Issa (clan)

IssaIssasIssa SomaliIssa clanEasaEesagadabuursiIssa, Somali
The Issa (also Eesah, Aysa) (Somali: Ciise, Reer Sheikh Ciise, Arabic: عيسى) are a northern Somali clan, a sub-division of the Dir clan family and is one of the largest clan of the Dir with a large and densely populated traditional territory.wikipedia
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Djibouti

Republic of DjiboutiDjiboutianDjibuti
The Issa comprise the majority of the population of six major cities in Djibouti: Djibouti City, Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Holhol, Ali Adde and Assamo. In 1991-1994, there was therefore a civil war in Djibouti between the Issa-dominated government and the Afar rebels of the FRUD.
The Somali (Issa clan) and Afar make up the two largest ethnic groups.

Dir (clan)

DirDir clanBajimaal
The Issa (also Eesah, Aysa) (Somali: Ciise, Reer Sheikh Ciise, Arabic: عيسى) are a northern Somali clan, a sub-division of the Dir clan family and is one of the largest clan of the Dir with a large and densely populated traditional territory. In the Awdal region of Somalia there were battles with the Gadabuursi, another Dir subclans.
The Dir-Madaxweyne Akisho, along with the Gurgura, Issa and Gadabuursi subclans of the Dir represent the most native and indigenous Somali tribes in Harar.

Ali Sabieh

Ali-Sabieh
The Issa comprise the majority of the population of six major cities in Djibouti: Djibouti City, Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Holhol, Ali Adde and Assamo.
In 1894, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Issa Somali Sultans, the French established a protectorate in the region referred to as French Somaliland.

Arta, Djibouti

Arta`Arta
The Issa comprise the majority of the population of six major cities in Djibouti: Djibouti City, Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Holhol, Ali Adde and Assamo.
In 1963, representatives of the two ethnic groups of Djibouti, the Afar and the Issa, formulated the "Declaration of Arta", in which they professed cohesion under the protection of France.

Dikhil

The Issa comprise the majority of the population of six major cities in Djibouti: Djibouti City, Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Holhol, Ali Adde and Assamo.
He believed that garrison stationed there provided its only economic support, for had "the site any real value it would have been used before this by the natives. In December 1942, British invasion of French Somaliland about 1,000 British troops and Free French troops occupied the town. Following the conclusion of the 1977-1978 Ogaden War, Dikhil, along with Ali Sabieh, accommodated three quarters of the 8,000 Issas who had fled from Ethiopia. In 1979, the first President of independent Djibouti Hassan Gouled Aptidon in Dikhil the party founded the People's Rally for Progress, which has since dominated the politics of Djibouti.

Holhol

Holl-Holl
The Issa comprise the majority of the population of six major cities in Djibouti: Djibouti City, Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Holhol, Ali Adde and Assamo.
In 1894, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Issa Somali Sultans, the French established a protectorate in the region referred to as French Somaliland.

Adigala

AdigaleHadagallaHadigale
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
The town's inhabitants belong to various mainly Afro-Asiatic-speaking ethnic groups, with the Issa Somali predominant.

Assamo

The Issa comprise the majority of the population of six major cities in Djibouti: Djibouti City, Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Holhol, Ali Adde and Assamo.
The city inhabitants belong to various mainly Afro-Asiatic-speaking ethnic groups, with the Issa Somali predominant.

Harirad

Xariirad
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
The town also hosts a shrine dedicated to the memory of Sheekh Issa, the ancestor of the Issa (clan) clan.

Ali Adde

The Issa comprise the majority of the population of six major cities in Djibouti: Djibouti City, Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Holhol, Ali Adde and Assamo.
The town inhabitants belong to various mainly Afro-Asiatic-speaking ethnic groups, with the Issa Somali predominant.

Bike, Ethiopia

BikeBiki
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
The town's inhabitants belong to various mainly Afro-Asiatic-speaking ethnic groups, with the Issa Somali predominant.

Dire Dawa

DiredawaDire DauaDire-Dawa
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
The Issa subclan of the Dir make up a significant number of urban and rural Dire Dawa, whereas a small fraction of the Gadabuursi subclan of the Dir mainly reside in the rural areas to the east of the chartered city state

Sitti Zone

Shinile ZoneShinileGad
All this contributed to the fact that the Issa repressed the Afar from the area of today's Shinile zone.
The majority of Issa now live as agropastoralists.

Lughaya

Iddo-Caddays
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
There is also a sizeable minority of the Issa subclan of the Dir who mainly inhabit the neighboring Zeila district and Djibouti.

Jidhi

Jirreh
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
The town inhabitants belong to various mainly Afro-Asiatic-speaking ethnic groups, with the Issa Somali predominant.

Aysha, Ethiopia

AyshaAyesha
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
The town's inhabitants belong to various mainly Afro-Asiatic-speaking ethnic groups, with the Issa Somali predominant.

Erer

In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
As to the inhabitants, Barker notes that north of Erer dwelled the Gurgura, "who are Mahomedans", and subject to the Issa Somali; to the south were the Argobba; and to the east were the Nole and Ala Oromo, "the former occupying the N. and the latter the S. side of the road to Harrar."

Gadabuursi

GadabursiMakahiilBahabr Muse
In the Awdal region of Somalia there were battles with the Gadabuursi, another Dir subclans.
As a Dir sub-clan, the Gadabuursi have immediate lineal ties with the Issa, the Surre (Abdalle and Qubeys), the Biimaal (who the Gaadsen also belong to), the Bajimal, the Bursuk, the Madigan Dir, the Gurgura, the Garre (the Quranyow sub-clan to be precise as they claim descent from Dir), Gurre, Gariire, other Dir sub-clans and they have lineal ties with the Hawiye (Irir), Hawadle, Ajuraan, Degoodi, Gaalje'el clan groups, who share the same ancestor Samaale.

Hassan Gouled Aptidon

Gouled Aptidon, HassanHassan Gouled
Under Hassan Gouled Aptidon, Djibouti developed into the one-party state of the Rassemblement Populaire pour le Progrès (RPP) In which the interests of the Afar minority were little considered.
He was born into the politically powerful Mamassan subclan of the Issa clan.

Gurgura

Gurgure
After the defeat of the Western Somali Liberation Front, the Issa Division remained under the name Issa and Gurgura Liberation Front.
They also have lineal ties with the Issa, Isaaq, Gadabursi, Biimaal, Bajimal, Quranyow-Garre, Surre, Madigan, and other Dir subclans.

Djiboutian Civil War

civil wararmed conflictcivil war of the 1990s
In 1991-1994, there was therefore a civil war in Djibouti between the Issa-dominated government and the Afar rebels of the FRUD.
Since at least French rule, first as French Somaliland and then as French Territory of the Afars and the Issas, there have been ethnic tensions in Djibouti between the Issas, and the Afars.

Mieso, Somali (woreda)

Mieso
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
This woreda is primarily inhabited by the Somali people of Issa sub-clan of the Dir clan.

Āfdem

Afdem
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
The town's inhabitants belong to various mainly Afro-Asiatic-speaking ethnic groups, with the Issa Somali predominant.

Somaliland

RegionRepublic of SomalilandDistrict
In addition, Dire Dawa, Ayesha, Biki, Harar, Adigale, Mieso, Erer and Āfdem in Ethiopia and Zeila, Xariirad, Jidhi and Lughaya in Somalia-Somaliland are predominantly Issa.
The Gadabuursi and Issa primarily live in the Awdal region, with the Gadabuursi centered at Borama, and the Issa concentrated around the Djibouti border at Zeila.

Mahmoud Harbi

Harbi Farah MahamoudMahamoud HarbiMahamoud Harbi Farah
Mahamoud Harbi was a major leader of the independence movement but was killed in 29 September 1960 and his comrades Djama Mahamoud Boreh and Mohamed Gahanlo disappeared on a flight from Geneva to Cairo.
Harbi was born in Ali Sabieh, Djibouti in 1921 to a Somali family from the Fourlaba sub-clan of the Issa clan.