Israel

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

Country in Western Asia.

- Israel

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Aerial view of the compound, with selected terminology shown

Temple Mount

The Temple Mount, also known as the Haram al-Sharif (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, lit. 'The Noble Sanctuary'), the al-Aqsa Mosque compound or simply as the al-Aqsa Mosque (المسجد الأقصى, al-Masjid al-Aqṣā, lit. 'The Furthest Mosque'),<ref name=":22">

The Temple Mount, also known as the Haram al-Sharif (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, lit. 'The Noble Sanctuary'), the al-Aqsa Mosque compound or simply as the al-Aqsa Mosque (المسجد الأقصى, al-Masjid al-Aqṣā, lit. 'The Furthest Mosque'),<ref name=":22">

Aerial view of the compound, with selected terminology shown
Topographical map of Jerusalem, showing the Temple Mount on the eastern peak
The Holyland Model of Jerusalem, an imagined reconstruction of the city in the late Second Temple period, showing the large flat expanse on the Temple Mount as a base for Herod's Temple, in the center. View from the east.
Wall of the Temple Mount (southeast corner)
Picture showing what is presumed to be the Foundation Stone, or a large part of it
c. undefined300,000 Muslims praying at Ramadan, 1996
Façade of Al-Aqsa Mosque's main praying hall, viewed from the north.
Interior decoration of the Dome of the Rock
The Dome of the Rock as an Islamic shrine, as seen from the north
A depiction of Muhammad's ascent to heaven by Sultan Mohammed
Al-Aqsa Mosque in 2019
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone (2.43x1 m) with Hebrew inscription לבית התקיעה להב "To the Trumpeting Place" excavated by Benjamin Mazar at the southern foot of the Temple Mount is believed to be a part of the Second Temple.
Stone piles (along the western wall, near the southern end) from the walls of the Temple Mount
Southwest qanatir (arches) of the Haram al Sharif, Qubat al-Nahawiyya is also partially visible to the right.
A model of the Haram-al-Sharif made in 1879 by Conrad Schick. The model can be seen in the Bijbels Museum in Amsterdam
King Hussein flying over the Temple Mount while it was under Jordanian control, 1965
Sign in Hebrew and English outside the Temple Mount stating the Chief Rabbinate's preference that no person should enter the site, since it is the holiest site in Judaism
The al-Kas ablution fountain for Muslim worshippers on the southern portion of the lower platform
The eastern set of Hulda gates
Robinson's Arch, situated on the southwestern flank, once supported a staircase that led to the Mount.
Southern Wall of Temple Mount, southwestern corner
Israeli paratroopers entering the Temple Mount through the Lions Gate in 1967

The site remains within the area controlled by the State of Israel, with administration of the site remaining in the hands of the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf.

Political System of Israel

Knesset

Political System of Israel
Knesset building (2007)
Historic engraving on the Froumine House, King George St., Jerusalem
The Knesset in winter
A member of the Knesset Guard

The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת ; lit. "gathering" or "assembly") is the unicameral legislature of Israel.

Palestinian refugees in Aida Refugee Camp, Bethlehem, 1956.

Palestinian refugees

Palestinian refugees are citizens of Mandatory Palestine, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their country over the course of the 1947–49 Palestine war (1948 Palestinian exodus) and the Six-Day War (1967 Palestinian exodus).

Palestinian refugees are citizens of Mandatory Palestine, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their country over the course of the 1947–49 Palestine war (1948 Palestinian exodus) and the Six-Day War (1967 Palestinian exodus).

Palestinian refugees in Aida Refugee Camp, Bethlehem, 1956.
1948 Palestinian exodus – Palestine refugees making their way from Galilee in October–November 1948
Destroyed house in the Jabalia refugee camp, Gaza–Israel conflict, December 2012
Pardes Hana Immigrant Camp of Jewish refugees, 1956.
2018 Gaza border protests, Bureij refugee camp in Gaza
Shatila refugee camp on the outskirts of Beirut in May 2019
Entrance to the Bourj el-Barajneh refugee camp in southern Beirut

Since 1948, the sovereign State of Israel has guaranteed asylum and citizenship to Jewish refugees, while the self-declared State of Palestine remains unable to absorb the Palestinian refugees, due to lack of de facto sovereignty over its claimed territories.

Nahal Paran, Negev

Negev

Nahal Paran, Negev
Spring blooms in the Negev
Of the three Acacia species growing in high plateau of the Negev, Acacia pachyceras is the most cold-resistant.
Statue in the Negev desert of Israel
Archaeological ruins in the Negev
In 1871, the first scientifically accurate map of the Negev was published in conjunction with the Ordnance Survey of Palestine and the Palestine Exploration Fund. The red dotted lines have been overlaid to show the modern borders as of today.
A map considered by the British Cabinet in 1918 suggested that the Negev could be included in either Palestine or Egypt.
Rahat, the largest Bedouin city in the Negev
Blueprint Negev mobile homes, 2009
Solar troughs in the Negev
Yatir Forest 2005, produced by Yatir Winery in the Negev
Campus of Midreshet Ben Gurion

The Negev or Negeb (הַנֶּגֶב; ٱلنَّقَب) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.

Jewish Wedding in Morocco by Eugène Delacroix, Louvre, Paris

Jewish exodus from the Muslim world

The departure, flight, expulsion, evacuation and migration of 850,000 Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab countries and the Muslim world, mainly from 1948 to the early 1970s.

The departure, flight, expulsion, evacuation and migration of 850,000 Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab countries and the Muslim world, mainly from 1948 to the early 1970s.

Jewish Wedding in Morocco by Eugène Delacroix, Louvre, Paris
Jews of Fes, c. 1900
Great Synagogue of Oran, Algeria, confiscated and turned into a mosque after the departure of Jews
Jews of Tunis, c. 1900. From the Jewish Encyclopedia.
Mass grave of victims of the Farhud, 1941.
Iraqi Jews leaving Lod airport (Israel) on their way to ma'abara transit camp, 1951
Iraqi Jews displaced 1951.
Ben Ezra Synagogue, Cairo
Eliyahu Hanavi Synagogue in Alexandria, Egypt
An Egyptian synagogue in the United States
Yemenite Jews en route from Aden to Israel, during the Operation Magic Carpet (1949–1950)
Maghen Abraham Synagogue in Beirut, Lebanon
Ruins of the Central Synagogue of Aleppo after the 1947 Aleppo pogrom
Jewish wedding in Aleppo, Syria (Ottoman Empire), 1914.
Weingarten negotiating the surrender with Arab Legion soldiers
Jewish refugees at a Ma'abarot transit camp, 1950
Yemenite Jewish refugee children in front of Bet Lid camp. Israel, 1950
Jewish Departure and Expulsion Memorial from Arab Lands and Iran on the Sherover Promenade, Jerusalem

A number of small-scale Jewish migrations began in many Middle Eastern countries early in the 20th century with the only substantial aliyah (immigration to the area today known as Israel) coming from Yemen and Syria.

Clockwise from top: USAF F-15Es, F-16s, and an F-15C flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells; British troops from the Staffordshire Regiment in Operation Granby; camera view from a Lockheed AC-130; the Highway of Death; M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle

Gulf War

Armed campaign waged by a United States-led coalition of 35 countries against Iraq in response to the Iraqi invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

Armed campaign waged by a United States-led coalition of 35 countries against Iraq in response to the Iraqi invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

Clockwise from top: USAF F-15Es, F-16s, and an F-15C flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells; British troops from the Staffordshire Regiment in Operation Granby; camera view from a Lockheed AC-130; the Highway of Death; M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle
Donald Rumsfeld, US special envoy to the Middle East, meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983.
Map of Kuwait
Kuwaiti Armed Forces Chieftain main battle tanks
Kuwait Air Force McDonnell Douglas A-4KU Skyhawk ground-attack aircraft
Lion of Babylon main battle tanks, common Iraqi battle tank used in the Gulf War by the Iraqi Army.
An Iraqi Air Force Bell 214ST transport helicopter, after being captured by a US Marine Corps unit at the start of the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm
Kuwaiti Armed Forces M-84 main battle tanks
President Bush visiting American troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990
American F-15Es parked in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield
US Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade during the Gulf War
Countries that deployed coalition forces or provided support (On behalf of Afghanistan, 300 Mujaheddin joined the coalition on 11 February 1991. Niger contributed 480 troops to guard shrines in Mecca and Medina on 15 January 1991.)
General Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George Bush visit US troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990.
Dick Cheney meets with Prince Sultan, Minister of Defence and Aviation in Saudi Arabia to discuss how to handle the invasion of Kuwait.
Gen. Colin Powell (left), Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., and Paul Wolfowitz (right) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.
The USAF F-117 Nighthawk, one of the key aircraft used in Operation Desert Storm
Aftermath of Amiriyah shelter bombing by U.S. Air Force, which killed at least 408 civilians in Baghdad
An Iraqi T-54A or Type 59 tank lies destroyed after a coalition bombing attack during Operation Desert Storm.
Scud Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) with missile in upright position
Aftermath of an Iraq Armed Forces strike on US barracks
Military operations during Khafji's liberation
Marine Artillery played a huge factor in disrupting Iraqi counterattacks during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry, February 1991
Soldiers of 2nd Platoon, Company C, 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment pose with a captured Iraqi tank, February 1991
An Iraqi Republican Guard T-55 tank destroyed by Task Force 1–41 Infantry, February 1991
American AH-64 Apache helicopters proved to be very effective weapons during the 1991 Gulf War.
4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) conducts artillery strikes on Iraqi positions during the 1st Gulf War. 4-3 FA was the primary fire support battalion for Task Force 1-41 during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) moves into position to conduct fire missions during the Battle of Norfolk, February 1991.
U. S. M1A1 Abrams tanks move out on a mission during Desert Storm in 1991. A Bradley IFV and logistics convoy can be seen in the background.
A M109A2 howitzer belonging to Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) during the Gulf War, February 1991.
A M60A1 tank with a Track Width Mine Plow, Desert Storm February 1991
British Challenger 1 tanks during the 1st Gulf War. The British Challenger tank was the most efficient tank of the Gulf war suffering no losses while destroying approximately 300 Iraqi tanks during combat operations.
A destroyed Iraqi Army T-55 tank lies among the wreckage of many other Iraqi vehicles, such as trucks, cars and buses, somewhere along the Highway of Death in April 1991.
US M1A1 Abrams tanks from the 3rd Armored Division along the Line of Departure
Two Iraqi T-55 tanks lie abandoned near Kuwait City on 26 February 1991.
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait.
Ground troop movements 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm
Iraqi T-62 knocked out by 3rd Armored Division fire
Destroyed LAV-25
Aerial view of destroyed Iraqi T-72 tank, BMP-1 and Type 63 armored personnel carriers and trucks on Highway 8 in March 1991
Iraqi 'Saddam' main battle tank destroyed during Operation Desert Storm
Remains of a downed F-16C
A Bradley IFV burns after being hit by Iraqi T-72 fire.
Civilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the retreat of Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
Coalition troops from Egypt, Syria, Oman, France, and Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm
HMAS Sydney in the Persian Gulf in 1991
Argentine Navy Alouette III helicopter on board, February 1991
Canadian CF-18 Hornets participated in combat during the Gulf War.
French and American soldiers inspecting an Iraqi Type 69 tank destroyed by the French Division Daguet during Operation Desert Storm
One of the Italian tornadoes used in the operation
British Army Challenger 1 main battle tank during Operation Desert Storm
Iraqi Kurds fleeing to Turkey shortly after the war
Sailors from a US Navy honor guard carry Navy pilot Scott Speicher's remains.
Approximate area and major clashes in which DU rounds were used
Destroyed Iraqi civilian and military vehicles on the Highway of Death
An armored bulldozer similar to the ones used in the attack
Oil well fires rage outside Kuwait City in 1991.
USS Missouri launching a Tomahawk missile. The Gulf War was the last conflict in which battleships were deployed in a combat role.
Military personnel examine the remains of a Scud.

As the Iraqi missile campaign against Israel failed to generate the desired response, Iraq also launched Scud missiles at coalition targets stationed in Saudi Arabia.

Likud

Logo of the Likud-Tzomet List from the 1996 election
A truck canvassing for Likud in Jerusalem in advance of the 2006 election
Likud founder Menachem Begin
Ze'ev Jabotinsky

Likud (הַלִּיכּוּד, translit. HaLikud, lit. The Consolidation), officially known as Likud – National Liberal Movement, is the major center-right to right-wing political party in Israel.

Safed

The Red Mosque in Safed, 2001. It was originally built by the Mamluk sultan Baybars in 1275, and renovated or expanded by the Ottomans in 1671/72
The Mamluk mausoleum of Zawiyat Banat Hamid, originally built in 1372
The Red Mosque
Hebrew book printed by Eliezer Ashkenazi in 1579
Originally built as a caravanserai by the Ottomans in the mid-1700s, the "Saraya" (house of the governor) currently serves as a community centre
Safed in the 19th century
Muslim quarter of Safed circa 1908
Melkite Greek Catholic Church in Safed
Beit Knesset Abuhav, one of the city's historic synagogues
Street art in Safed
Beit Castel gallery in the artists' colony
Scottish church in Safed
Panorama Safed and Mount Meron
View to the east and Lake of Kinneret
Safad 1937
Mandate Police station at Mount Canaan, above Safed (1948)
Safed (1948)
Safed Citadel (1948)
Safad Municipal Police Station after the battle (1948)
Bussel House, Safad, 11 April 1948: Yiftach Brigade headquarters
View of Safed from Mount Canaan (1948)
Mandate administration building on the eastern outskirts of Safed (1948)
Yiftach Brigade, with their Hotchkiss machine guns, based at Bussel House, 1948
Druze parading in Safed after the Palmach victory in 1948
Monument to the Israeli soldiers who fought in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
Safed in 2009
View of Safed
View of Safed
Houses in Safed
Doorway in Beit Castel gallery, Safed

Safed, known in Hebrew as Tzfat (Sephardic Hebrew & Modern Hebrew: צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi Hebrew: Tzfas, Biblical Hebrew: Ṣǝp̄aṯ; صفد, Ṣafad), is a city in the Northern District of Israel.

Mandate for Palestine

League of Nations mandate for British administration of the territories of Palestine and Transjordan, both of which had been conceded by the Ottoman Empire following the end of World War I in 1918.

League of Nations mandate for British administration of the territories of Palestine and Transjordan, both of which had been conceded by the Ottoman Empire following the end of World War I in 1918.

The mandate system was established as a "sacred trust of civilisation" under Article 22 of Part I (the Covenant of the League of Nations) of the Treaty of Versailles.
January 1919 Foreign Office memorandum setting out the borders of Palestine for the Eastern Committee of the British War Cabinet before the Paris Peace Conference
The original Sharifian Solution, illustrated in a map presented by T. E. Lawrence to the Eastern Committee of the War Cabinet in November 1918, was superseded by the policy agreed at the March 1921 Cairo Conference.
Herbert Samuel's proclamation in Salt on 21 August 1920 at the courtyard of the [[:File:Bait Jaber and Al-Saha in Salt, Jordan 03.JPG|Assumption of Our Lady Catholic Church]]. Samuel was admonished a few days later by Curzon, who said: "There must be no question of setting up any British administration in that area".
The draft mandate, published at Cmd. 1176, was submitted by Lord Balfour on 7 December 1920 to the Secretariat General of the League of Nations for the approval of the Council of the League of Nations. The changes between December 1920 and July 1922 were primarily focused on protection of the Holy Places (Articles 14 and 21) and the addition of Transjordan (Article 25).
minutes of the meetings can be read here
Approval of the Transjordan memorandum at the Council of the League of Nations, 16 September 1922
"Zionist Rejoicings. British Mandate For Palestine Welcomed", The Times, Monday, 26 April 1920, after the San Remo conference
1921 Zionist Organization legal argument, written by barrister William Finlay about the Mandate for Palestine and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations
Early British proposal for Palestine's southern boundary at the Paris Peace Conference. The proposal followed the 1906 Egypt-Ottoman border to Al Auja, then cutting east–west through the northern Negev.
The Palestine–Transjordan border was still undecided at the beginning of 1921, as illustrated by this early-1921 British Cabinet map with boundaries of the proposed mandates (including those areas not yet determined).

After the failure of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, the 1947–1949 Palestine war ended with Mandatory Palestine divided among Israel, the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank and the Egyptian All-Palestine Protectorate in the Gaza Strip.

Israeli Labor Party

Social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel.

Social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel.

Israeli Labor Party ballot slip – "Emet"
Original logo of the party from the 1980s
Party logo adopted in 1992, which was used until 2016
Logo of the Labor-Meimad List during the 2003 election
Leaning version of the current party logo, adopted in 2016
Seats held by the Labor party since its founding.

After the founding of the state of Israel, Mapai engaged in nation building—the establishment of the Israel Defense Forces (while dismantling every other armed group), the establishment of many settlements, the settling of more than 1,000,000 Jewish immigrants and the desire to unite all the inhabitants of Israel under a new Zionist Jewish Israeli culture (an ideology known as the "Melting pot" כור היתוך).