Isoflavone

isoflavones
Isoflavones are substituted derivatives of isoflavone, a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.wikipedia
138 Related Articles

Phytoestrogen

phytoestrogensestrogen-like compoundsphytoestorgenic
Isoflavones are substituted derivatives of isoflavone, a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.
Phytoestrogens mainly belong to a large group of substituted natural phenolic compounds: the coumestans, prenylflavonoids and isoflavones are three of the most active in estrogenic effects in this class.

Genistein

Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human food; the major isoflavones in soybean are genistein and daidzein.
Genistein is an isoflavone that is described as an angiogenesis inhibitor and a phytoestrogen.

Daidzein

3′-hydroxydaidzein
Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human food; the major isoflavones in soybean are genistein and daidzein.
Daidzein (7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) is a naturally occurring compound found exclusively in soybeans and other legumes and structurally belongs to a class of compounds known as isoflavones.

Isoflavonoid

isoflavonoids isoflavonoid compounds3-phenylchromen-4-one
Isoflavones are substituted derivatives of isoflavone, a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.
While flavonoids (in the narrow sense) have the 2-phenylchromen-4-one backbone, isoflavonoids have the 3-phenylchromen-4-one backbone with no hydroxyl group substitution at position 2 (case of the isoflavones) or the 3-phenylchroman (isoflavan) backbone (case of isoflavanes, such as equol).

Flavonoid

flavonoidsflavanoidbioflavonoid
Isoflavones are produced via a branch of the general phenylpropanoid pathway that produces flavonoid compounds in higher plants.

Soybean

soysoybeansGlycine max
Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human food; the major isoflavones in soybean are genistein and daidzein. Various legumes including soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.) have been studied for their estrogenic activity.
Soy isoflavones are polyphenol compounds, produced by soybeans and other legumes, including peanuts and chickpeas.

Kudzu

kudzu vineK''akkontō
Various legumes including soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.) have been studied for their estrogenic activity.
Kudzu contains isoflavones, including puerarin (about 60% of the total isoflavones), daidzein, daidzin (structurally related to genistein), mirificin, and salvianolic acid, among numerous others identified.

Rotenoid

rotenoids
Rotenoids are related to the isoflavones.

Phytochemical

phytochemicalsphytonutrientsphytochemical screening
Flavonoids can be further divided into groups based on their similar chemical structure, such as anthocyanins, flavones, flavanones, and isoflavones, and flavanols.

Tofu

bean curdbeancurdsilken tofu
Highly processed foods made from legumes, such as tofu, retain most of their isoflavone content, and fermented miso, which has increased levels.
Soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones: genistein and daidzein) absorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels.

Hot flash

hot flasheshot flushesvasomotor symptoms
Use of soy isoflavone dietary supplements may be associated with reduction of hot flashes in postmenopausal women.
Isoflavones are commonly found in legumes such as soy and red clover.

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
Isoflavones are substituted derivatives of isoflavone, a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.

Fabaceae

Leguminosaelegume familylegume
Isoflavones are produced almost exclusively by the members of the bean family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

Dietary supplement

dietary supplementsnutritional supplementnutritional supplements
Use of soy isoflavone dietary supplements may be associated with reduction of hot flashes in postmenopausal women. Although isoflavones and closely related phytoestrogens are sold as dietary supplements, there is little scientific evidence for either the safety of long-term supplementation or of health benefits from these compounds.

Breast cancer

breastbreast carcinomabreast cancers
Some studies have identified potential risks from high intake of isoflavones, such as in women with a history of breast cancer, but this concern has not been substantiated with high-quality clinical research.

Clinical research

clinicalclinical scienceclinical studies
Some studies have identified potential risks from high intake of isoflavones, such as in women with a history of breast cancer, but this concern has not been substantiated with high-quality clinical research.

Flavones

flavoneFlavmethoxyflavones
Isoflavone differs from flavone (2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyr-4-one) in location of the phenyl group.

Phenyl group

phenylphenyl ringPh
Isoflavone differs from flavone (2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyr-4-one) in location of the phenyl group.

Phenylpropanoid

phenylpropanoidsphenylpropanoid pathwayphenyl propanoid
Isoflavones are produced via a branch of the general phenylpropanoid pathway that produces flavonoid compounds in higher plants.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
The phenylpropanoid pathway begins from the amino acid phenylalanine, and an intermediate of the pathway, naringenin, is sequentially converted into the isoflavone genistein by two legume-specific enzymes, isoflavone synthase, and a dehydratase.

Phenylalanine

PheL-phenylalaninephenylalanine metabolism
The phenylpropanoid pathway begins from the amino acid phenylalanine, and an intermediate of the pathway, naringenin, is sequentially converted into the isoflavone genistein by two legume-specific enzymes, isoflavone synthase, and a dehydratase.

Naringenin

(-)-(2S)-naringenin
The phenylpropanoid pathway begins from the amino acid phenylalanine, and an intermediate of the pathway, naringenin, is sequentially converted into the isoflavone genistein by two legume-specific enzymes, isoflavone synthase, and a dehydratase.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
The phenylpropanoid pathway begins from the amino acid phenylalanine, and an intermediate of the pathway, naringenin, is sequentially converted into the isoflavone genistein by two legume-specific enzymes, isoflavone synthase, and a dehydratase.

Dehydratase

dehydrotaseDH
The phenylpropanoid pathway begins from the amino acid phenylalanine, and an intermediate of the pathway, naringenin, is sequentially converted into the isoflavone genistein by two legume-specific enzymes, isoflavone synthase, and a dehydratase.

Naringenin chalcone

Similarly, another intermediate naringenin chalcone is converted to the isoflavone daidzein by sequential action of three legume-specific enzymes: chalcone reductase, type II chalcone isomerase, and isoflavone synthase.