A report on Islam

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
Muslim men reading the Quran
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

Abrahamic monotheistic religion, centred primarily around the Quran, a religious text that is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of God (or Allah) as it was revealed to Muhammad, the main and final Islamic prophet.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

281 related topics with Alpha

Overall

An 1821 map of the world, where "Christians, Mahometans, and Pagans" correspond to levels of civilization (the map makes no distinction between Buddhism and Hinduism).

Major religious groups

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Not a uniform practice.

Not a uniform practice.

An 1821 map of the world, where "Christians, Mahometans, and Pagans" correspond to levels of civilization (the map makes no distinction between Buddhism and Hinduism).
An 1883 map of the world divided into colors representing Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, Mohammedans and Fetishists.
World map denoting the main religion in each country and its de jure percent adherence.

In Islam, the Quran mentions three different categories: Muslims, the People of the Book, and idol worshipers.

Shirk (Islam)

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In Islam, Shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of idolatry or polytheism (i.e., the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides Allah).

Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)

Hell

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Location in the afterlife in which evil souls are subjected to punitive suffering, most often through torture, as eternal punishment after death.

Location in the afterlife in which evil souls are subjected to punitive suffering, most often through torture, as eternal punishment after death.

Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180)
Hell – detail from a fresco in the medieval church of St Nicholas in Raduil, Bulgaria
Hel (1889) by Johannes Gehrts, depicts the Old Norse Hel, a goddess-like figure, in the location of the same name, which she oversees
Preserved colonial wall painting of 1802 depicting Hell, by Tadeo Escalante, inside the Church of San Juan Bautista in Huaro, Peru
In this ~1275 BC Book of the Dead scene the dead scribe Hunefer's heart is weighed on the scale of Maat against the feather of truth, by the canine-headed Anubis. The ibis-headed Thoth, scribe of the gods, records the result. If his heart is lighter than the feather, Hunefer is allowed to pass into the afterlife. If not, he is eaten by the crocodile-headed Ammit.
Ancient Sumerian cylinder seal impression showing the god Dumuzid being tortured in the Underworld by galla demons
"Gehenna", Valley of Hinnom, 2007
The parable of the Rich man and Lazarus depicting the rich man in hell asking for help to Abraham and Lazarus in heaven by James Tissot
Harrowing of Hell. Christ leads Adam by the hand, c.1504
The Last Judgment, Hell, c.1431, by Fra Angelico
Muhammad, along with Buraq and Gabriel, visit hell, and they see "shameless women" being eternally punished for exposing their hair to the sight of strangers. Persian, 15th century.
Muhammad requests Maalik to show him Hell during his heavenly journey. Miniature from The David Collection.
Naraka in the Burmese representation
Yama's Court and Hell. The Blue figure is Yamaraja (The Hindu god of death) with his consort Yami and Chitragupta
17th-century painting from Government Museum, Chennai.
17th-century cloth painting depicting seven levels of Jain Hell and various tortures suffered in them. Left panel depicts the demi-god and his animal vehicle presiding over each Hell.
A Chinese glazed earthenware sculpture of "Hell's torturer", 16th century, Ming Dynasty
Dante and Virgil in Hell (1850) by William-Adolphe Bouguereau. In this painting, the two are shown watching the condemned.
Visit to hell by Mexican artist Mauricio García Vega
Belief in Hell by country (2017-20)

Religions with a linear divine history often depict hells as eternal destinations, the biggest examples of which are Christianity and Islam, whereas religions with reincarnation usually depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations, as is the case in the dharmic religions.

An Imam leading prayers in Cairo, Egypt, in 1865.

Aqidah

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An Imam leading prayers in Cairo, Egypt, in 1865.
The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb performing Salat.
Ending the fast at a mosque.
A 16th century illustration of Islam's holiest shrine, the Ka'aba.

Aqidah (عقيدة, plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda, etc.) is an Islamic term of Arabic origin that literally means "creed".

Egyptian Islamic scholar, Ahmad Karima interviewed on 30 July 2017, says People of the Book are not kuffār and "It's all in God's hands".

Kafir

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Egyptian Islamic scholar, Ahmad Karima interviewed on 30 July 2017, says People of the Book are not kuffār and "It's all in God's hands".
The Kafirs of Natal and the Zulu Country by Rev. Joseph Shooter

Kafir (كافر kāfir; plural كَافِرُونَ kāfirūna, كفّار kuffār or كَفَرَة kafarah; feminine كافرة kāfirah; feminine plural كافرات kāfirāt or كوافر kawāfir) is an Arabic and Islamic term which, in the Islamic tradition, refers to a person who disbelieves in God as per Islam, or denies his authority, or rejects the tenets of Islam.

Pashtun Muslims doing (bowing) during festival prayer in Kandahar, Afghanistan.

Salah

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' (صَلاة, plural, romanized: or Old Arabic [t͡sˤaˈloːh] , ( or Old Arabic [t͡sˤaˈloːtʰ] in construct state) ), also known as ' and also spelled , are prayers performed by Muslims.

' (صَلاة, plural, romanized: or Old Arabic [t͡sˤaˈloːh] , ( or Old Arabic [t͡sˤaˈloːtʰ] in construct state) ), also known as ' and also spelled , are prayers performed by Muslims.

Pashtun Muslims doing (bowing) during festival prayer in Kandahar, Afghanistan.
Display showing prayer times in a Turkish mosque.
Though not a mandatory part of the course, most Muslims supplicate after completing salah.
A Sunni Muslim (left) and Shia Muslim (right) performing the Friday prayer in Tehran. Some Sunnis perform salah with the hands clasped ("qabd"), while Shia offer salah with their hands at their sides ("sadl").
A turbah or mohr is a small piece of soil or clay, often a clay tablet, used during salah to symbolize earth.
Bosniaks praying in an open field, ca. 1906
Evening praying at the Lahti Mosque in Lahti, Finland
President Joko Widodo of Indonesia (front row, fourth from left) joining prayer in congregation with Vice President Jusuf Kalla (third from left), other cabinet members, and other worshippers.
Friday prayer for Muslims in the streets of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Men standing in prayer in Tulehu, Indonesia.
Various prescribed movements in, which collectively constitute a . From left to right:, , , and.
Yemeni Muslim in, performing in the desert during the North Yemen Civil War.

The daily obligatory prayers collectively form the second of the five pillars in Islam, observed five times every day at prescribed times.

Detail of Gabriel from Pinturicchio's The Annunciation (1501)

Gabriel

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Archangel who appears in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and the Quran.

Archangel who appears in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and the Quran.

Detail of Gabriel from Pinturicchio's The Annunciation (1501)
Annunciation of Gabriel by Jan van Eyck, 1434
Statue of Archangel Gabriel (15th century), adorning the top of the northwest corner pillar of the Palazzo Ducale in Venice
Archangel Gabriel. A fresco from the Tsalenjikha Cathedral by Cyrus Emanuel Eugenicus. 14th century.
Gabriel on the southern deacons' door of the iconostasis in the Cathedral of Hajdúdorog, Hungary
Icon of Gabriel, Byzantine, c. 1387–1395 (Tretyakov Gallery)
The Annunciation, Henry Ossawa Tanner (1898)
The Annunciation, Gabriel kneeling on one knee. Llanbeblig Book of Hours (f. 1r.).
Detail of Gabriel from Leonardo da Vinci's Annunciation (c. 1472–1475)
Angel of the Annunciation by Titian (1520–1522)
Archangel Gabriel Millennium Monument at Heroes' Square in Budapest
Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Georg in Bermatingen
Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Magnus in Waldburg
Archangel Gabriel at the facade of the Cathedral of Reims
Archangel Gabriel at the Liberty square, Budapest

Islam regards Gabriel as an archangel sent by God to various prophets, including Muhammad.

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text. A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8 century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.

History of Islam

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The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text. A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8 century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.
Arabia united under Muhammad (7th century CE)
Close-up of one leave showing chapter division and verse-end markings written in Hijazi script from the Birmingham Quran manuscript, dated between c. 568 and 645, held by the University of Birmingham.
Empire of the Rāshidūn Caliphate at its peak under the third rāshidūn caliph ʿUthmān (654 CE)
The rāshidūn caliphs used symbols of the Sassanid Empire (crescent-star, fire temple, depictions of the last Sasanian emperor Khosrow II) by adding the Arabic expression bismillāh on their coins, instead of designing new ones.
Coin of the Rāshidūn Caliphate (632–675 CE). Pseudo-Byzantine type with depictions of the Byzantine emperor Constans II holding the cross-tipped staff and globus cruciger.
Eastern territories of the Byzantine Empire invaded by the Arab Muslims during the Arab–Byzantine wars (650 CE)
Territories of the Umayyad Caliphate
The Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Kairouan), founded by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670, is the oldest and most prestigious mosque in the Muslim West; its present form dates from the 9th century, Kairouan, Tunisia.
Umayyad army invades France after conquering the Iberian Peninsula
Abbasid caliphate
Gold dinar of Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775) the founder of Baghdad, patron of art and science
An Arabic manuscript written under the second half of the Abbasid Era.
Regional powers born out of the fragmentation of the Abbasid caliphate
Minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra.
Dirham of Al-Muttaqi
Fatimid Caliphate
Ayyubid empire
The Mongol ruler, Ghazan, depicted studying the Quran inside a tent. Illustration of Rashid-ad-Din, first quarter of the 14th century, Staatsbibliothek, Berlin.
Goharshad Mosque built by the Timurid Empire
Tamerlane chess, invented by Amir Timur. The pieces approximate the appearance of the chess pieces in 14th century Persia.
Map of the Mamluk Sultanate (in red) and the Mongol Ilkhanate (in blue) (1250–1382)
The interiors of the Alhambra in Granada, Spain decorated with arabesque designs.
The exterior of the Mezquita.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan also known as the Mosque of Uqba was established in 670 by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi, it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb, situated in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia.
Ruins of Zeila (Saylac), Somalia.
The Great Mosque of Kilwa
Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret, commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty; 1st dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
Grand Mosque of Demak, the first Muslim state in Java
The Huaisheng Mosque of China, built by Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas.
Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman miniature, 1579–1580, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul.
The Ottoman Empire and sphere of influence at its greatest extent (1683)
The Süleymaniye Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan in 1557.
The Safavid Empire at its greatest extent under Shah Ismail I (1501-1524)
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli Jabbador, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.
Mughal India at its greatest extent, at the sharia apogee of Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir.
Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Ottoman army in World War I
Gold dinar of Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842) the founder of Samarra, patron of art and science

Most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE.

The Abbasids are known to have founded some of the world's earliest educational institutions, such as the House of Wisdom.

Spread of Islam

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The spread of Islam spans about 1,400 years.

The spread of Islam spans about 1,400 years.

The Abbasids are known to have founded some of the world's earliest educational institutions, such as the House of Wisdom.
Territories in Central Europe under the Ottoman Empire, 1683 CE.
Age of the Caliphs
The Great Mosque of Kairouan, founded in 670 AD (The year 50 according to the Islamic calendar) by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi, is the oldest mosque in western Islamic lands and represents an architectural symbol of the spread of Islam in North Africa, situated in Kairouan, Tunisia.
The port and waterfront of Zeila.
Principal cities of East Africa, c. 1500. The Kilwa Sultanate held sway from Cape Correntes in the south to Malindi in the north.
The Great Mosque of Kilwa Kisiwani, made of coral stones is the largest Mosque of its kind.
The Great Mosque of Djenné.
Courtiers of the Persian prince Baysunghur playing chess in Ferdowsi's epic work known as the Shahnameh.
A Persian miniature of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar.
Ghurid Empire ruled by Muhammad of Ghor and Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad.
A panorama in 12 folds showing a fabulous Eid ul-Fitr procession by Muslims in the Mughal Empire.
The Age of the Islamic Gunpowders dominating the western, central and South Asia.
Mir Sayyid Ali, portrait of a young Indian Muslim scholar, writing a commentary on the Quran, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan.
Emperor Aurangzeb, who memorised the Quran, with the help of several Arab and Iraqi scholars compiled the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri
A map of the Bruneian Empire in 1500.
Minaret of the Menara Kudus Mosque, influenced by both Islamic and mainly Hindu-Buddhist temple-like Javanese structure.
A Muslim "Food jar" from the Philippines, also known as gadur, well known for its brass with silver inlay.
Ilkhanate Empire ruler, Ghazan, studying the Quran (Azerbaijani culture).
The interior of the Cathedral of Cordoba, formerly the Great Mosque of Córdoba was built in 742. It is one of the finest examples of Islamic architecture in the Umayyad style; inspired the design of other Mosques in Al-Andalus.
Sultanate of Banten
Cirebon Sultanate
Yogyakarta Sultanate
Sultanate of Mataram
Sulu
Minangkabau
Deli

These early caliphates, coupled with Muslim economics and trading, the Islamic Golden Age, and the age of the Islamic gunpowder empires, resulted in Islam's spread outwards from Mecca towards the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans and the creation of the Muslim world.

"Wayang Kulit", the Indonesian art of shadow puppetry, reflects a melding of indigenous and Islamic sensibilities.

Islamic culture

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"Wayang Kulit", the Indonesian art of shadow puppetry, reflects a melding of indigenous and Islamic sensibilities.
"Advice of the Ascetic", a 16th-century Persian miniature
The Indonesian puppet of Amir Hamzah, in Wayang theatre
Northeast entrance to Delhi, India's Jama Masjid.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan also called the Mosque of Uqba is at the same time the oldest mosque in North Africa (founded in 670 and still used as a place of worship) and one of the most important monuments of Islamic civilisation,<ref>{{cite book|author=Hans Kng|title=Tracing The Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=sm0BfUKwct0C&pg=PA248|year=2006|publisher=A&C Black|isbn=978-0-8264-9423-8|page=248}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?TaxonomyTypeID=101&TaxonomySubTypeID=19&TaxonomyThirdLevelID=280&ArticleID=1176 |title=Kairouan Capital of Political Power and Learning in the Ifriqiya |publisher=Muslim Heritage |access-date=2014-03-16}}</ref> situated in Kairouan, Tunisia.
The fortress-palace of Alhambra, built in the 11th century, is a large monument and a popular tourist attraction.
Istanbul's Sultan Ahmed Mosque was completed in 1616.
The 15th-century Sixty Dome Mosque of Khalifatabad in Bangladesh is an example of the Bengal Sultanate architecture.

Islamic culture and Muslim culture refer to cultural practices which are common to historically Islamic people.