Islam

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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'Muhammad' in Islamic calligraphy

Muhammad in Islam

Believed to be the seal of the messengers and prophets of God in all the main branches of Islam.

Believed to be the seal of the messengers and prophets of God in all the main branches of Islam.

'Muhammad' in Islamic calligraphy
The name Muhammad written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
The birthplace of Muhammad. After his migration, the house was taken and sold by Aqil ibn Abi Talib. In modern times, the house was demolished and converted into a library in 1951.
Inside view of Quba Mosque
The place where the people of Medina welcomed Muhammad when he came from Mecca
A map of the Badr campaign
Artifact of Muhammad's letter to the Muqawqis, ruler of Egypt- actual document on the right with transcription on the left- Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul
Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
Al-Aqsa Mosque, in the Old City of Jerusalem, is said to be the location to which Muhammad traveled in his night journey. The location is the third holiest place for the Muslims.
A view of Taif with a road at the foreground and mountains at the background. Muhammad went there to preach Islam
Masjid an-Nabawi
Inside view of Masjid an-Nabawi
The Green Dome built over Muhammad's tomb
Part of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi where Muhammad's tomb is situated
Masjid an-Nabawi at sunset
Facsimile of a letter sent by Muhammad to the Munzir Bin Sawa Al-Tamimi, governor of Bahrain
Muhammad's letter To Heraclius

Muslims believe that the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad by God, and that Muhammad was sent to restore Islam, which they believe did not originate with Muhammad but is the true unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.

The Sunan ad-Darakutni, an important work for the implication of the Sunnah

Sunnah

The Sunan ad-Darakutni, an important work for the implication of the Sunnah

In Islam, ', also spelled ' (سنة), are the traditions and practices of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, that constitute a model for Muslims to follow.

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri. Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.

Ulama

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri. Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.
Ijazah (diploma of competency) in Arabic calligraphy, written by 'Ali Ra'if Efendi in 1206 AH (1791 AD)
Endowment Charter (Waqfiyya) of the Hürrem Sultan Mosque, Madrasa and Imaret (soup-kitchen). AD 1556-1557 (AH 964). Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts
Seyh-ül-Islâm, watercolour, ca. 1809
Iranian Shaykh ul-Islam Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi (1627–1699)

In Islam, the ulama (علماء ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and aalimath [plural]) are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious knowledge in Islam, including Islamic doctrine and law.

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text. A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8 century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.

History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text. A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8 century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.
Arabia united under Muhammad (7th century CE)
Close-up of one leave showing chapter division and verse-end markings written in Hijazi script from the Birmingham Quran manuscript, dated between c. 568 and 645, held by the University of Birmingham.
Empire of the Rāshidūn Caliphate at its peak under the third rāshidūn caliph ʿUthmān (654 CE)
The rāshidūn caliphs used symbols of the Sassanid Empire (crescent-star, fire temple, depictions of the last Sasanian emperor Khosrow II) by adding the Arabic expression bismillāh on their coins, instead of designing new ones.
Coin of the Rāshidūn Caliphate (632–675 CE). Pseudo-Byzantine type with depictions of the Byzantine emperor Constans II holding the cross-tipped staff and globus cruciger.
Eastern territories of the Byzantine Empire invaded by the Arab Muslims during the Arab–Byzantine wars (650 CE)
Territories of the Umayyad Caliphate
The Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Kairouan), founded by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670, is the oldest and most prestigious mosque in the Muslim West; its present form dates from the 9th century, Kairouan, Tunisia.
Umayyad army invades France after conquering the Iberian Peninsula
Abbasid caliphate
Gold dinar of Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775) the founder of Baghdad, patron of art and science
An Arabic manuscript written under the second half of the Abbasid Era.
Regional powers born out of the fragmentation of the Abbasid caliphate
Minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra.
Dirham of Al-Muttaqi
Fatimid Caliphate
Ayyubid empire
The Mongol ruler, Ghazan, depicted studying the Quran inside a tent. Illustration of Rashid-ad-Din, first quarter of the 14th century, Staatsbibliothek, Berlin.
Goharshad Mosque built by the Timurid Empire
Tamerlane chess, invented by Amir Timur. The pieces approximate the appearance of the chess pieces in 14th century Persia.
Map of the Mamluk Sultanate (in red) and the Mongol Ilkhanate (in blue) (1250–1382)
The interiors of the Alhambra in Granada, Spain decorated with arabesque designs.
The exterior of the Mezquita.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan also known as the Mosque of Uqba was established in 670 by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi, it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb, situated in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia.
Ruins of Zeila (Saylac), Somalia.
The Great Mosque of Kilwa
Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret, commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty; 1st dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
Grand Mosque of Demak, the first Muslim state in Java
The Huaisheng Mosque of China, built by Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas.
Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman miniature, 1579–1580, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul.
The Ottoman Empire and sphere of influence at its greatest extent (1683)
The Süleymaniye Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan in 1557.
The Safavid Empire at its greatest extent under Shah Ismail I (1501-1524)
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli Jabbador, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.
Mughal India at its greatest extent, at the sharia apogee of Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir.
Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Ottoman army in World War I

Most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE.

Muhammad Rashid Rida

Rashid Rida

Salafi Islamic scholar, reformer, theologian and revivalist.

Salafi Islamic scholar, reformer, theologian and revivalist.

Muhammad Rashid Rida
Wahhabi leader 'Abd al-'Azeez ibn Saud inspecting captured weapons after the Conquest of Ha'il (1921)
The city of Damascus in flames after French artillery shelling during the Syrian Revolt of 1925
Shaykh Rashid Rida with the Syrian Islamic scholar :a'Abd al-Qadir Al-Maghribi in early 1935 C.E
A rare photo of Muhammād Rashīd Rida accompanied by his acolytes

In 1919, he published Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's Kashf al-Shubuhat (Removal of Doubts); and by 1920, Rida had begun extolling ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab as a Mujadid of Islam in Nejd.

Ambigram depicting Muhammad and Ali written in a single word. The 180 degrees inverted form shows both words.

Isma'ilism

Branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam.

Branch or sub-sect of Shia Islam.

Ambigram depicting Muhammad and Ali written in a single word. The 180 degrees inverted form shows both words.
Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, Egypt, erected by al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, an Ismāʿīlī Imām and Fatimid Caliph.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak.
View of Alamut besieged.
Ismāʿīlīs believe the Quran has two layers of meaning, the zāhir meaning apparent, and the bātin, meaning hidden.
Branching of Ismāʿilism within Shia Islam at a glance. (Note: Kaysani's Imam Hanafiyyah is a descendant of Ali from Ali's wife Khawlah, not Fatimah.)
The divisions of the Mustaali, sometimes referred to as Bohras.
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2) Excommunication from Islam (takfir); and

Diagram showing the various branches of Islam: Sunnīsm, Shīʿīsm, Ibadism, Quranism, Non-denominational Muslims, Mahdavia, Ahmadiyya, Nation of Islam, and Sufism.

Islamic schools and branches

Diagram showing the various branches of Islam: Sunnīsm, Shīʿīsm, Ibadism, Quranism, Non-denominational Muslims, Mahdavia, Ahmadiyya, Nation of Islam, and Sufism.
Geographical distribution of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence in the Muslim world
Sunnī schools of thought

Islamic schools and branches have different understandings of Islam.

View of the Kaaba, 1718. Adriaan Reland: Verhandeling van de godsdienst der Mahometaanen

Kaaba

View of the Kaaba, 1718. Adriaan Reland: Verhandeling van de godsdienst der Mahometaanen
Miniature from 1307 CE depicting Muhammad fixing the black stone into the Kaaba
The Kaaba and Masjid al-Haram depicted on a talismanic shirt, 16th or early 17th century
Ottoman tiles representing the Kaaba, 17th century.
The Black Stone is seen through a portal in the Kaaba
In 1910
The Kaaba during an expansion phase in 2013
A technical drawing of the Kaaba showing dimensions and elements
Rukn al-Yamani (The Yemeni Corner)
The Bāb at-Tawbah, "Door of Repentance"
The Kaaba with the signature minarets. A similar view is printed on the obverse side of 500-riyal (approximately 133 USD) notes in Saudi Arabia.
The Station of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim)
The Mīzāb al-Raḥmah
The Kaaba and the Masjid Al-Haram during Hajj, 2008

The Kaaba (ٱلْكَعْبَة, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Arabian Peninsula

Peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate.

Peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate.

Satellite view of the Arabian Peninsula
The geographical and political boundaries of the Arabian Peninsula
The constituent countries of Arabia
The Haraz Mountains in western Yemen include Arabia's highest mountain, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb or Jabal Hadhur near Sanaa
Ancient coins from Failaka Island, Kuwait
Sabaean inscription addressed to the god Almaqah, mentioning five Ancient Yemeni gods, two reigning sovereigns and two governors, 7th century BC
Age of the Caliphs
Arab tribes before the spread of Islam
Portuguese colonies in Arabia.
Ottoman territories on the Arabian Peninsula acquired between 1517 and 1590 (See: list of territories)
Arabian peninsula during 1900s.
The peninsula in right before World War I.
Jebel Hafeet on the border of Oman and the UAE, near the city of Al Ain. It can be considered an outlier of Al Hajar Mountains.<ref name="Gardner 01-2004"/>
The northeastern Hajar Mountains, shared by Oman and the UAE, as seen from the desert of Sharjah
The Dhofar mountainous region in southeastern Oman, where the city of Salalah is located, is a tourist destination known for its annual khareef season
The Hadhramaut Mountains of eastern Yemen, contiguous with the Omani Dhofar range, as seen from the city of Al-Mukalla
Terraced fields in the Harazi subrange of the Sarawat Mountains in western Yemen
Jabal Sawdah of the 'Asir range in southwestern Saudi Arabia, in Asir Region near the border with Yemen
The Faifa mountains in the Jazan Region, southwestern Saudi Arabia.
The Midian Mountains of Tabuk Province, in northwestern Saudi Arabia, near the border with Jordan
The Aja subrange of the Shammar Mountains in the region of Ha'il, northern Saudi Arabia
The Tuwaiq Escarpment or Tuwayr mountainous region in the Najd, southwest of the Saudi capital city of Riyadh
The old city of Sanaa, Yemen. Peninsular Arabs trace their lineage to Qahtan, who was reportedly based in Yemen.
A map of the peninsula made in 1720 by the German publisher Christoph Weigel
Ain Zubaydah was built to water the pilgrims in Mecca by order of Zubaidah bint Ja'far
Omar Mosque in Dumat al-Jandal, Saudi Arabia.
The facade of a tomb with its details and architectural elements.
Qasr al Farid, tomb in Archeological site Mada'in Saleh, Al-`Ula, Saudi Arabia
Diriyah the capital of the first Saudi state
Dam of Ma'rib
Himyarite King Dhamar'ali Yahbur II
Arad Fort in Bahrain
Nizwa Fort in Oman
The ruins of Umayyad city in the historic Jumeirah district of Dubai.
Bull's head, made of copper in the early period of Dilmun (ca. 2000 BC), Bahrain.
The head and body of a Saluki is made of stone from the Al-Magar civilization, in the Neolithic period, (about 8000 BC).
Midian

From there he and his companions united the tribes of Arabia under the banner of Islam and created a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the Arabian peninsula.

Umayyad Caliphate

The second caliphate established after the death of Muhammad.

The second caliphate established after the death of Muhammad.

The Umayyad Caliphate in 750 CE
Map of Islamic Syria (Bilad al-Sham), the metropolis of the Umayyad Caliphate. The founder of the Umayyad Caliphate, Mu'awiya I, had originally been governor of the junds (military districts) of Damascus (Dimashq) and Jordan (al-Urdunn) in 639 before gaining authority over the rest of Syria's junds during the caliphate of Uthman (644–656), a member of the Umayyad family
A Greek inscription crediting Mu'awiya for restoring Roman bathhouses near Tiberias in 663, the only known epigraphic attestation to Mu'awiya's rule in Syria
Sasanian-style Umayyad coin minted in Basra in 675/76 in the name of the Umayyad governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad. The latter's governorship later spanned all of the eastern caliphate. His father Ziyad ibn Abihi was adopted as a half-brother by Mu'awiya I, who made him his practical viceroy over the eastern caliphate.
Genealogical tree of the Sufyanids. The names in red indicate caliphs.
Map of the Caliphate during the Second Fitna in c. 686. The area shaded in red represents the approximate territory of the Umayyads, while the areas shaded in blue, green and yellow respectively represent the territories of the Mecca-based caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, the pro-Alid ruler of Kufa Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, and the Kharijites
Abd al-Malik introduced an independent Islamic currency, the gold dinar, in 693, which originally depicted a human figure, likely the caliph, as shown in this coin minted in 695. In 697, the figural depictions were replaced solely by Qur'anic and other Islamic inscriptions
The expansion of the Muslim Caliphate until 750, from William R. Shepherd's Historical Atlas.
Umayyad coinage in India, from the time of the first Governor of Sind Muhammad ibn Qasim. Minted in India "al-Hind"(possibly in the city of Multan ), dated AH 97 (715-6 CE): obverse circular legend "in the name of Allah, struck this dirham in al-Hind (India in Abd al-Malik al-Hind coin 715 CE (detail).jpg لهند l'Hind) in the year seven and ninety".
A 14th-century illustration of the siege of Constantinople
The city of Resafa, site of Hisham's palace and court
The Umayyad Caliphate in 750 CE
The Caliphate at the beginning of the Abbasid revolt, before the Battle of the Zab
Ivory (circa 8th century) discovered in the Abbasid homestead in Humeima, Jordan. The style indicates an origin in northeastern Iran, the base of Hashimiyya military power.
Map of the Caliphate's expansion
Umayyad Mosque of Damascus
Genealogic tree of the Umayyad family. In blue: Caliph Uthman, one of the four Rashidun Caliphs. In green, the Umayyad Caliphs of Damascus. In yellow, the Umayyad emirs of Córdoba. In orange, the Umayyad Caliphs of Córdoba. Abd Al-Rahman III was an emir until 929 when he proclaimed himself Caliph. Muhammad is included (in caps) to show the kinship of the Umayyads with him. See interactive version of chart

In his efforts to spread Islam, he established liberties for the Mawali by abolishing the jizya tax for converts to Islam.