Islamic schools and branches

Islamic conservatismdenominationbranches of Islamdenominations of IslamIslamic denominationIslamic schools of thoughtdenominationsIslamMuslim denominationsMuslim sect
This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam.wikipedia
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Schools of Islamic theology

Islamic theologytheologyMuslim theology
There are three traditional types of schools in Islam: schools of jurisprudence, Sufi orders and schools of theology.
Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam. The Ahmadiyya movement was founded in India in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Christ"), the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and a "subordinate" prophet to Muhammad whose job was to restore the original Sharia given to Muhammad by guiding or rallying disenchanted Ummah back to Islam and thwart attacks on Islam by its opponents.
Most Muslims are of one of two denominations; Sunni (75–90%) or Shia (10-20%).

Muslim world

Islamic worldMuslim countriesIslamic countries
After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, there has never been another caliph as widely recognized in the Muslim world.
All Muslims look for guidance to the Quran and believe in the prophetic mission of Muhammad, but disagreements on other matters have led to appearance of different religious schools and branches within Islam.

Succession to Muhammad

successor to MuhammadMuhammad's successorsucceeded Muhammad
In addition to believing in the authority of the Quran and teachings of Muhammad, Shia believe that Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt (the "People of the House"), including his descendants known as Imams, have special spiritual and political authority over the community and believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, was the first of these Imams and was the rightful successor to Muhammad, and thus reject the legitimacy of the first three Rashidun caliphs.
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.

Companions of the Prophet

Sahabacompanioncompanions
The word Sunni comes from the word sunnah, which means the teachings and actions or examples of the Sahaba and the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
The two largest Islamic denominations, the Sunni and Shia, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimonies, have different hadith collections and, as a result, have different views about the Sahabah.

Muhammad

Prophet MuhammadMohammedMohammad
Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to some figures of Islamic history (usually a member of Muhammad's family, Ahl al-Bayt) or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream Shi'i theology were called Ghulat.
He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.

Druze

DruzesDruzismDruse
It has been retained by all branches of Isma'ilism and its Druze offshoot.
Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze are not generally considered Muslims, although Al Azhar of Egypt recognizes them as one of the Islamic sects, akin to Shia.

Haji Bektash Veli

Haji BektashHajji Bektash WaliHajji Bektash
Haji Bektash Veli was a descendant of Musa Kazim, the Seventh Imam of the Athnā‘ashariyyah Shi'a Muslim sect.

Hanafi

Hanafi schoolHanafiteḤanafī
Sunni Islam is separated into four main schools of jurisprudence, namely, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali.

Hanbali

HanbaliteHanbali schoolHanbalis
Sunni Islam is separated into four main schools of jurisprudence, namely, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali.

Shafi‘i

Shafi'iShafiShafi`i
Sunni Islam is separated into four main schools of jurisprudence, namely, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali.

Gülen movement

FETÖGulen MovementHizmet movement
The Gülen movement, usually referred to as the Hizmet movement, established in the 1970s as an offshoot of the Nur Movement and led by the Turkish Islamic scholar and preacher Fethullah Gülen in Turkey, Central Asia, and in other parts of the world, is active in education, with private schools and universities in over 180 countries as well as with many American charter schools operated by followers.
. Owing to the outlawed status of the Gülen movement in Turkey, some observers refer to the movement's volunteers who are Turkish Muslims as effectively a sub-sect of Sunni Islam; these volunteers generally hold their religious tenets as generically Turkish Sunni Islam.

Deobandi

Deobandi movementDeobandisDeobandi Islamic movement
In South Asia the Barelvi and Deobandi schools represent further schism within classical Sunni Islam.

Barelvi

BarelwiBarelvi movementBarelvis
In South Asia the Barelvi and Deobandi schools represent further schism within classical Sunni Islam.

Ahmadiyya

Ahmadiyya Muslim CommunityAhmadiAhmadis
The Ahmadiyya movement was founded in India in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the promised Messiah ("Second Coming of Christ"), the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and a "subordinate" prophet to Muhammad whose job was to restore the original Sharia given to Muhammad by guiding or rallying disenchanted Ummah back to Islam and thwart attacks on Islam by its opponents.
Labelling a group or school in Islam after anyone (or anything) other than Muhammad the prophet of Islam, he thus rejected as religious innovation (bid‘ah).

Liberalism and progressivism within Islam

Liberal movements within IslamLiberal IslamIslamic liberalism
Liberal Muslims at thought have led to the birth of certain small denominations from primarily unaffiliated followers who believe in greater autonomy of the individual in interpretation of scripture, a critical examination of religious texts, gender equality, human rights, LGBT rights and a modern view of culture, tradition, and other ritualistic practices in Islam.
Liberal ideas are considered controversial by traditional Muslims, who criticize liberal ideas on the grounds of being too Western or rationalistic.

Mahdavia

ZikriZikrisMahdavis
Mahdavia, or Mahdavism, is a Mahdiist sect founded in late 15th century India by Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri, who declared himself to be the Hidden Twelfth Imam of the Twelver Shia tradition.
Mahdavia (مهدوي mahdawi) or Mahdavism, known as Zikri in Pakistan, is a Mahdiist Muslim sect founded by Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri in India in the late 15th century.

Non-denominational Muslim

non-denominational MuslimsNondenominational Muslimsjust Muslim
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.

Sunni Islam

SunniSunni MuslimSunni Muslims
The best known split, into Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, and Kharijites, was mainly political at first but eventually acquired theological and jurisprudential dimensions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by 87–90% of the world's Muslims.

Shia Islam

ShiaShi'aShiite
The best known split, into Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, and Kharijites, was mainly political at first but eventually acquired theological and jurisprudential dimensions.
Shia Islam (شِيعَة Shīʿah, from Shīʿatu ʿAlīy شِيعَة عَلِيّ "adherents of Ali"; شِيعِيّ Shīʿīy is singular, شِيَاع Shīʿā is plural, sometimes spelled Shi'ite is also used in archaic English) is one of the two main branches of Islam.

Shia–Sunni relations

Shi'a–Sunni relationsShi'a-Sunni relationsShia-Sunni relations
Shia and Sunni Islam are the two major denominations of Islam.

Madhhab

madhabmadh'habschool
There are three traditional types of schools in Islam: schools of jurisprudence, Sufi orders and schools of theology.

Quranic createdness

Qur'an had been createdcreatedness of the Qur'ancreated
Major themes of theological controversies in Islam have included predestination and free will, the nature of the Quran, the nature of the divine attributes, apparent and esoteric meaning of scripture, and the role of dialectical reasoning in the Islamic doctrine.