Island

islandsIsland Groupoceanic islandinsularisletcontinental islandtropical islandoceanic islandsislecontinental islands
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.wikipedia
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Skerry

skerriesrocksSkjærgård
Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys.
A skerry is a small rocky island, usually too small for human habitation.

Continent

continentssubcontinentcontinental
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
In this sense the term continental Europe (sometimes referred to in Britain as "the Continent") is used to refer to mainland Europe, excluding islands such as Great Britain, Ireland, Malta and Iceland, and the term continent of Australia may refer to the mainland of Australia, excluding Tasmania and New Guinea.

Archipelago

Island grouparchipelagicarchipelagos
A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands, such as the Philippines, is referred to as an archipelago.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

IJsselmonde (island)

IJsselmondeZwijndrechtse Waard
An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde.
IJsselmonde is a river island between the Nieuwe Maas, Noord and Oude Maas branches rivers of the Rhine-Meuse delta in the Dutch province of South Holland.

Coronado, California

CoronadoCoronado IslandCoronado, CA
Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands.
Coronado lies on an island connected to the mainland by a tombolo called the Silver Strand.

Tied island

connecting what used to be isolated islands
Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands.
Tied islands, or land-tied islands as they are often known, are landforms consisting of an island that is connected to land only by a tombolo: a spit of beach materials connected to land at both ends.

Mainland

mainland Chinaparent territoryUK mainland
Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal, more or less the entirety of Fennoscandia by the White Sea Canal, or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is generally not considered an island.
The term is often politically, economically and/or demographically more significant than politically associated remote territories, such as exclaves or oceanic islands situated outside the continental shelf.

Artificial island

artificial islandsman-made islandartificial
There are also artificial islands.
An artificial island or man-made island is an island that has been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means.

Corinth Canal

canalcanal through the isthmus of CorinthCorinth
Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal, more or less the entirety of Fennoscandia by the White Sea Canal, or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is generally not considered an island.
It cuts through the narrow Isthmus of Corinth and separates the Peloponnese from the Greek mainland, arguably making the peninsula an island.

Islet

isletsmoturocks
Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys.
An islet is a very small island.

Continental shelf

continental shelvesshelfouter continental shelf
Continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent.
The shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf.

Tasmania

TasTasmanianTasmania, Australia
Examples are Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Sakhalin, Taiwan and Hainan off Asia; New Guinea, Tasmania, and Kangaroo Island off Australia; Great Britain, Ireland, and Sicily off Europe; Greenland, Newfoundland, Long Island, and Sable Island off North America; and Barbados, the Falkland Islands, and Trinidad off South America.
Tasmania (abbreviated as TAS, nicknamed Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
Examples are Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Sakhalin, Taiwan and Hainan off Asia; New Guinea, Tasmania, and Kangaroo Island off Australia; Great Britain, Ireland, and Sicily off Europe; Greenland, Newfoundland, Long Island, and Sable Island off North America; and Barbados, the Falkland Islands, and Trinidad off South America.
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

Ireland

IrishIRLisland of Ireland
Examples are Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Sakhalin, Taiwan and Hainan off Asia; New Guinea, Tasmania, and Kangaroo Island off Australia; Great Britain, Ireland, and Sicily off Europe; Greenland, Newfoundland, Long Island, and Sable Island off North America; and Barbados, the Falkland Islands, and Trinidad off South America.
Ireland (Éire ; Ulster-Scots: Airlann ) is an island in the North Atlantic.

Barrier island

barrier islandsbarrier beachbarrier spit
They usually occur in chains, consisting of anything from a few islands to more than a dozen.

Geography of New Caledonia

New CaledoniaNew Caledonian mainlandGrande Terre
Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, and some of the Seychelles.
New Caledonia comprises a main island, Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, and several smaller islands.

Saint Helena

St HelenaSt. HelenaSt. Helena Island
The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 4000 km east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the mouth of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.

Landmass

land massterra firmaland masses
Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate; this holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere and tectonic plate (the Australian plate).

Seamount

seamountssea mountseamount chain
Over long periods of time, this type of island is eventually "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount.
A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean floor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island, islet or cliff-rock.

Hawaiian Islands

Sandwich IslandsHawaiiHawaiian
An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1500 mi from the island of Hawaii in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.

Tuamotus

Tuamotu ArchipelagoTuamotuTuamotu Islands
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago; its older, northerly trend is the Line Islands.
The Tuamotus, also referred to in English as the Tuamotu Archipelago or the Tuamotu Islands (Îles Tuamotu, officially Archipel des Tuamotu), are a French Polynesian chain of almost 80 islands and atolls forming the largest chain of atolls in the world.

Tristan da Cunha

Tristan de CunhaTristanCulture of Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean.
Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean which includes Gough Island.

Polynesia

South SeasSouth Sea IslandsPolynesian Islands
Examples formed from coral reefs include Maldives, Tonga, Samoa, Nauru, and Polynesia.
Polynesia (, ; from polys "many" and nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.

Réunion

La RéunionReunion IslandRéunion Island
International tourism is a significant factor in the economy of many tropical islands including Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Réunion, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Maldives.
Réunion (La Réunion ; previously Île Bourbon) is an overseas department and region of France and an island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and 175 km southwest of Mauritius.

Coral reef

coral reefsbarrier reefreef
Examples formed from coral reefs include Maldives, Tonga, Samoa, Nauru, and Polynesia. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island.
Coral reefs are found in the deep sea away from continental shelves, around oceanic islands and atolls.