Islam

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Abrahamic monotheistic religion centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

281 related topics

Alpha

Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.

Abrahamic religions

Symbols commonly used to represent the three largest Abrahamic religions. From top to bottom: the Star of David, the Christian cross, and the star and crescent.
A Jewish Rebbe holds a Torah scroll
Christianity is based on the teachings of the Bible
A cenotaph above the Cave of the Patriarchs traditionally considered to be the burial place of Abraham.
ʻAbdu'l-Bahá (1844-1921), the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh, and leader of the Baháʼí Faith
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival
Coronation of Haile Selassie of Abyssinia in 1928.
Samaritan High Priest with the Samaritan Torah, Nablus, c. 1920
An interpretation of the borders (in red) of the Promised Land, based on God's promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:18)
The Star of David (or Magen David) is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
The Christian cross (or crux) is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity; this version is known as a Latin Cross.
The word God written in Arabic
A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 for reading aloud in a monastery.
9th-century Quran in Reza Abbasi Museum
The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1877)

Abrahamic religions are those that worship the God of Abraham, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Egyptian Grand Mufti, Islamic jurist and theologian Muhammad Abduh.

Islamic modernism

Egyptian Grand Mufti, Islamic jurist and theologian Muhammad Abduh.
Indian educationist and philosopher Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1898)
Egyptian Islamic jurist and scholar Mahmud Shaltut.
Ottoman intellectual and activist Namık Kemal (d. 1888)
Azharite philosopher 'Ali Abd al-Raziq (1888-1966 C.E), one of the earliest modernist intellectuals who theorized the separation of state from Islamic religion

Islamic Modernism is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response to the Western cultural challenge" attempting to reconcile the Islamic faith with modern values such as democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress.

Pilgrims at the Al-Masjid Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca on Hajj in 2010

Hajj

Pilgrims at the Al-Masjid Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca on Hajj in 2010
Air-conditioned tents in Mina city (Saudi Arabia), 2 km away from Mecca.
A Hajj certificate dated 602 AH (1205 CE).
A 1907 photograph of people praying near the Kaaba in the Great Mosque of Mecca
Diagram of the locations and rites of Hajj
Direction of the Tawaf around the Kaaba
Pilgrims wearing Ihram near Mount Arafat on the day of Hajj
Mount Arafat during Hajj
Pilgrims at Muzdalifah
Pilgrims performing "Ramy Al-Jamarat" (Stoning of the Devil) ceremony during the 2006 Hajj
Pilgrims performing Tawaf around the Kaaba
A Saudi security officer on vigil
Sa'yee towards Safa
Central section reserved for the elderly and the disabled. It is also divided into two directions of travel.
Sa'yee returning from Safa
Pilgrim in supplication at the Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca.
The largest Jamarah (pillar) these pillars depict the evils in Islam and are stoned by the devotees.
Pilgrims visiting the well of Zamzam.
Mount Safa within the Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca.
Mount Marwah within the Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Mecca.
Tents at Mina.
Mount Arafat during Ḥajj with Pilgrims supplicating.
Mount Arafat, a few miles away from Mecca.

The Hajj (حَجّ Ḥajj; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for Muslims.

The Meeting of the Theologians, Persian painting by Abd Allah Musawwir (mid-16th century), Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art.

Schools of Islamic theology

See Islamic schools and branches for sectarian divisions within Islam; see Aqidah for the concept of "creed" in Islam; see Kalam for the concept of theological discourse.

See Islamic schools and branches for sectarian divisions within Islam; see Aqidah for the concept of "creed" in Islam; see Kalam for the concept of theological discourse.

The Meeting of the Theologians, Persian painting by Abd Allah Musawwir (mid-16th century), Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art.
Sunnī schools of thought
The founder of the Bektashiyyah sufi order Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli (Ḥājjī Baktāsh Walī), a murid of Malāmatī-Qalāndārī Sheikh Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar, who introduced the Ahmad Yasavi's doctrine of "Four Doors and Forty Stending" into his tariqah.
Four Spiritual Stations in Bektashiyyah: Sharia, tariqa, haqiqa, and the fourth station, marifa, which is considered "unseen", is actually the center of the haqiqa region. Marifa is the essence of all four stations.
Imam Ali Shrine in Najaf, Iraq, where Shias believe Ali is buried.
Shah Ismail I, the Sheikh of the Safavi tariqa, founder of the Safavid Dynasty of Iran, and the Commander-in-chief of the Kızılbaş armies had contributed a lot for the development and implementation of The Qizilbash ʿAqīdah amongst the Turkmen people.

Some of the Alevis criticizes the course of Islam as it is being practiced overwhelmingly by more than 99% of Sunni and Shia population.

Arabic

Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.

Safaitic inscription
The Namara inscription, a sample of Nabataean script, considered a direct precursor of Arabic script.
Arabic from the Quran in the old Hijazi dialect (Hijazi script, 7th century AD)
The Qur'an has served and continues to serve as a fundamental reference for Arabic. (Maghrebi Kufic script, Blue Qur'an, 9th-10th century)
Coverage in Al-Ahram in 1934 of the inauguration of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo, an organization of major importance to the modernization of Arabic.
Taha Hussein and Gamal Abdel Nasser were both staunch defenders of Standard Arabic.
Flag of the Arab League, used in some cases for the Arabic language
Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language (Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz 1916–1925).The flag contains the four Pan-Arab colors: black, white, green and red.
Different dialects of Arabic
Arabic calligraphy written by a Malay Muslim in Malaysia. The calligrapher is making a rough draft.

It is the lingua franca of the Arab world and the liturgical language of Islam.

Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq's name in Arabic calligraphy

Abu Bakr

The founder and first caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate ruling from June 632 until his death.

The founder and first caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate ruling from June 632 until his death.

Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq's name in Arabic calligraphy
The Mount Thawr in Mecca, where Abu Bakr and Muhammad refuged for three days
Modern view of Saqifah where Abu Bakr was elected
Abu Bakr's caliphate at its territorial peak in August 634.
The Green Dome in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi where Abu Bakr is buried
The name of Abu Bakr, inscribed in Islamic calligraphy at the Hagia Sophia in Turkey

He initially opposed the Islamic prophet Muhammad until the Islamic conquest of Mecca in c. 630 when he embraced Islam.

Sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah

Druze

Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia, who adhere to a faith that originally developed out of Ismaili Islam although most Druze do not identify as Muslims.

Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia, who adhere to a faith that originally developed out of Ismaili Islam although most Druze do not identify as Muslims.

Sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Druze woman wearing a tantour during the 1870s in Chouf, Ottoman Lebanon
Meeting of Druze and Ottoman leaders in Damascus, about the control of Jebel Druze
Druze warriors preparing to go to battle with Sultan Pasha al-Atrash in 1925
Druze celebrating their independence in 1925.
Druze leaders meeting in Jebel al-Druze, Syria, 1926
Prophet Job shrine in Niha village in the Chouf region.
Israeli Druze Scouts march to Jethro's tomb. Today, thousands of Israeli Druze belong to such "Druze Zionist" movements.
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin, Israel.
Druze clerics in Khalwat al-Bayada.
The Druze Maqam al-nabi Yahya (John the Baptist) in As-Suwayda Governorate.
frameless
frameless
Jethro shrine and temple of Druze in Hittin, northern Israel
Druze Prayer house in Daliat al-Karmel, Israel
Druze sheikh (ʻuqqāl) wearing religious dress
Israeli Druze family visitng Gamla; wearing religious dress.
Druze women making Druze pita in Isfiya, Israel.
Qalb Loze: in June 2015, Druze were massacred there by the jihadist Nusra Front.
Shuaib (Jethro) grave near Hittin, Israel: Both religions venerate Shuaib.
Christian Church and Druze Khalwa in Shuf: Historically; the Druzes and the Christians in the Shuf Mountains lived in complete harmony.
Left to right: Christian mountain dweller from Zahlé, Christian mountain dweller of Zgharta, and a Lebanese Druze man in traditional attire (1873).
The Druze Maqam Al-Masih (Jesus) in As-Suwayda Governorate: Both religions revere Jesus.
Maqam Al-Khidr in Kafr Yasif.
Oliphant house in Daliyat al-Karmel.

The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Islam, and other religious beliefs.

Age of the Caliphs

Jihad

Arabic word which literally means "striving" or "struggling", especially with a praiseworthy aim.

Arabic word which literally means "striving" or "struggling", especially with a praiseworthy aim.

Age of the Caliphs
The Fulani jihad states of West Africa, c. 1830
Sayyid Qutb, Islamist author and influential leader of the Muslim Brotherhood

In its expanded sense, it can be fighting the enemies of Islam, as well as adhering to religious teachings, enjoining good and forbidding evil.

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

Islamic scholar, religious leader, reformer, activist, and theologian from Najd in central Arabia, considered as the eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement.

Islamic scholar, religious leader, reformer, activist, and theologian from Najd in central Arabia, considered as the eponymous founder of the Wahhabi movement.

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's name in Islamic calligraphy
An 18th century map of the Arabian Peninsula (circa 1740s)
Usul al-Thalatha (Three Fundamental Principles), a pamphlet by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
A 20th century illustration of the Pact of Dir'iyah
Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state (1727–1818)
Kitab al-Tawhid (Book on Monotheism), the most popular treatise of Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab
Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque in Doha, the national mosque of Qatar
Unwan al-Majd fi Tarikh al-Najd by chronicler Uthman ibn 'Abdullah Ibn Bishr

Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud agreed that, together, they would bring the Arabs of the peninsula back to the "true" principles of Islam as they saw it.

Muslim brotherhood logo with the Arabic word for "prepare" present under two crossed swords

Muslim Brotherhood

Transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

Transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

Muslim brotherhood logo with the Arabic word for "prepare" present under two crossed swords
Muslim Brotherhood fighters in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
Then-U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meeting with then-Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, May 2013
A group of pro-Brotherhood protesters holding the Rabia sign and making the associated gesture during a pro-Brotherhood protest held in October 2013.
Mohammed Badie, the current leader
Erdoğan performing the Rabaa gesture (which is used by Muslim Brotherhood supporters in Egypt protesting against the post-Brotherhood authorities)
Countries that ban Muslim Brotherhood,

When asked whether the Muslim Brotherhood seeks to establish a religious theocracy; the same spokesperson replied: "This concern stems from a wrong understanding of the nature of Islam. To those who speak about a religious state, in the same ecclesiastical meaning given to it in Europe in the Middle Ages, when the church had hegemony over a State's authorities, we wish to say that the issue here is completely different. The Muslim Brotherhood has gone through the latest legislative elections on the basis of a clear-cut program under the slogan “Islam is the Solution”, given the fact that Islam, as Imam el-Banna said, is a comprehensive program that encompasses all aspects of life: it is a state and a country, a government and people, ethics and power, mercy and justice, culture and law, science and justice, resources and wealth, defense and advocacy, an army and an idea, a true belief and correct acts of worship."