The Medina sanctuary and Green Dome, photographed in 1880 by Muhammad Sadiq. The dome was built during the Mamluk period, but given its signature color by the Ottomans nearly 600 years later.
Muhammad Ali Pasha, who kept Medina in a peaceful and prosperous state for around 30 years after taking it from the First Saudi State.
The Hejaz railway track near Wadi Rum in Jordan. Jordan uses the railway today for transporting phosphate.
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right.
The train which Fakhri Pasha used to transport the Sacred Relics from Medina to Istanbul.
Mount Uhud at night. The mountain is currently the highest peak in Medina and stands at 1,077 m (3,533 ft) of elevation.
Panoramic view of the Prophet's Mosque, from the east at sunset.
Medina Sex Pyramid Chart as of 2018
Madinah Arts Center
Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.
Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz Airport
A government-run bus in Medina at Salam Rd. Station
Haramain high-speed railway station at Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (المدينة المنورة, ) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (المدينة, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam, and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia.

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)

Muslim world

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)
A Seljuq, shatranj (chess) set, glazed fritware, 12th century.
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Muslim polymath from Al Andalus.
The Spinning wheel is believed to have been invented in the medieval era (of what is now the Greater Middle East), it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. (scene from Al-Maqamat, painted by al-Wasiti 1237)
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim communities found in various lands. Note: the map is here shown upside-down from the original to match current North/Up, South/Down map design
Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim world).
Indonesia is currently the most populous Muslim-majority country.
Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister of Pakistan became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim-majority country.
Islamic schools of law across the Muslim world
Muslim Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni receiving a richly decorated robe of honor from the caliph al-Qadir in 1000. Miniature from the Rashid al-Din's Jami‘ al-Tawarikh
Battle between Ismail of the Safaviyya and the ruler of Shirvan, Farrukh Yassar
Shah of Safavid Empire Abbas I meet with Vali Muhammad Khan
Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the Quran, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
Portrait of a painter during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II
A Persian miniature of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar
Ilkhanate Empire ruler, Ghazan, studying the Quran
Layla and Majnun studying together, from a Persian miniature painting
Hadiqatus-suada by Oghuz Turkic poet Fuzûlî
The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree.<ref>The Thousand and One Nights; Or, The Arabian Night's Entertainments - David Claypoole Johnston - Google Books {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200517214353/https://books.google.com/books?id=ATkQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA543&dq=princess+parizade#v=onepage&q=princess%20parizade&f=false |date=17 May 2020 }}. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved on 23 September 2013.</ref>
Cassim in the Cave by Maxfield Parrish.
The Magic carpet.
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's ''Astrolabe. (13th century)
One of Mansur ibn Ilyas (Ak Koyunlu era) colored illustrations of human anatomy.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-Tasrif
A self-trimming lamp from Banū Mūsā's work On Mechanical Devices on Automation.
An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon.
The Elephant Clock was one of the most famous inventions of Al-Jazari.
"Cubic equations and intersections of conic sections", of Omar Khayyam.
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi's rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving.
The city of Baghdad being besieged during the Mongolian invasions.
Mongol armies capture of the Alamut, Persian miniature.
Safavid Empire's Zamburak.
Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor Akbar's Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568.<ref>{{cite web|last=Unknown|url=http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|title=Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort|date=1590–95|website=the Akbarnama|access-date=19 May 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140519132308/http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|archive-date=19 May 2014|url-status=dead}}</ref>
The Mughal Army under the command of Islamist Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries in combat against the Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522.
Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate (in modern Indonesia).
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar.
East India Company's Robert Clive meeting the Nawabs of Bengal before the Battle of Plassey
Siege of Ochakov (1788), an armed conflict between the Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom.
Combat during the Russo-Persian Wars.
French campaign in Egypt and Syria against the Mamluks and Ottomans
The Java War between the Netherlands and Javanese aristocracy led by Prince Diponegoro, from 1825 to 1830
The French conquest of Algeria, from 1830 to 1903
The Hispano-Moroccan War between Spain and Morocco, from 1859 to 1860
The Italo-Turkish War between Italy and the Ottoman Empire from 1911 to 1912
The Christian reconquest of Buda, Ottoman Hungary, 1686, painted by Frans Geffels
French conquest of Algeria (1830–1857)
Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899
The Melilla War between Spain and Rif Berbers of Morocco in 1909
Turkish Muslims at the Eyüp Sultan Mosque on Eid al-Adha
Shi'a Muslims in Iran commemorate Ashura
Friday prayer for Sunni Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh
A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman, Sudan
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of Muhammad in Hittin
Ibadis living in the M'zab valley in Algerian Sahara
Zaydi Imams ruled in Yemen until 1962
Most of the inhabitants of the Hunza Valley in Pakistan are Ismaili Muslims
Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
A primary classroom in Niger.
Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009.
Medical students of anatomy, before an exam in moulage, Iran
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Taj Mahal in Agra city of India was constructed during the Mughal Empire
Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Selangor, Malaysia
Great Mosque of Córdoba in Spain is a Moorish-style mosque.
The Charminar in Hyderabad, India
"Tower of Introspection" (省心楼) at the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
The design of Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan is inspired by Bedouin's tent.
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Girih tiles
The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih pattern on the spandrel.
Girih pattern that can be drawn with compass and straight edge.
Kufic script from an early Qur'an manuscript, 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87)
Bismallah calligraphy.
Islamic calligraphy represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire.
Islamic calligraphy praising Ali.
Modern Islamic calligraphy representing various planets.
A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque
A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the Quran.
Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta
A tribal delegation in Chad
Minangkabau people (Padang, Western Sumatra) reciting Al-Qur'an
Muslim girls walking for school in Bangladesh

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community, which is also known as the Ummah.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

Salafi movement

Reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

Reform branch movement within Sunni Islam that originated during the nineteenth century.

A Salafi funeral site in Linxia, China

The name refers to advocacy of a return to the traditions of the "pious predecessors" (salaf), the first three generations of Muslims, who are believed to exemplify the pure form of Islam.

Ottoman Empire

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, depicted in an Ottoman miniature from 1523
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
An Ottoman miniature of the Battle of Mohács in 1526
Map of Ottoman territorial acquisitions up to 1683
The Second Siege of Vienna in 1683, by Frans Geffels (1624–1694).
Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy captured Belgrade in 1717. Austrian control in Serbia lasted until the Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739). With the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar.
Ottoman troops attempting to halt the advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace. Painting by Konstantin Kapıdağlı.
The siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.
Ottoman troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856
The Empire in 1875 under sultan Abdul-Aziz
Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908
Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, who commanded the Black Sea Raid on 29 October 1914, and his officers in Ottoman naval uniforms
The Armenian genocide was the result of the Ottoman government's deportation and ethnic cleansing policies regarding its Armenian citizens after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915) and the collapse of the Caucasus Front against the Imperial Russian Army and Armenian volunteer units during World War I. An estimated 600,000 to more than 1 million, or up to 1.5 million people were killed.
Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922
Ambassadors at the Topkapı Palace
Inside Harem, the private residence of the sultan in Topkapı Palace
Yusuf Ziya Pasha, Ottoman ambassador to the United States, in Washington, 1913
An Ottoman trial, 1877
An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence as depicted in an Ottoman miniature.
Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt)
Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order) troops, in 1793
A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I. At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.
Ottoman pilots in early 1912
Administrative divisions in 1899 (year 1317 Hijri)
A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1481
The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Constantinople. On 26 August 1896, the bank was occupied by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
View of Galata (Karaköy) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn, c. 1880–1893
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian and French.
Abdülmecid II was the last caliph of Islam and a member of the Ottoman dynasty.
Mehmed the Conqueror and Patriarch Gennadius II
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.
Depiction of a hookah shop in Lebanon, Ottoman Empire
Beyazıt State Library was founded in 1884.
Ahmet Nedîm Efendi, one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, designed by Sinan in the 16th century and a major example of the Classical Ottoman style
Ottoman miniature lost its function with the Westernization of Ottoman culture.
Turkish women baking bread, 1790
Observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903
Members of Galatasaray S.K. (football) in 1905
Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries
The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720.
A Musical Gathering - 18th century
Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun

The Ghaza thesis popular during the twentieth century credited their success to their rallying of religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, but it is no longer generally accepted.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Raqqa, Syria, 2014

Islamism

Political ideology which posits that modern states and regions should be reconstituted in constitutional, economic and judicial terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its totality.

Political ideology which posits that modern states and regions should be reconstituted in constitutional, economic and judicial terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its totality.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Raqqa, Syria, 2014
Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani

Islamists may emphasize the implementation of sharia, pan-Islamic political unity, the creation of Islamic states, or the outright removal of non-Muslim influences; particularly of Western or universal economic, military, political, social, or cultural nature in the Muslim world; that they believe to be incompatible with Islam and a form of Western neocolonialism.

A rock carved with the text of "al-'Aqida al-Murshida" (the Guiding Creed) by Ibn Tumart (d. 524/1130) — the student of al-Ghazali (d. 505/ 1111) and the founder of the Almohad dynasty — praised and approved by Fakhr al-Din Ibn 'Asakir (d. 620/1223), located at al-Salah Islamic secondary school in Baalbek, Lebanon.

God in Islam

Eternal being who originated the creation, preserves all things and then will repeat it.

Eternal being who originated the creation, preserves all things and then will repeat it.

A rock carved with the text of "al-'Aqida al-Murshida" (the Guiding Creed) by Ibn Tumart (d. 524/1130) — the student of al-Ghazali (d. 505/ 1111) and the founder of the Almohad dynasty — praised and approved by Fakhr al-Din Ibn 'Asakir (d. 620/1223), located at al-Salah Islamic secondary school in Baalbek, Lebanon.

In Islam, God is conceived as absolutely one, unique, and perfect, free from all faults, deficiencies, and defects, and further held to be omnipotent, omniscient, and completely infinite in all of his attributes, having no partner or equal, and being the sole creator of everything in existence.

Islamic schools of thought

Fiqh

Islamic schools of thought
Legal systems of the world
Map of the Muslim world with the main madh'habs.

Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence.

Map of the Muslim world. Hanbali (dark green) is the predominant Sunni school in Saudi Arabia and Qatar.

Hanbali

One of the four major traditional Sunni schools (madhahib) of Islamic jurisprudence.

One of the four major traditional Sunni schools (madhahib) of Islamic jurisprudence.

Map of the Muslim world. Hanbali (dark green) is the predominant Sunni school in Saudi Arabia and Qatar.

In cases where there is no clear answer in sacred texts of Islam, the Hanbali school does not accept istihsan (jurist discretion) or 'urf (customs of a community) as a sound basis to derive Islamic law, a method that Hanafi and Maliki Sunni madh'habs accept.

Saudi Arabia

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

The world's second-largest religion, Islam, emerged in what is now Saudi Arabia.