Islamism

IslamistIslamistspolitical IslamIslamicmilitant IslamistIslamism in LondonIslamist movementradical IslamMuslimIslam
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.wikipedia
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Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalistIslamic fundamentalistsfundamentalist
It is commonly used interchangeably with the terms political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism.
Definitions vary as to what Islamic fundamentalism exactly is and how, if at all, it differs from Islamism (or political Islam) or Islamic revivalism.

Armed Islamic Group of Algeria

Armed Islamic GroupGIAGroupe Islamique Armé
The new use of the term "Islamism" at first functioned as "a marker for scholars more likely to sympathize" with new Islamic movements; however, as the term gained popularity it became more specifically associated with political groups such as the Taliban or the Algerian Armed Islamic Group, as well as with highly-publicized acts of violence.
The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from Groupe Islamique Armé; الجماعة الإسلامية المسلّحة), was one of the two main Islamist insurgents groups that fought the Algerian government and army in the Algerian Civil War.

Political Islam

systematically, officially and legally violatedIslamicIslamic platform
It is commonly used interchangeably with the terms political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism.
Some academic authors use the term Islamism to describe the same phenomenon or use the two terms interchangeably.

Sharia

Islamic lawSharia lawShariah
The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles or more specifically to movements which call for full implementation of sharia.
The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia, including hudud corporal punishments, such as stoning.

Sayyid Qutb

Sayid QutbSyed QutbSayyed Qutb
Central and prominent figures in twentieth-century Islamism include Hasan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb, Abul Ala Maududi, and Ruhollah Khomeini.
Qutb has been described by followers as a great thinker and martyr for Islam, while many Western observers (and some Muslims) see him as a key originator of Islamist ideology.

Hezbollah

HizbullahHizbollahHizballah
"Islamists" who have spoken out against the use of the term, insisting they are merely "Muslims", include Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah (1935-2010), the spiritual mentor of Hezbollah, and Abbassi Madani (1931- ), leader of the Algerian Islamic Salvation Front.
Hezbollah (pronounced ; حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah''', etc. —is a Shia Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon.

Maajid Nawaz

Nawaz, Maajid
He is the founding chairman of Quilliam, a counter-extremism think tank that seeks to challenge the narratives of Islamist extremists, and the host of a radio show on LBC, every Saturday and Sunday.

Council on American–Islamic Relations

Council on American-Islamic RelationsCAIRCouncil on American Islamic Relations
The Council on American–Islamic Relations complained in 2013 that the Associated Press's definition of "Islamist"—a "supporter of government in accord with the laws of Islam [and] who view the Quran as a political model"—had become a pejorative shorthand for "Muslims we don't like".
Critics of CAIR have accused it of pursuing an Islamist agenda and have claimed that the group is connected to Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood, claims which CAIR has rejected and described as an Islamophobic smear campaign.

Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan

Jamaat-e-IslamiJIJamat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami of Pakistan is basically a socio-political and democratic Vanguard party but has also gained political influence through military coup d'états in the past.
Jamaat-e-Islami, (Urdu:, "Islamic Congress"), abbreviated JI, is a socially conservative and Islamist political party based in Pakistan.

Taliban

Afghan Talibanthe TalibanTaleban
The new use of the term "Islamism" at first functioned as "a marker for scholars more likely to sympathize" with new Islamic movements; however, as the term gained popularity it became more specifically associated with political groups such as the Taliban or the Algerian Armed Islamic Group, as well as with highly-publicized acts of violence. Jihadist organizations like al-Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and groups such as the Taliban, entirely reject democracy, often declaring as kuffar those Muslims who support it (see takfirism), as well as calling for violent/offensive jihad or urging and conducting attacks on a religious basis.
The Taliban's ideology has been described as combining an "innovative" form of sharia Islamic law based on Deobandi fundamentalism and the militant Islamism and Salafi jihadism of Osama bin Laden with Pashtun social and cultural norms known as Pashtunwali, as most Taliban are Pashtun tribesmen.

Al-Qaeda

Al Qaedaal-QaidaAl Qaida
Jihadist organizations like al-Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and groups such as the Taliban, entirely reject democracy, often declaring as kuffar those Muslims who support it (see takfirism), as well as calling for violent/offensive jihad or urging and conducting attacks on a religious basis.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة ', translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Database", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida''') is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988 by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several other Arab volunteers during the Soviet–Afghan War.

Arab Spring

protestsconcurrent protests in the region2011 Arab Spring
Following the Arab Spring, some Islamist currents became heavily involved in democratic politics, while others spawned "the most aggressive and ambitious Islamist militia" to date, ISIS.
When Arab Spring protests in some countries were followed by electoral success for Islamist parties, some American pundits coined the terms "Islamist Spring" and "Islamist Winter".

Islamic terrorism

Islamic terroristIslamic terroristsIslamist terrorism
Jihadist organizations like al-Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and groups such as the Taliban, entirely reject democracy, often declaring as kuffar those Muslims who support it (see takfirism), as well as calling for violent/offensive jihad or urging and conducting attacks on a religious basis.
Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism are terrorist acts against civilians committed by violent Islamists who claim a religious motivation.

Takfir

excommunicatedTakfīrapostate
Jihadist organizations like al-Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and groups such as the Taliban, entirely reject democracy, often declaring as kuffar those Muslims who support it (see takfirism), as well as calling for violent/offensive jihad or urging and conducting attacks on a religious basis.
Takfir or takfeer is a controversial concept in Islamist discourse, denoting excommunication, as one Muslim declaring another Muslim, or any individual, as a non-believer (kafir).

Ennahda Movement

EnnahdaEnnahdhaEnnahdha Party
Moderate and reformist Islamists who accept and work within the democratic process include parties like the Tunisian Ennahda Movement.
Founded as "The Movement of Islamic Tendency" in 1981, Ennahdha was inspired by the Abul A'la Maududi, and Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, it has also been called by Robert F. Worth "the mildest and most democratic Islamist party in history".

Muslim Brotherhood

the Muslim BrotherhoodMuslim BrothersIslamic brotherhood
Another major division within Islamism is between what Graham E. Fuller has described as the fundamentalist "guardians of the tradition" (Salafis, such as those in the Wahhabi movement) and the "vanguard of change and Islamic reform" centered around the Muslim Brotherhood.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers, better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون ), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

Identity politics

gender politicsidentitypolitics of identity
Graham Fuller has argued for a broader notion of Islamism as a form of identity politics, involving "support for [Muslim] identity, authenticity, broader regionalism, revivalism, [and] revitalization of the community."
Identity politics can be left-wing or right-wing, with examples of the latter being Ulster Loyalism, Islamism and Christian Identity movements.

Egyptian Islamic Jihad

al-JihadIslamic Jihadjihadis
Jihadist organizations like al-Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and groups such as the Taliban, entirely reject democracy, often declaring as kuffar those Muslims who support it (see takfirism), as well as calling for violent/offensive jihad or urging and conducting attacks on a religious basis.
The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ, الجهاد الإسلامي المصري), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites" ), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jihad Group, or the Jihad Organization, is an Egyptian Islamist terrorist group active since the late 1970s.

Kafir

kuffarkufrnon-Muslims
Jihadist organizations like al-Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and groups such as the Taliban, entirely reject democracy, often declaring as kuffar those Muslims who support it (see takfirism), as well as calling for violent/offensive jihad or urging and conducting attacks on a religious basis.
In modern times, kafir is sometimes used as a derogatory term, particularly by members of Islamist movements.

Pan-Islamism

pan-Islamicpan-IslamistPan-Islamic movement
Islamists may emphasize the implementation of sharia (Islamic law); pan-Islamic political unity, including an Islamic state; or selective removal of non-Muslim, particularly Western military, economic, political, social, or cultural influences in the Muslim world that they believe to be incompatible with Islam.
Pan-Islamism in the post-colonial world was strongly associated with Islamism.

National Iraqi Alliance

United Iraqi AllianceIraqi National AllianceIraqi National Coalition
This includes National Congress of Sudan, National Iraqi Alliance of Iraq and Justice and Development Party (PJD) of Morocco.
The Alliance is mainly composed of Shi'a Islamist parties.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip ErdoganErdoğanErdogan
The concept was inspired by the perceived success of Turkish Justice and Development Party (AKP) led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan in harmonizing the Islamist principles within the secular state framework.
Coming from an Islamist political background and as a self-described conservative democrat, he has promoted socially conservative and liberal economic policies in his administration.

Terrorism in Egypt

Metrojet Flight 9268 crashattackscar bomb exploded
Islamist movements operated within the state framework were markedly scrutinized during the Algerian Civil War (1991-2002) and after the increase of terrorism in Egypt in the 90s.
Many attacks have been linked to Islamic extremism, and terrorism increased in the 1990s when the Islamist movement al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya targeted high-level political leaders and killed hundreds - including civilians - in its pursuit of implementing traditional Sharia law in Egypt.

Rached Ghannouchi

Rashid al-GhannushiRachid GhannouchiRashid Ghannouchi
Some authors hold the term "Islamic activism" to be synonymous and preferable to "Islamism", and Rached Ghannouchi writes that Islamists prefer to use the term "Islamic movement" themselves.
The Movement described itself as specifically rooted in non-violent Islamism, and called for a "reconstruction of economic life on a more equitable basis, the end of single-party politics and the acceptance of political pluralism and democracy."

Malaysian Islamic Party

PASPan-Malaysian Islamic PartyPMIP
The characterization can be applied to Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), and used to describe the "ideological evolution" within the Ennahda of Tunisia.
The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS; Parti Islam Se-Malaysia) is an Islamist political party in Malaysia.