A report on Israel and Yasser Arafat

Yasser Arafat awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway, in December 1994
Arafat with Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine leader, Nayef Hawatmeh and Palestinian writer Kamal Nasser at press conference in Amman, 1970
The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser (center) mediating an agreement between Arafat and Jordanian King Hussein to end to the Black September conflict, during the emergency Arab League summit, September 1970
Yasser Arafat visits East Germany in 1971; background: Brandenburg Gate
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Yasser Arafat with Bhim Singh, founder of Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party, in the 1970s.
Arafat in a Palestinian refugee camp in Southern Lebanon, 1978
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Arafat with Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish (center) and PFLP leader George Habash (right) in Syria, 1980
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Arafat with Iranian Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan, days after Iranian Revolution
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Arafat during the Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat receiving the Nobel Peace Prize following the Oslo Accords
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
Arafat with PNA cabinet members Yasser Abed Rabbo (left) and Nabil Shaath (right) at a meeting in Copenhagen, 1999
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
Arafat with Ehud Barak and Bill Clinton at Camp David Summit, 2000
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Arafat's "temporary" tomb in Ramallah, 2004
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Honour guard at attention over Yasser Arafat's tombstone in mausoleum, opened 10 November 2007 at the PNA presidential headquarters in Ramallah
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Arafat mausoleum
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

Opposed to the 1948 creation of the State of Israel, he fought alongside the Muslim Brotherhood during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

- Yasser Arafat

Ehud Barak, elected Prime Minister in 1999, began the new millennium by withdrawing forces from Southern Lebanon and conducting negotiations with Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat and U.S. President Bill Clinton at the 2000 Camp David Summit.

- Israel

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Orient House, the former PLO headquarters in Jerusalem

Palestine Liberation Organization

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Orient House, the former PLO headquarters in Jerusalem

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية, Munaẓẓamat at-Taḥrīr al-Filasṭīniyyah) is a Palestinian nationalist political and militant organization founded in 1964 with the initial purpose of establishing Arab unity and statehood over the territory of former Mandatory Palestine, in opposition to the State of Israel.

Yasser Arafat occupied the position from 1969 until his death in 2004.

2018 United Nations OCHA map of the area, showing Israeli occupation arrangements

East Jerusalem

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2018 United Nations OCHA map of the area, showing Israeli occupation arrangements
East Jerusalem zoning
Map of East Jerusalem. The Arab areas are coloured green, while the Jewish areas are blue.
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
Old Roman era gate beneath the Damascus Gate (Bab al-'Amud) in Jerusalem
1961 Jordan Tourism Map of Jerusalem
King Hussein flying over the Temple Mount while it was under Jordanian control, 1965
Aerial view of the ancient Jewish cemetery on Mount of Olives
2018 United Nations map of the area, showing the Israeli occupation arrangements.
Israeli West Bank barrier in Jerusalem
Jerusalem municipal area, under Israel in 2000
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing areas they consider settlements, plus refugee camps, fences, walls, etc.
East Jerusalem, with Israeli West Bank barrier in the background
Dome of the Rock in the Old City
UN map showing a series of Israeli "Inner Settlements" – each represented as red crosses – with clusters in the Old City, to the south adjacent to the City of David (shown as "Beit Hazofe" (בית הצופה, "Observation House")) and Ma'ale HaZeitim, and to the north around Shimon HaTzadik.
The new building is Schmidt's Girls College.

East Jerusalem (القدس الشرقية, al-Quds ash-Sharqiya; מִזְרַח יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, Mizraḥ Yerushalayim) is the sector of Jerusalem that was held by Jordan during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, as opposed to the western sector of the city, West Jerusalem, which was held by Israel.

In 2000, the Palestinian Authority passed a law proclaiming Jerusalem as its capital, and in October 2002, this law was approved by chairman Yasser Arafat.

Gaza Strip

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Palestinian enclave on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Palestinian enclave on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Gaza City skyline, 2007.
Downtown Gaza, 2012.
Beit Hanoun region of Gaza in August 2014, after Israeli bombardments.
British artillery battery in front of Gaza, 1917
Gaza War Cemetery
Che Guevara visiting Gaza in 1959
View of Gaza during the 2000s.
Barrier fence
The Al Deira Hotel on the Gaza coast, 2009
Buildings damaged during Operation "Cast Lead".
Monthly rocket and mortar hits in Israel, 2008.
Israelis killed by Palestinians in Israel ( blue ) and Palestinians killed by Israelis in Gaza ( red )
Sea-view from the Al Deira Hotel on the Gaza coast
A resort in the Gaza Strip built on the location of the former Israeli settlement of Netzarim
Backyard industry
Muslim worshippers in Gaza
Damaged UN school and remmants of the Ministry of Interior in Gaza City, December 2012
Watchtower on the border between Rafah and Egypt.
Tent camp, April 2009, after Cast Lead.
University College of Applied Sciences, the largest college in Gaza
Islamic University of Gaza
Gaza amusement park.
Damaged part of Gaza airport, May 2002

It borders Egypt on the southwest for 11 km and Israel on the east and north along a 51 km border.

The Palestinian Authority, led by Yasser Arafat, chose Gaza City as its first provincial headquarters.

A depiction of Syria and Palestine from CE 650 to 1500

Palestinians

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Ethnonational group descending from peoples who have inhabited the region of Palestine over the millennia, and who are today culturally and linguistically Arab.

Ethnonational group descending from peoples who have inhabited the region of Palestine over the millennia, and who are today culturally and linguistically Arab.

A depiction of Syria and Palestine from CE 650 to 1500
Palestinian mother and child
A loom at work making a traditional Palestinian keffiyeh in Hebron, Palestine. The keffiyeh is a traditional headdress with origins in Arabia
A veiled Arab woman in Bersheeba, Palestine c.1940
Tawfiq Canaan (1882–1964) was a pioneering Palestinian ethnographer and Palestinian nationalist. Deeply interested in Palestinian folklore (principally Canaanite, Philistine, Hebraic, Nabatean, Syrio-Aramaic and Arab), Canaan wrote several books and more than 50 articles on the matter
Depiction of Palestine in the time of Saul c. 1020 BC according to George Adam Smith's 1915 Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land
Palestinian children in Hebron
Edward Said and Daniel Barenboim in Sevilla, 2002
Saladin's Falcon, the coat of arms and emblem of the Palestinian Authority
Khalil Beidas's 1898 use of the word "Palestinians" in the preface to his translation of Akim Olesnitsky's [[:File:Olesnitsky A. The Holy Land. Vol. 1 (Russian).djvu|A Description of the Holy Land]]
A 1930 protest in Jerusalem against the British Mandate by Palestinian women. The sign reads "No dialogue, no negotiations until termination [of the Mandate]"
UN stamp to commemorate the Palestinian struggle
Musa Alami (1897-1984) was a Palestinian nationalist and politician and was viewed in the 1940s as the leader of the Palestinians
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, leader of the Army of the Holy War in 1948
Yasser Arafat, Nayef Hawatmeh and Kamal Nasser in a Jordan press conference in Amman, 1970
Protest for Palestine in Tunisia
Palestinian refugees in 1948
Palestinian girls in Nablus
Christians from Gaza
Palestinian Druze family making bread 1920
Areen Omari, a Palestinian actress and producer, attends a motion picture ceremony
Palestinian market at Jaffa, 1877 painting
The Umm al-Fahm Art Gallery
Palestinian novelist and non-fiction writer Susan Abulhawa
Mahmoud Darwish, Palestinian poet
Palestinian-American writer Naomi Shihab Nye
Samah Sabawi is a Palestinian dramatist, writer and journalist.
Kamanjeh performer in Jerusalem, 1859
American radio personality and record producer DJ Khaled, of Palestinian descent
Palestinians attending prayers at the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, the holiest site in Christianity
Palestinian Christian Scouts on Christmas Eve in front of the Nativity Church in Bethlehem, 2006
Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron
Jews in 'Ben Zakai' house of prayer, Jerusalem, 1893.
Tomb of Jethro in Hittin, Northern Israel.
Muslims pray in Jerusalem, 1840. By David Roberts, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
A Palestinian Christian family in Ramallah, Ottoman Palestine, 1905
Married Eastern Orthodox priest from Jerusalem with his family (three generations), circa 1893
Palestinian students and John Kerry
Palestinian students
Palestinian students
Musakhan: The Palestinian National dish.
A plate of hummus, garnished with paprika and olive oil and pine nuts
A Palestinian youth serving Falafel in Ramallah.
Kanafeh: a Palestinian dessert.
The Alhamra Cinema, Jaffa, 1937, bombed December 1947
Villagers in Halhul at an open-air cinema screening c. 1940
A woman from Bethlehem, c. 1940s.
Young woman of Ramallah wearing dowry headdress, c. 1898–1914
Ramallah woman, c. 1920, Library of Congress
A Traditional Women's Dress in Ramallah, c. 1920.
Girls in Bethlehem costume pre-1885.
Palestinian Dabke folk dance being performed by men
Palestinian women dancing traditionally, Bethlehem c. 1936
Marco Zaror is a Chilean martial artist of Palestinian descent.
Nicolás Massú is a Chilean tennis player of Palestinian descent.
Roberto Bishara Adawi is a footballer of Palestinian descent.

Despite various wars and exoduses, roughly one half of the world's Palestinian population continues to reside in the territory of former British Palestine, now encompassing the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (the Palestinian territories) as well as Israel.

The group grew in popularity in the following years, especially under the nationalistic orientation of the leadership of Yasser Arafat.

Palestinian National Authority

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Fatah-controlled government body that exercises partial civil control over West Bank areas "A" and "B" as a consequence of the 1993–1995 Oslo Accords.

Fatah-controlled government body that exercises partial civil control over West Bank areas "A" and "B" as a consequence of the 1993–1995 Oslo Accords.

Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton and Yasser Arafat at the Oslo Accords signing ceremony on 13 September 1993.
CIA remote-sensing map of areas governed by the Palestinian Authority, July 2008.
The Palestinian legislative election in 2006, Hamas (green) and Fatah (yellow)
Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen), President of the Palestinian Authority since 2005 (disputed since 2009).

The Palestinian Authority was formed in 1994, pursuant to the Gaza–Jericho Agreement between the PLO and the government of Israel, and was intended to be a five-year interim body.

The Chairman of the PLO, Yasser Arafat, was elected as President of PA in a landslide victory at the general election in 1996.

Bill Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat at the White House in 1993

Oslo Accords

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Bill Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat at the White House in 1993
Area C, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011

The Oslo Accords are a pair of agreements between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; and the Oslo II Accord, signed in Taba, Egypt, in 1995.

Yasser Arafat – PLO leader during the Oslo peace process

CIA remote-sensing map of areas governed by the Palestinian Authority, July 2008.

Second Intifada

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Palestinian uprising against Israel.

Palestinian uprising against Israel.

CIA remote-sensing map of areas governed by the Palestinian Authority, July 2008.
Monument to Israeli Arab casualties in October 2000 riots, Nazareth
Residential neighborhood in Ramallah.
Dolphinarium Massacre memorial at the Tel Aviv Dolphinarium site with the names of the victims written in Russian
Military equipment confiscated from Karine A
IDF Caterpillar D9
The aftermath of a bus bombing in Haifa in 2003
Early Israeli construction of West Bank barrier, 2003
Israeli forces uncover a smuggling tunnel in Gaza, May 2004
Rocket and mortar shells from Gaza into Israel, February 2009
IDF Caterpillar D9 armoured bulldozer. Military experts cited the D9 as a key factor in keeping IDF casualties low.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF) AH-64 Apache were used as platform for shooting guided missiles at Palestinian targets and employed at the targeted killings policy against senior militants and terrorists leaders.
The iconic picture of Faris Odeh, who was killed in early November 2000, throwing a stone at an Israel Defense Forces tank in the Gaza Strip.

The Intifada is sometimes called the Oslo War (מלחמת אוסלו) by some Israelis who consider it to be the result of concessions made by Israel following the Oslo Accords, and Arafat's War, after the late Palestinian leader whom some blamed for starting it.

Palestinian tactics focused on Israeli civilians, soldiers, police and other security forces, and methods of attack included suicide bombings, launching rockets and mortars into Israel, kidnapping of both soldiers and civilians, including children, shootings, assassination, stabbings, stonings, and lynchings.

Central Israel and Area C (blue), the part of the West Bank under full Israeli control, 2011
(For a more up-to-date, interactive map, see here).

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

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One of the world's most enduring conflicts, beginning in the mid-20th century.

One of the world's most enduring conflicts, beginning in the mid-20th century.

Central Israel and Area C (blue), the part of the West Bank under full Israeli control, 2011
(For a more up-to-date, interactive map, see here).
The Palestinian Arab Christian-owned Falastin newspaper featuring a caricature on its 18 June 1936 edition showing Zionism as a crocodile under the protection of a British officer telling Palestinian Arabs: "don't be afraid!!! I will swallow you peacefully...".
The Arab revolt of 1936–1939 in Palestine, motivated by opposition to mass Jewish immigration.
Land in the lighter shade represents territory within the borders of Israel at the conclusion of the 1948 war. This land is internationally recognized as belonging to Israel.
A peace movement poster: Israeli and Palestinian flags and the words peace in Arabic and Hebrew.
Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993.
Israeli settlers in Hebron, West Bank
A fatally wounded Israeli school boy, 2011
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing what the CIA regards as settlements, plus refugee camps, fences, and walls
Palestinian refugees, 1948
Home in Balata refugee camp demolished during the second Intifada, 2002
Remains of an Egged bus hit by suicide bomber in the aftermath of the 2011 southern Israel cross-border attacks. Eight people were killed, about 40 were injured.
An Israeli child wounded by a Hamas Grad rocket fired on the city of Beer Sheva is taken to a hospital
Area C, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Protest against land confiscation held at Bil'in, 2011
A neighbourhood in Ariel, home to the Ariel University
Israel's attack on Gaza in 2009
The barrier between Israel and Palestine and an example of one of the Israeli-controlled checkpoints
Bank of Palestine
Bar chart showing Israeli and Palestinian deaths from September 2000 to July 2014

In 1993, Israeli officials led by Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian leaders from the Palestine Liberation Organization led by Yasser Arafat strove to find a peaceful solution through what became known as the Oslo peace process.

When Israel became a state after the war in 1948, 77% of Palestine's land was used for the creation on the state.

Abbas in 2021

Mahmoud Abbas

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President of the State of Palestine and the Palestinian National Authority.

President of the State of Palestine and the Palestinian National Authority.

Abbas in 2021
Abbas with President of the United States George W. Bush and Prime Minister of Israel Ariel Sharon at the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, 4 June 2003
Abbas with Ariel Sharon and George W. Bush in Aqaba, Jordan, 4 June 2003
Abbas with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, 18 January 2011
Abbas with U.S. President Donald Trump in Washington, D.C., 3 May 2017
Abbas with President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden in the Oval Office
Abbas meets with then United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.
Abbas meets with then US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
Abbas, Vladimir Putin, and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan opened Moscow's Cathedral Mosque, 23 September 2015.

Mahmoud Abbas was born on 15 November 1935 in Safed, in the Galilee region of Mandatory Palestine (now Israel).

Their second son is Yasser Abbas, a Canadian businessman who was named after former PA leader Yasser Arafat.

Jerusalem

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City in Western Asia.

City in Western Asia.

Close up of the Khirbet Beit Lei inscription, showing the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem, dated to the seventh or sixth century BCE
Stepped Stone Structure in the City of David, the ancient core of Jerusalem during the Bronze Age and Iron Age
The Siloam Inscription, written in Biblical Hebrew, commemorates the construction of the Siloam tunnel (c. 700 BCE)
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). Solomon's Temple appears on top.
Holyland Model of Jerusalem, depicting the city during the late Second Temple period. First created in 1966, it is continuously updated according to advancing archaeological knowledge
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Stones from the Western Wall of the Temple Mount thrown during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE
The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (David Roberts, 1850)
Jerusalem mural depicting the Cardo during the Byzantine period.
1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the octagonal Dome of the Rock stands left of Al-Aqsa, shown as a church, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the left side of the picture.
Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099.
Jerusalem, from 'Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam' by Bernhard von Breydenbach (1486)
Topographic map of the city, c. 1600.
1844 daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (the earliest photograph of the city).
William McLean's 1918 plan was the first urban planning scheme for Jerusalem. It laid the foundations for what became West Jerusalem and East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem on VE Day, 8 May 1945.
Map of East Jerusalem (2010)
The Knesset houses the legislature of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel
Israeli Foreign Ministry building
Orient House in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.
Snow visible on roofs in the Old City of Jerusalem.
Rehavia and Kiryat Wolfson, two Jewish neighborhoods, as seen from Givat Ram
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus.
Sign in Armenian in the Armenian Quarter.
The Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance for the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Bank of Israel
Har Hotzvim high-tech park
Mamilla Mall adorned with upscale shops stands just outside the Old City Walls.
Holyland Tower, Jerusalem's tallest building
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Light Rail tram on Jaffa Road
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem
Hebron Yeshiva in Givat Mordechai neighborhood
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
National Library of Israel
Teddy Stadium, Malha
Pais Arena
Tower of David citadel and the Ottoman walls
Ben-Zakai synagogue, photo taken in 1893
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem (1860), on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate ({{Circa|1950}}).
King Hussein of Jordan flying over the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965.
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem.
Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives.
The Temple Mount, the site of the two former Jewish Temples, is the holiest spot in Judaism
The Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall and the Kotel, is a remnant of the Second Temple and the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre contains the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is believed by Christians to have been buried and resurrected.
Al-Aqsa Mosque, the third holiest site in Sunni Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Great Mosque of Mecca to this location during the Night Journey.
The Garden Tomb – a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century
Demographic history of Jerusalem by religion based on available data
Teddy Stadium, Malha

The city straddles the Green Line between Israel and the West Bank; both Israelis and Palestinians claim Jerusalem as their capital.

Bard College of Annandale-on-Hudson, New York and Al-Quds University agreed to open a joint college in a building originally built to house the Palestinian Legislative Council and Yasser Arafat's office.