A report on Islamic Golden Age

Left to right from top row: Al-Zahrawi, Abbas ibn Firnas, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Averroes, Ibn al-Nafis, ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Alhazen, Ibn Khaldun
Scholars at an Abbasid library, from the Maqamat of al-Hariri by Yahya ibn Mahmud al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.
Improvements to the astrolabe were one scientific achievement of the Golden Age.
The Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq led the House of Wisdom.
A manuscript written on paper during the Abbasid Era.
Organized instruction in the Cairo Al-Azhar Mosque began in 978
An Arabic manuscript from the 13th century depicting Socrates (Soqrāt) in discussion with his pupils
Geometric patterns: an archway in the Sultan's lodge in the Ottoman Green Mosque in Bursa, Turkey (1424), its girih strapwork forming 10-point stars and pentagons
Tusi couple
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq. From a manuscript dated circa 1200.
Entrance to the Qalawun complex which housed the notable Mansuri hospital in Cairo
Introductory summary overview map from al-Idrisi's 1154 world atlas (note that South is at the top of the map).
The diffusion of sugarcane from the Indian subcontinent to Spain during Islamic rule.
Marquetry and tile-top table, 1560
Drawing of a lute by Safi al-Din from a 1333 copy of his book, Kitab al-Adwār. The oldest copy dates to 1296.
Trade routes inherited by the Muslim civilization were ruined by invading Mongols, which according to Ibn Khaldun ruined economies
Expansion of the Caliphates, 622–750.
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
Astrolabe with Quranic inscriptions from Iran, dated 1060 AH (1650-51 AD)

Period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century.

- Islamic Golden Age
Left to right from top row: Al-Zahrawi, Abbas ibn Firnas, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Averroes, Ibn al-Nafis, ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Alhazen, Ibn Khaldun

47 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Abbasid Caliphate

10 links

The third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

The third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Folio from the Tarikhnama of Bal'ami depicting al-Saffah (r. 750–754) as he receives pledges of allegiance in Kufa
The city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 CE.
Battle of Talas, 751
Map of Abbasid Caliphate and its provinces c 788 (2nd century Hijri)
Harun al-Rashid (r. 786–809) receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne at his court in Baghdad. Painting by German painter (1827–1918), dated 1864. Oil on canvas.
Gold dinar minted during the reign of al-Amin (809–813)
Map of Abbasid empire and other world empires in 9th century
Map of the fragmented Abbasid empire, with areas still under direct control of the Abbasid central government (dark green) and under autonomous rulers (light green) adhering to nominal Abbasid suzerainty, c. 892
Southwest Asia – c. 970 A.D
Coin of the Abbasids, Baghdad, 1244
Siege of Baghdad by the Mongols led by Hulagu Khan in 1258
Manuscript from the Abbasid era
Jabir ibn Hayyan, a pioneer in organic chemistry.
Ibn al-Haytham, "the father of Optics.
Baraka Palace in Samarra
Illustration from More tales from the Arabian nights (1915)
Zumurrud Khatun Tomb (1200 CE), in cemetery at Baghdad
9th-century harem wall painting fragments found in Samarra
Bowl with Kufic Inscription, 9th century, Brooklyn Museum
Qasr al-'Ashiq palace in Samarra, constructed during 877–882. Emir 'Amad al-Dawla wrote a poem about this palace. During the medieval period, it was referred to as "al-Ma'shuq (المعشوق)" which means "beloved".
Illustration showing a water clock given to Charlemagne by Harun al-Rashid
Windmills were among Abbasid inventions in technology.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq was an influential translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.
Ukhaidir Fortress, located south of Karbala, is a large, rectangular fortress erected in 775 AD with a unique defensive style.
The provinces of Abbasid Caliphate in c. 850 under al-Mutawakkil
The Madrasa of Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, established in 1227, one of the only Abbasid-era madrasas remaining today

Baghdad became the center of science, culture and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam.

25px

Baghdad

10 links

Capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo.

Capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo.

25px
30px
An 1808 picture of Baghdad from the print collection in Travels in Asia and Africa, etc. (ed. J. P. Berjew, British Library)
An 1468 painting of Floods in Baghdad by Shirwan
The Round city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 AD
Baghdad Museum is a local history museum. It features 70 scenes from different periods using lifesize models presenting Baghdad life
Courtyard of Mustansiriya madrasa, established by Al-Mustansir in 1227
Khan Murjan, built in the 14th century as a caravanserai
Al Khulafa mosque retains an Abbasid-era minaret
Zumurrud Khatun Tomb in Baghdad (built in 1202 AD)
Conquest of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258 CE
Central Asian Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur sacked the city and spared almost no one
The Shabandar Café in Baghdad, 1923
Manadotory Iraq, 1921
Three Iraqi Levies, who volunteered in 1946 for service as ground crew with the Royal Air Force, look over the side of the ORBITA as it pulls into the docks at Liverpool. Left to right, they are: Sergeant Macko Shmos, Lance Corporal Adoniyo Odisho and Corporal Yoseph Odisho.
Freedom Monument, Tahrir square in Downtown Baghdad
View of downtown Baghdad, March 2017
Baghdad as seen from the International Space Station
Al-Ma'mun's Telecommunication Center in downtown Baghdad
The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra performing in July 2007
The National Ballet performing in 2007
Chaldean Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady of Sorrows
The Baghdad Convention Center
Qushla Square
Madina Stadium
Al-Shaab Stadium
Baghdad Eyalet in 1609 CE.
Baghdad Vilayet in 1900 CE.
Souk in Baghdad, 1876 CE.
Kadhimiya Mosque
Armenian Orthodox Church of Baghdad
Saray Mosque
Khilani Mosque
Baghdadi Museum
Iraq National Museum
Al Zawra'a Park
Al Salam Palace
Al Faw Palace
Abu Nawas Street

Baghdad was the largest city in the world for much of the Abbasid era during the Islamic Golden Age, peaking at a population of more than a million.

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)

Muslim world

9 links

Also known as the Ummah.

Also known as the Ummah.

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)
A Seljuq, shatranj (chess) set, glazed fritware, 12th century.
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Muslim polymath from Al Andalus.
The Spinning wheel is believed to have been invented in the medieval era (of what is now the Greater Middle East), it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. (scene from Al-Maqamat, painted by al-Wasiti 1237)
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim communities found in various lands. Note: the map is here shown upside-down from the original to match current North/Up, South/Down map design
Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim world).
Indonesia is currently the most populous Muslim-majority country.
Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister of Pakistan became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim-majority country.
Islamic schools of law across the Muslim world
Muslim Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni receiving a richly decorated robe of honor from the caliph al-Qadir in 1000. Miniature from the Rashid al-Din's Jami‘ al-Tawarikh
Battle between Ismail of the Safaviyya and the ruler of Shirvan, Farrukh Yassar
Shah of Safavid Empire Abbas I meet with Vali Muhammad Khan
Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the Quran, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
Portrait of a painter during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II
A Persian miniature of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar
Ilkhanate Empire ruler, Ghazan, studying the Quran
Layla and Majnun studying together, from a Persian miniature painting
Hadiqatus-suada by Oghuz Turkic poet Fuzûlî
The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree.<ref>The Thousand and One Nights; Or, The Arabian Night's Entertainments - David Claypoole Johnston - Google Books {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200517214353/https://books.google.com/books?id=ATkQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA543&dq=princess+parizade#v=onepage&q=princess%20parizade&f=false |date=17 May 2020 }}. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved on 23 September 2013.</ref>
Cassim in the Cave by Maxfield Parrish.
The Magic carpet.
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's ''Astrolabe. (13th century)
One of Mansur ibn Ilyas (Ak Koyunlu era) colored illustrations of human anatomy.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-Tasrif
A self-trimming lamp from Banū Mūsā's work On Mechanical Devices on Automation.
An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon.
The Elephant Clock was one of the most famous inventions of Al-Jazari.
"Cubic equations and intersections of conic sections", of Omar Khayyam.
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi's rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving.
The city of Baghdad being besieged during the Mongolian invasions.
Mongol armies capture of the Alamut, Persian miniature.
Safavid Empire's Zamburak.
Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor Akbar's Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568.<ref>{{cite web|last=Unknown|url=http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|title=Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort|date=1590–95|website=the Akbarnama|access-date=19 May 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140519132308/http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|archive-date=19 May 2014|url-status=dead}}</ref>
The Mughal Army under the command of Islamist Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries in combat against the Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522.
Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate (in modern Indonesia).
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar.
East India Company's Robert Clive meeting the Nawabs of Bengal before the Battle of Plassey
Siege of Ochakov (1788), an armed conflict between the Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom.
Combat during the Russo-Persian Wars.
French campaign in Egypt and Syria against the Mamluks and Ottomans
The Java War between the Netherlands and Javanese aristocracy led by Prince Diponegoro, from 1825 to 1830
The French conquest of Algeria, from 1830 to 1903
The Hispano-Moroccan War between Spain and Morocco, from 1859 to 1860
The Italo-Turkish War between Italy and the Ottoman Empire from 1911 to 1912
The Christian reconquest of Buda, Ottoman Hungary, 1686, painted by Frans Geffels
French conquest of Algeria (1830–1857)
Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899
The Melilla War between Spain and Rif Berbers of Morocco in 1909
Turkish Muslims at the Eyüp Sultan Mosque on Eid al-Adha
Shi'a Muslims in Iran commemorate Ashura
Friday prayer for Sunni Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh
A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman, Sudan
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of Muhammad in Hittin
Ibadis living in the M'zab valley in Algerian Sahara
Zaydi Imams ruled in Yemen until 1962
Most of the inhabitants of the Hunza Valley in Pakistan are Ismaili Muslims
Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
A primary classroom in Niger.
Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009.
Medical students of anatomy, before an exam in moulage, Iran
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Taj Mahal in Agra city of India was constructed during the Mughal Empire
Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Selangor, Malaysia
Great Mosque of Córdoba in Spain is a Moorish-style mosque.
The Charminar in Hyderabad, India
"Tower of Introspection" (省心楼) at the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
The design of Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan is inspired by Bedouin's tent.
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Girih tiles
The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih pattern on the spandrel.
Girih pattern that can be drawn with compass and straight edge.
Kufic script from an early Qur'an manuscript, 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87)
Bismallah calligraphy.
Islamic calligraphy represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire.
Islamic calligraphy praising Ali.
Modern Islamic calligraphy representing various planets.
A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque
A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the Quran.
Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta
A tribal delegation in Chad
Minangkabau people (Padang, Western Sumatra) reciting Al-Qur'an
Muslim girls walking for school in Bangladesh

The history of the Muslim world spans about 1,400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science, medicine, philosophy, law, economics and technology, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age.

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, 1237

House of Wisdom

7 links

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, 1237
The earliest scientific manuscripts originated in the Abbasid era
Physicians employing a surgical method. From Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's Imperial Surgery (1465)
Al-Ma'mun sends an envoy to the Byzantine emperor Theophilos
Hulagu Khan's siege of Baghdad (1258)
13th-century Arabic translation of De Materia Medica.
A page from al-Khwarizmi's Kitab al-Jabr.
Drawing of Self trimming lamp in Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir's treatise on mechanical devices.
Al-Idrisi's map of the world (12th). Note South is on top.

The House of Wisdom (بيت الحكمة), also known as the Grand Library of Baghdad, refers to either a major Abbasid public academy and intellectual center in Baghdad or to a large private library belonging to the Abbasid Caliphs during the Islamic Golden Age.

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri. Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.

Ulama

6 links

In Islam, the ulama (علماء ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and aalimath [plural]) are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious knowledge in Islam, including Islamic doctrine and law.

In Islam, the ulama (علماء ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and aalimath [plural]) are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious knowledge in Islam, including Islamic doctrine and law.

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri. Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.
Ijazah (diploma of competency) in Arabic calligraphy, written by 'Ali Ra'if Efendi in 1206 AH (1791 AD)
Endowment Charter (Waqfiyya) of the Hürrem Sultan Mosque, Madrasa and Imaret (soup-kitchen). AD 1556-1557 (AH 964). Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts
Seyh-ül-Islâm, watercolour, ca. 1809
Iranian Shaykh ul-Islam Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi (1627–1699)

The collection of classical works and their translation into the Arabian language initiated a period which is known today as the Islamic Golden Age.

Portrait of Avicenna on an Iranian postage stamp

Avicenna

7 links

His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650.

His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650.

Portrait of Avicenna on an Iranian postage stamp
Map of Khurasan and Transoxiana
Coin of Majd al-Dawla ((r. 997 – 1029)), the amir (ruler) of the Buyid branch of Ray
Coin of Ala al-Dawla Muhammad ((r. 1008 – 1041)), the Kakuyid ruler of Isfahan
The Mausoleum of Avicenna, Hamadan, Iran
Canons of medicine book from Avicenna, Latin translation located at UT Health of San Antonio
Skull of Avicenna, found in 1950 during construction of the new mausoleum
Inside view of the Avicenna Mausoleum, designed by Hooshang Seyhoun in 1945–1950
A monument to Avicenna in Qakh (city), Azerbaijan
Image of Avicenna on the Tajikistani somoni
The statue of Avicenna in United Nations Office in Vienna as a part of the Persian Scholars Pavilion donated by Iran

Avicenna created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the Islamic Golden Age, in which the translations of Byzantine Greco-Roman, Persian and Indian texts were studied extensively.

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).

Arabs

9 links

The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635:, , plural عَرَب, DIN 31635 : , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are a large ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular عَرَبِيٌّ, DIN 31635:, , plural عَرَب, DIN 31635 : , Arabic pronunciation: ), also known as the Arab people, are a large ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the western Indian Ocean islands (including the Comoros).

The Namara inscription, an Arabic epitaph of Imru' al-Qais, son of "Amr, king of all the Arabs", inscribed in Nabataean script. Basalt, dated in 7 Kislul, 223, viz. 7 December 328 CE. Found at Nimreh in the Hauran (Southern Syria).
Traditional Qahtanite genealogy
Nabataean trade routes in Pre-Islamic Arabia.
Assyrian relief depicting battle with camel riders, from Kalhu (Nimrud) Central Palace, Tiglath Pileser III, 728 BCE, British Museum
Arab soldier (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎠𐎼𐎲𐎠𐎹, Arabāya) of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Life-size bronze bust sculpture of historian Ibn Khaldun.
Façade of Al Khazneh in Petra, Jordan, built by the Nabateans.
The ruins of Palmyra. The Palmyrenes were a mix of Arabs, Amorites and Arameans.
Fragment of a wall painting showing a Kindite king, 1st century CE
The Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids and their neighbors
The imperial province of Arabia Petraea in 117–138 CE
Age of the Caliphs
Tombstone of Muhammad (Left), Abu Bakr and Umar (right), Medina, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Kairouan, Tunisia was founded in 670 by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi; it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb and represents an architectural testimony of the Arab conquest of North Africa
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, built in 715, is one of the oldest, largest and best preserved mosques in the world
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, constructed during the reign of Abd al Malik
Mustansiriya University in Baghdad
Scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad. Maqamat of al-Hariri Illustration, 123.
Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
Al-Azhar Mosque, commissioned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu'izz for the newly established capital city of Cairo in 969
Arabesque pattern behind hunters on ivory plaque, 11th–12th century, Egypt
Soldiers of the Arab Army in the Arabian Desert carrying the Flag of the Arab Revolt
A map of the Arab world
The Near East in 565, showing the Ghassanids, Lakhmids, Kinda and Hejaz
Arabian tribes before the spread of Islam
Post-card of Emir Mejhem ibn Meheid, chief of the Anaza tribe near Aleppo with his sons after being decorated with the Croix de Légion d'honneur on 20 September 1920
Old Bedouin man and his wife in Egypt, 1918
Commander and Amir of Mascara, Banu Hilal
Population density of the Arab world in 2008.
An overview of the different Arabic dialects
Arabic-speaking peoples in the Middle East and North Africa
Syrian immigrants in New York City, as depicted in 1895
Amel Bent, a French-born Maghrebi pop singer
The Arab American National Museum in Dearborn, Michigan, the United States of America
Georgia and the Caucasus in 1060, during the final decline of the emirate
Kechimalai Mosque, Beruwala. One of the oldest mosques in Sri Lanka. It is believed to be the site where the first Arabs landed in Sri Lanka.
Baggara belt
Bas-relief: Nemesis, Allāt and the dedicator
The holiest place in Islam, the Kaaba in Al-Haram Mosque, is located in Mecca, the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia
A Greek Orthodox Church during a snow storm in Amman, Jordan
An Abbasid-era Arabic manuscript
Arabic calligraphy
Aladdin flying away with two people, from the Arabian Nights, c. 1900
A giraffe from the Kitāb al-Ḥayawān (Book of the Animals), an important scientific treatise by the 9th century Arab writer Al-Jahiz.
Illustration from Kitab al-Aghani (Book of Songs), by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani. The 14th-century historian Ibn Khaldun called the Book of Songs the register of the Arabs.
Self portrait of renowned Lebanese poet/writer Khalil Gibran
A large plate of Mezes in Petra, Jordan
Mosaic and arabesque on a wall of the Myrtle court in Alhambra, Granada.
Arabic miniature depicting Al-Harith from Maqamat of al-Hariri
The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba, built by Abd al Rahman I in 987
Bayad plays the "Oud to The Lady," from the Bayad & Riyad, Arabic tale
Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer.
Al-Lat was the god of Arabs before Islam; It was found in Ta'if
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.
Ibn Arabi, one of the most celebrated mystic-philosophers in Islamic history.
Hevelius's Selenographia, showing Alhazen [sic] representing reason, and Galileo representing the senses. Alhazen has been described as the "world's first true scientist".
Albategnius's Kitāb az-Zīj was one of the most influential books in medieval astronomy
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, is one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas.
Henna tattoo in Morocco
The Qur'an is one of the most influential examples of Arabic literature

The Islamic Golden Age was inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of the capital from Damascus to the newly founded city of Baghdad.

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text. A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8 century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.

History of Islam

6 links

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text. A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8 century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.
Arabia united under Muhammad (7th century CE)
Close-up of one leave showing chapter division and verse-end markings written in Hijazi script from the Birmingham Quran manuscript, dated between c. 568 and 645, held by the University of Birmingham.
Empire of the Rāshidūn Caliphate at its peak under the third rāshidūn caliph ʿUthmān (654 CE)
The rāshidūn caliphs used symbols of the Sassanid Empire (crescent-star, fire temple, depictions of the last Sasanian emperor Khosrow II) by adding the Arabic expression bismillāh on their coins, instead of designing new ones.
Coin of the Rāshidūn Caliphate (632–675 CE). Pseudo-Byzantine type with depictions of the Byzantine emperor Constans II holding the cross-tipped staff and globus cruciger.
Eastern territories of the Byzantine Empire invaded by the Arab Muslims during the Arab–Byzantine wars (650 CE)
Territories of the Umayyad Caliphate
The Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Kairouan), founded by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670, is the oldest and most prestigious mosque in the Muslim West; its present form dates from the 9th century, Kairouan, Tunisia.
Umayyad army invades France after conquering the Iberian Peninsula
Abbasid caliphate
Gold dinar of Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775) the founder of Baghdad, patron of art and science
An Arabic manuscript written under the second half of the Abbasid Era.
Regional powers born out of the fragmentation of the Abbasid caliphate
Minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra.
Dirham of Al-Muttaqi
Fatimid Caliphate
Ayyubid empire
The Mongol ruler, Ghazan, depicted studying the Quran inside a tent. Illustration of Rashid-ad-Din, first quarter of the 14th century, Staatsbibliothek, Berlin.
Goharshad Mosque built by the Timurid Empire
Tamerlane chess, invented by Amir Timur. The pieces approximate the appearance of the chess pieces in 14th century Persia.
Map of the Mamluk Sultanate (in red) and the Mongol Ilkhanate (in blue) (1250–1382)
The interiors of the Alhambra in Granada, Spain decorated with arabesque designs.
The exterior of the Mezquita.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan also known as the Mosque of Uqba was established in 670 by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi, it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb, situated in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia.
Ruins of Zeila (Saylac), Somalia.
The Great Mosque of Kilwa
Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret, commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty; 1st dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
Grand Mosque of Demak, the first Muslim state in Java
The Huaisheng Mosque of China, built by Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas.
Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman miniature, 1579–1580, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul.
The Ottoman Empire and sphere of influence at its greatest extent (1683)
The Süleymaniye Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan in 1557.
The Safavid Empire at its greatest extent under Shah Ismail I (1501-1524)
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli Jabbador, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.
Mughal India at its greatest extent, at the sharia apogee of Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir.
Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Ottoman army in World War I
Gold dinar of Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842) the founder of Samarra, patron of art and science

The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable polymaths, astronomers, mathematicians, physicians, and philosophers during the Middle Ages.

The three madrasas at the Registan of Samarkand, at the center of the Timurid Renaissance

Madrasa

6 links

Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning.

Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning.

The three madrasas at the Registan of Samarkand, at the center of the Timurid Renaissance
250x250px
The Madrasa al-Mustansiriyya in Baghdad, established in 1227, one of the only Abbasid-era madrasas remaining today
Courtyard of the Nur al-Din Madrasa in Damascus, originally built in 1167 by Nur al-Din
An illustration of an "Arab university in Cairo" from 1869's Die Gartenlaube Journal
The Sabil-Kuttab of Sultan Qaytbay in Cairo, built in the 15th century. The bottom floor contained a sabil and the top floor held a kuttab
Courtyard of the Al-Azhar Mosque and University in Cairo, Egypt
Bosnian Madrasa, c. 1906
Al-Azhar Mosque and University in Cairo
The medrese of the Atik Valide Mosque, part of a külliye sponsored by Nurbanu Sultan (wife of Ottoman sultan Selim II) and designed by imperial architect Mimar Sinan in 1571
Ince Minaret Medrese (13th century) in Konya, now housing the Museum of Stone and Wood Art
Interior of the Madrasa-Mosque of Sultan Hasan (14th century) in Cairo
Courtyard of the Ben Youssef Madrasa (16th century) in Marrakesh
Courtyard of the Ulugh Beg Madrasa (15th century) in Samarkand
The Salis Medrese, part of the Süleymaniye complex (16th century) in Istanbul
Şemsi Pasha Mosque and medrese (1580) in Üsküdar, Istanbul
Courtyard of the Bou Inania Madrasa in Fes
Alauddin Khalji's Madrasa, Qutb complex, built in the early-14th century in Delhi, India.
Quvvathul Islam Senior Madrassa, Taliparamba, India
This is a madarasa of the Jamia Masjid mosque in Srirangapatna, India. This mosque dates back to the 1700s and is where Tipu Sultan used to pray.
Madrasa e Faizan e Madina in Karachi, Pakistan
Students of Madrasah Aljunied Al-Islamiah in Singapore
A Muslim kindergarten in Yangzhou, China

Dimitri Gutas and the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy consider the period between the 11th and 14th centuries to be the "Golden Age" of Arabic and Islamic philosophy, initiated by al-Ghazali's successful integration of logic into the curriculum and the subsequent rise of Avicennism.

Hulagu's army besieging the walls of Baghdad

Siege of Baghdad (1258)

4 links

Siege that took place in Baghdad in 1258, lasting for 13 days from January 29, 1258 until February 10, 1258.

Siege that took place in Baghdad in 1258, lasting for 13 days from January 29, 1258 until February 10, 1258.

Hulagu's army besieging the walls of Baghdad
Persian painting (14th century) of Hülegü's army besieging a city. Note use of the siege engine
Hulagu (left) imprisons Caliph Al-Musta'sim among his treasures to starve him to death. Medieval depiction from Le livre des merveilles, 15th century

The siege is considered to mark the end of the Islamic Golden Age, during which the caliphs had extended their rule from the Iberian Peninsula to Sindh, and which was also marked by many cultural achievements in diverse fields.