Islamic Golden Age

medieval Islamic worldIslamic civilizationGolden Age of IslamGolden AgeIslamic worldIslamicClassicalmedievalmedieval IslamIslamic period
The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.wikipedia
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Harun al-Rashid

Hārūn al-RashīdHarun al RashidHarun ar-Rashid
This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language.
Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age.

House of Wisdom

Bayt al-Hikmabecame the centre of the scientific worldGrand Library of Baghdad
This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language. The House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur.
The House of Wisdom, also known as the Grand Library of Baghdad, refers to either a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.

History of Islam

Islamic historyMuslim historyhistory
The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable astronomers, mathematicians, physicians and philosophers during the Middle Ages.

Baghdad

Baghdad, IraqBagdadBaghdād
This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language. The House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur.
Baghdad was the largest city in the world for much of the Abbasid era during the Islamic Golden Age, peaking at a population of more than a million.

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

sack of BaghdadSiege of Baghdadfall of Baghdad
This period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258 AD.
The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age, during which the caliphs had extended their rule from the Iberian Peninsula to Sindh, and which was also marked by many cultural achievements in diverse fields.

Abbasid Caliphate

AbbasidAbbasidsAbbasid dynasty
This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language. Christians, especially the adherents of the Church of the East (Nestorians), contributed to Islamic civilization during the reign of the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers and ancient science to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic. The House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur.
Baghdad became a centre of science, culture, philosophy and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
They also excelled in many fields, in particular philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Thabit Ibn Qurra, Yusuf Al-Khuri, Al Himsi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, Patriarch Eutychius, and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu ) and theology.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age.

Umayyad Caliphate

UmayyadUmmayadUmayyads
Christians, especially the adherents of the Church of the East (Nestorians), contributed to Islamic civilization during the reign of the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers and ancient science to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic.
Survivors of the dynasty established themselves in Cordoba in the form of an Emirate and then a Caliphate, became a world centre of science, medicine, philosophy and invention, ushering in the period of the Golden Age of Islam.

Golden age (metaphor)

golden agegolden eraclassic
]]The metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
Among the various countries and cultures conquered through successive Islamic conquests, a remarkable number of scientists originated from Persia, who contributed immensely to the scientific flourishing of the Islamic Golden Age.
Iran's major contributions to art, philosophy, and science spread throughout the Muslim world and beyond during the Islamic Golden Age.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
They also excelled in many fields, in particular philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Thabit Ibn Qurra, Yusuf Al-Khuri, Al Himsi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, Patriarch Eutychius, and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu ) and theology.
This Islamic Golden Age influenced European intellectual developments.

University of al-Qarawiyyin

University of Al QuaraouiyineUniversity of Al-KaraouineAl-Qarawiyyin
The University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859 AD, is listed in The Guinness Book Of Records as the world's oldest degree-granting university.
It was founded by Fatima al-Fihri in 859 with an associated madrasa, which subsequently became one of the leading spiritual and educational centers of the historic Muslim world.

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
The House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur.
Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages, peaking at a population of more than a million, and was the centre of learning during the Islamic Golden Age.

Tafsir

Tafseermufassirexegesis
Some students would then proceed to training in tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), which was seen as particularly important.
There are also general distinctions between classic tafsirs compiled by authoritative figures of Muslim scholarship during the formative ages of Islam, and modern tafsir which seeks to address a wider audience, including the common people.

Ulama

Islamic scholarulemaalim
It also involved a process of socialization of aspiring scholars, who came from virtually all social backgrounds, into the ranks of the ulema.
The collection of classical works and their translation into the Arabian language initiated a period which is known today as the Islamic Golden Age.

Muslim world

Islamic worldMuslim countriesIslamic countries
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) played a major role in interpreting the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian and Muslim worlds.
The history of the Muslim world spans about 1400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science, philosophy, and technology, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age.

Avicenna

Ibn SinaIbn SīnāAbu Ali ibn Sina
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) played a major role in interpreting the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian and Muslim worlds.
Ibn Sina created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the Islamic Golden Age, in which the translations of Greco-Roman, Persian, and Indian texts were studied extensively.

Madrasa

madrasahmadrassamedrese
For the first few centuries of Islam, educational settings were entirely informal, but beginning in the 11th and 12th centuries, the ruling elites began to establish institutions of higher religious learning known as madrasas in an effort to secure support and cooperation of the ulema.
Dimitri Gutas and the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy consider the period between the 11th and 14th centuries to be the "Golden Age" of Arabic and Islamic philosophy, initiated by al-Ghazali's successful integration of logic into the curriculum and the subsequent rise of Avicennism.

History of India

ancient IndiaIndiaIndian history
Many classic works of antiquity that might otherwise have been lost were translated from Greek, Persian, Indian, Chinese, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations into Arabic and Persian, and later in turn translated into Turkish, Hebrew, and Latin.
During the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis between Indian civilization and Islamic civilization.

Al-Andalus

AndalusianIslamic SpainAl Andalus
The use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century, arriving in Al-Andalus on the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) in the 10th century.
The period of the Caliphate is seen as the golden age of al-Andalus.

Ibn al-Haytham

AlhazenAlhacenAl-Haytham
Alhazen discovered the sum formula for the fourth power, using a method that could be generally used to determine the sum for any integral power.
Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen ; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; ) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī

Sharaf al-Dīn al-TūsīSharafeddin TusiSharaf al-Din al-Tusi
Yet another Persian mathematician, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, found algebraic and numerical solutions to various cases of cubic equations.
Sharaf al-Dīn al-Muẓaffar ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Muẓaffar al-Ṭūsī (c. 1135 – c. 1213) was an Iranian mathematician and astronomer of the Islamic Golden Age (during the Middle Ages).

Hunayn ibn Ishaq

Hunain ibn IshaqHunayn bin IshaqAbu Zaid Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi
They also excelled in many fields, in particular philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Thabit Ibn Qurra, Yusuf Al-Khuri, Al Himsi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, Patriarch Eutychius, and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu ) and theology. The best scholars and notable translators, such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, had salaries that are estimated to be the equivalent of professional athletes today.

Christians

ChristianNasranibelievers
Christians, especially the adherents of the Church of the East (Nestorians), contributed to Islamic civilization during the reign of the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers and ancient science to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic.
Eastern Christians (particularly Nestorian Christians) contributed to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the Ummayad and the Abbasid periods by translating works of Greek philosophers to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic.

Graeco-Arabic translation movement

Translation MovementArabic translationsThe Translation Movement
The money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to about twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council.