Israeli law

Israeli Supreme Court, 50th anniversary celebration

Based mostly on a common law legal system, though it also reflects the diverse history of the territory of the State of Israel throughout the last hundred years , as well as the legal systems of its major religious communities.

- Israeli law

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Collective body of Jewish religious laws which is derived from the written and Oral Torah.

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Sefer Torah at Glockengasse Synagogue (museum exhibits), Cologne
Hasidim walk to the synagogue, Rehovot, Israel.
A mixed-gender, egalitarian Conservative service at Robinson's Arch, Western Wall
Set of Mishneh Torah
Shulchan Aruch HaRav
Peninei Halakha Set
An illuminated manuscript of Arba'ah Turim from 1435

Under contemporary Israeli law, certain areas of Israeli family and personal status law are under the authority of the rabbinic courts, so they are treated according to halakha.

Common law

Body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions.

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.
A view of Westminster Hall in the Palace of Westminster, London, early 19th century.
A 16th century edition of Corpus Juris Civilis Romani (1583)
USCA: some annotated volumes of the official compilation and codification of federal statutes.
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution for a country, containing 395 articles, 12 schedules, numerous amendments and 117,369 words.
Sir William Blackstone as illustrated in his Commentaries on the Laws of England.


Religion in Israel

Manifested primarily in Judaism, the ethnic religion of the Jewish people.

The Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, 2007 (While controlled entirely by Israel, the current status of Jerusalem is internationally recognized as disputed between Israel and the Palestinian Authority)
Moroccan Jewish immigrants arriving in Israel under the Law of Return, 1954
Cyclists ride down the deserted Ayalon Highway in the city of Tel Aviv on Yom Kippur
"Tehillim neged Tilim" Hebrew slogan initially coined during the First Gulf War in response to Iraqi rocket attacks on Israel in 1991, and turned into a popular slogan-sticker ever since, especially among the Israeli Religious Zionism and Haredi Judaism communities
Haredi Jews in Jerusalem, 2004
WoW Torah Reading in Jerusalem with Anat Hoffman looking on, 2012
Great Synagogue in Jerusalem, which serves as the seat of the Chief Rabbinate
The Western Wall is under the supervision of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel
Karaite Synagogue in Ashdod
9th Station of the Cross on the Via Dolorosa street in Jerusalem. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the background is venerated by Christians as the site of the Burial and Resurrection of Jesus.
Russian Orthodox Church of Mary Magdalene in Jerusalem.
The Messianic Seal of Jerusalem, a symbol of Messianic Judaism
Foundation Stone in the Dome of the Rock
Ramadan decorations in Jerusalem
Druze man in Peki'in
View towards the Shrine of the Báb from the upper Terraces on Mount Carmel, Haifa
The Baháʼí Arc from the International Archives building
The Western Wall and Dome of the Rock, on top of the Temple Mount

Israeli law guarantees considerable privileges and freedom to practice for the recognized communities, but, in tandem, does not necessarily do so for other faiths.

Israeli law in the West Bank settlements

An Israeli settlement in the West Bank.

The Israeli law in the West Bank settlements is the application of Israeli law to Israeli settlements and Israeli civilians in Area C of the West Bank, a Palestinian territory under military occupation and therefore otherwise subject to military law.


Immigration of Jews from the diaspora to, historically, the geographical Land of Israel, which is in the modern era chiefly represented by the State of Israel.

Aliyah by Salvador Dalí from the Yosef Matisyahu Collection
Abba Hushi during his Hachshara, circa 1920
Survey of Palestine, showing place of origin of immigrants between 1922 and 1944
Certificate issued by the Jewish Agency in Warsaw, Poland, for immigrant to Mandatory Palestine, September 1935.
Buchenwald survivors arrive in Haifa to be arrested by the British, July 15, 1945
Yemenite Jews on their way to Israel
Soviet authorities break up a demonstration of Jewish refuseniks in front of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the right to immigrate to Israel, January 10, 1973
Nefesh B'Nefesh group welcomes North American immigrants to Israel
New immigrants in Ben Gurion airport in Israel, 2007
Joshua passing the River Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant, by Benjamin West, Benjamin West, 1800

It is enshrined in Israel's Law of Return, which accords any Jew (deemed as such by halakha and/or Israeli secular law) and eligible non-Jews (a child and a grandchild of a Jew, the spouse of a Jew, the spouse of a child of a Jew and the spouse of a grandchild of a Jew), the legal right to assisted immigration and settlement in Israel, as well as Israeli citizenship.

Status of Jerusalem

Disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice, with both the Israelis and Palestinians claiming Jerusalem as their capital city.

Jerusalem municipal area
Israel's parliament
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing refugee camps, fences, walls, and what at the time they regarded as settlements.

Following the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel declared that Israeli law would be applied to East Jerusalem and enlarged its eastern boundaries, approximately doubling its size.

Egyptian Civil Code

Primary source of civil law for Egypt.

Countries with a collection of laws known formally or informally as 'Civil Code'

Thus civil law, mostly of French origins, now prevails throughout the Middle East, and the occasional remnants of common law are likely not to survive (with the exception of Israeli law which remains largely based on common law as it pertains to non-private matters).

Golan Heights Law

Israeli Supreme Court, 50th anniversary celebration

The Golan Heights Law is the Israeli law which applies Israel's government and laws to the Golan Heights.

Supreme court

Highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.

The first four female justices of the Supreme Court of the United States: Sandra Day O'Connor, Sonia Sotomayor, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Elena Kagan.
Large courtroom of the Supreme Court of the Netherlands.
The courtroom of the Supreme Court of Canada

Israel's Supreme Court is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel.

Conscription in Israel

Limited to Israelis of three ethnicities: Jews, Druze, and Circassians.

Officers in reserve duty before parachuting exercise. Reserve service may continue until the age of 51.

Under Israeli law, only men are drafted from the Druze and Circassian minority communities, whereas Jewish women are required to serve alongside Jewish men.