A report on Israel

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

Country in Western Asia.

- Israel

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Basic Law: Israel as the Nation-State of the Jewish People

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Druze flags alongside Israeli flags during a rally against the law in Tel Aviv on 4 August 2018
Israeli Arabs and their supporters rally with Palestinian flags against the law in Tel Aviv on 11 August 2018

Basic Law: Israel as the Nation-State of the Jewish People (חוֹק יְסוֹד: יִשְׂרָאֵל—מְדִינַת הַלְּאוֹם שֶׁל הָעַם הַיְּהוּדִי), informally known as the Nation-State Bill or the Nationality Bill, is an Israeli Basic Law which specifies the nature of the State of Israel as the nation-state of the Jewish people.

Albert Einstein at the Technion in 1923

Science and technology in Israel

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One of the country's most developed sectors.

One of the country's most developed sectors.

Albert Einstein at the Technion in 1923
WEIZAC in 1954, the first modern computer in the Middle East
The Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center
Ofek-7 satellite launch through Shavit vehicle
Gulfstream G280 transcontinental business jet was designed and is currently produced for Gulfstream Aerospace by Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI)
Anaerobic digesters at Hiriya waste facility
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IAI Harop, Israel, is the world's largest exporter of drones.
Israeli soldier with Spike (missile)
Given endoscopic capsule

Israel spent 4.3% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on civil research and development in 2015, the highest ratio in the world.

Ramla

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Ramla (pictured in 1895) was founded by Sulayman at the start of the 8th century and became the capital of his caliphate.
Ramla's Pool of Arches, nowadays a touristic destination.
Remains of the White Mosque in Ramla (pictured in 2014) built by Sulayman and his cousin and successor Umar II
Ramla from the air in 1932
Ramla 1941 1:20,000
Ramla 1945 1:250,000
Ramleh from air, 1948
A mosque in Ramleh, 1948, from the Palmach archive
The White Mosque, built in the 13th century
Ramla's Pool of Arches
Original Ramla station building, circa 1930
Moni Moshonov

Ramla or Ramle (רַמְלָה, Ramle; الرملة, ar-Ramleh) is a city in the Central District of Israel.

Moses with the Tables of the Law (1624), by Guido Reni (Galleria Borghese)

Moses

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Considered the most important prophet in Judaism and one of the most important prophets in Christianity, Islam, the Druze faith, the Baháʼí Faith and other Abrahamic religions.

Considered the most important prophet in Judaism and one of the most important prophets in Christianity, Islam, the Druze faith, the Baháʼí Faith and other Abrahamic religions.

Moses with the Tables of the Law (1624), by Guido Reni (Galleria Borghese)
The Finding of Moses, painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1904
Moses striking the rock, 1630 by Pieter de Grebber
Moses before the Pharaoh, a 6th-century miniature from the Syriac Bible of Paris
Victory O Lord!, 1871 painting by John Everett Millais, depicts Moses holding his staff, assisted by Aaron and Hur, holding up his arms during the battle against Amalek.
Moses Breaking the Tablets of the Law by Rembrandt, 1659
Memorial of Moses, Mount Nebo, Jordan
Depiction of Moses on the Knesset Menorah raising his arms during the battle against the Amalekites
Moses Defends Jethro's Daughters by Rosso Fiorentino, c.1523-1524
Moses lifts up the brass serpent, curing the Israelites from poisonous snake bites in a painting by Benjamin West.
Moses, to the left of Jesus, at the Transfiguration of Jesus, by Giovanni Bellini, c. 1480
Maqam El-Nabi Musa, Jericho
Statue of Moses at the Library of Congress
Pilgrims John Carver, William Bradford, and Miles Standish, at prayer during their voyage to North America. 1844 painting by Robert Walter Weir
First proposed seal of the United States, 1776
Moses, with horns, by Michelangelo, 1513–1515, in Basilica San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
Sculpture in the U.S. House of Representatives
Charlton Heston in The Ten Commandments, 1956
The Women of Midian Led Captive by the Hebrews, James Tissot c.1900

The Israelites had settled in the Land of Goshen in the time of Joseph and Jacob, but a new Pharaoh arose who oppressed the children of Israel.

Likud

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Logo of the Likud-Tzomet List from the 1996 election
A truck canvassing for Likud in Jerusalem in advance of the 2006 election
Likud founder Menachem Begin
Ze'ev Jabotinsky

Likud (הַלִּיכּוּד, translit. HaLikud, lit. The Consolidation), officially known as Likud – National Liberal Movement, is the major centre-right to right-wing political party in Israel.

Balfour Declaration

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Public statement issued by the British government in 1917 during the First World War announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a small minority Jewish population.

Public statement issued by the British government in 1917 during the First World War announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a small minority Jewish population.

"Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Europe for the restoration of the Jews to Palestine", as published in the Colonial Times, in 1841
The "Basel program" approved at the 1897 First Zionist Congress. The first line states: "Zionism seeks to establish a home (Heimstätte) for the Jewish people in Palestine secured under public law"
Herbert Samuel's Cabinet memorandum, The Future of Palestine, as published in the British Cabinet papers (CAB 37/123/43), as at 21January 1915
Military situation at 18:00 on 1 Nov 1917, immediately prior to the release of the Balfour Declaration.
A copy of Lord Rothschild's initial draft declaration, together with its covering letter, 18 July 1917, from the British War Cabinet archives.
As part of the War Cabinet discussions, views were sought from ten "representative" Jewish leaders. Those in favour comprised four members of the Zionist negotiating team (Rothschild, Weizmann, Sokolow and Samuel), Stuart Samuel (Herbert Samuel's elder brother), and Chief Rabbi Joseph Hertz. Those against comprised Edwin Montagu, Philip Magnus, Claude Montefiore and Lionel Cohen.
British War Cabinet minutes approving the release of the declaration, 31October 1917
Lord Curzon's 26 October 1917 cabinet memorandum, circulated one week prior to the declaration, addressed the meaning of the phrase "a National Home for the Jewish race in Palestine", noting the range of different opinions
Edwin Montagu, the only Jew in a senior British government position, wrote a 23 August 1917 memorandum stating his belief that: "the policy of His Majesty's Government is anti-Semitic in result and will prove a rallying ground for anti-Semites in every country of the world."
Balfour Declaration as published in The Times, 9November 1917
Lord Balfour's desk, in the Museum of the Jewish Diaspora in Tel Aviv

It greatly increased popular support for Zionism within Jewish communities worldwide, and became a core component of the British Mandate for Palestine, the founding document of Mandatory Palestine, which later became Israel and the Palestinian territories.

Modern artistic depiction of Solomon's Temple, at the Israel Museum

Solomon's Temple

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Name of a temple in Jerusalem, which, according to the Hebrew Bible, was built during the reign of King Solomon (conventionally 10th century BCE).

Name of a temple in Jerusalem, which, according to the Hebrew Bible, was built during the reign of King Solomon (conventionally 10th century BCE).

Modern artistic depiction of Solomon's Temple, at the Israel Museum
Modern artistic depiction of Solomon's Temple, at the Israel Museum
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). The temple stands on the original Mount Moriah, as it looked prior to its expansion by King Herod in the 1st century BCE
King Solomon dedicates the Temple at Jerusalem. Painting by James Tissot or follower, c. 1896–1902
Chaldees destroy the Brazen Sea, Painting by James Tissot, c. 1900
Proposed reconstruction of Solomon's Temple (2013) based on 10th century BCE shrine model discovered in Khirbet Qeiyafa
Plan of Solomon's Temple, published 1905
Plan of Solomon's Temple with measurements
Molten Sea, illustration in the Holman Bible, 1890
Asherah was worshipped until King Josiah
Digital rendering of Solomon's Temple (2010)
Model of the First Temple, included in a Bible manual for teachers (1922)
Depiction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem by the 16th-century French scholar François Vatable

Two recent findings from the Israelite period in modern-day Israel have been found bearing resemblance to Solomon's Temple as it is described in the Bible: a shrine model of the early-10th century BCE from Khirbet Qeiyafa and an actual temple found in Motza on the outskirts of West Jerusalem that dates back to the 9th century BCE.

United Nations-derived boundary map of Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories (2007, updated to 2018)

Borders of Israel

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United Nations-derived boundary map of Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories (2007, updated to 2018)
Zones of French and British influence and control proposed in the 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement during World War I
Article from The Times, October 25, 1920, reporting on the active discussions regarding the boundary line; this was later formalised in the Paulet–Newcombe Agreement.
Borders in the region of the Sea of Galilee and Golan Heights, showing the Ottoman boundaries, the 1920 agreement and the 1923 agreement
The Blue Line covers the Lebanese–Israeli border; an extension covers the Lebanese–Golan Heights boundary.
Map of the Shebaa Farms
Egypt Ottoman border 1906, as depicted in the 1907 Survey of Egypt
A clearly visible line marks about 80 kilometers (~50 mi) of the international border between Egypt and Israel in this photograph from the International Space Station. The reason for the color difference is likely a higher level of grazing by the Bedouin-tended animal herds on the Egyptian side of the border.
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming independence beneath a large portrait of Theodor Herzl, founder of modern Zionism
Israel's 1949 Green Line (green thin line) and demilitarized zones (green thick line/areas)
Jerusalem municipal area
Map showing Turco-Egyptian Boundary of 1st October 1906

The modern borders of Israel exist as the result both of past wars and of diplomatic agreements between the State of Israel and its neighbours as well as colonial powers.

Jordan River

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251 km river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.

251 km river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.

Aerial view, 1938
Coloured postcard of the Jordan River, by Karimeh Abbud, circa 1925
Rafting on Jordan River, Northern Galilee
River Jordan draining into the Dead Sea
Crossing the Jordan, from Die Bibel in Bildern
Christian women on pilgrimage to Al-Maghtas (1913)
Al-Maghtas ruins on the Jordanian side of the Jordan River are the putative location for the Baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist

Jordan and the Golan Heights border the river to the east, while the West Bank and Israel lie to its west.

Dust rises after the impact of two bombs dropped during an IAF airstrike on Tyre, Lebanon.

2006 Lebanon War

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Dust rises after the impact of two bombs dropped during an IAF airstrike on Tyre, Lebanon.
Smoke over Haifa, Israel, after a rocket launched by Hezbollah hit the city near Bnei-Zion hospital
The cross-border raid map
Satellite photographs of the Haret Hreik, a Hezbollah-dominated neighborhood Dahieh district of southern Beirut, Lebanon, before and after 22 July 2006. The neighborhood is home to Hezbollah's headquarters. See also high resolution photographs before and
A building in Ghazieh, near Sidon, bombed by the Israeli Air Force (IAF)
Areas in Lebanon targeted by Israeli bombing, 12 July to 13 August 2006
Map showing some of the localities in Israel and the Golan Heights hit by rockets fired from Lebanese soil as of Monday 7 August.
Structural damage of a residential building in Kiryat Shmona after being hit by a rocket
An Israeli soldier tosses a grenade into a Hezbollah bunker
IDF Caterpillar D9N armored bulldozers destroy a Hezbollah bunker.
War map, "Hezbollah Defensive System in Southern Lebanon", 2006
Lebanon's Prime Minister Fouad Siniora
Israeli soldiers of the Nahal Brigade leaving Lebanon
Lebanese IDPs in south Lebanon, 2006
Image from space showing Jiyyeh oil slick in darkest blue, picture centered on Beirut. The largest oil spill in the history of the Mediterranean, it was caused by an Israeli air strike on Jiyeh power station 10 August 2006
A burnt forest in northern Israel caused by Hezbollah rockets
Israel Solidarity Rally in Los Angeles
A Lebanese protest in Sydney
IAF targeting a Katyusha rocket launcher
A sign erected after the 2006 Lebanon war in South Lebanon which displays rockets and Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah
George W. Bush declared that Hezbollah lost the war and that "There's going to be a new power in the south of Lebanon".
An infographic produced by the Israel Defence Force criticizing Hezbollah's violations of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701. The resolution calls for Hezbollah to remain disarmed and bans paramilitary activity south of the Litani River.

The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War (حرب تموز, Ḥarb Tammūz) and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War (מלחמת לבנון השנייה, Milhemet Levanon HaShniya), was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon, Northern Israel and the Golan Heights.