Istanbul

İstanbulConstantinopleIstanbul, TurkeyIstanbul ProvinceIstanbul Metropolitan Municipalityİstanbul Provinceİstanbul, TurkeyhometownInstanbulConstantinople (Istanbul)
Istanbul (, ; İstanbul ), formerly known as Byzantium, Constantinople, and New Rome, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center.wikipedia
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Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204), Latin (1204–1261), Palaiologos Byzantine (1261–1453) and Ottoman (1453–1922) empires.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium).

Ankara

AncyraAnkara, TurkeyAngora
In 1923, after the Turkish War of Independence, Ankara was chosen as the new Turkish capital, and the city's name was changed to Istanbul.
With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul (the former imperial capital), having outranked İzmir in the 20th century.

List of European cities by population within city limits

Largest cities in Europelargest cityList of cities in Europe by population within city limits
With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city.

Beyoğlu

PeraBeyogluBeyoğlu (Istanbul)
The city's biggest attraction is its historic center, partially listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district.
Beyoğlu is a district on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn.

Black Sea

BlackEuxinePontus Euxinus
Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea.
Important cities along the coast include Odessa, Sevastopol, Samsun, and Istanbul.

List of largest cities

World largest citiesWorld's largest citiesLargest City
With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city.

Sea of Marmara

Marmara SeaPropontisMarmara
Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea.
The former also separates Istanbul into its Asian and European sides.

Names of Istanbul

StamboulMiklagardConstantinople
Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks also did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
The city of Istanbul has been known by a number of different names.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
Istanbul (, ; İstanbul ), formerly known as Byzantium, Constantinople, and New Rome, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became widely known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις" (Konstantinoúpolis), means the "City of Constantine".
In 1923 the capital of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, was moved to Ankara and the name Constantinople was officially changed to Istanbul; the city is still referred to as Constantinople in Greek-speaking sources.

Golden Horn

Haliç HaliçAlibeyköy Creek
The city's biggest attraction is its historic center, partially listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks also did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
The Golden Horn (Altın Boynuz;, Chrysókeras; Sinus Ceratinus), also known by its modern Turkish name, Haliç, is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed IIMehmet IISultan Mehmed II
It is first attested shortly after the conquest, and its invention was ascribed by some contemporary writers to Sultan Mehmed II himself.
At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire.

Byzantium

ByzantineByzantionByzantine Empire
Istanbul (, ; İstanbul ), formerly known as Byzantium, Constantinople, and New Rome, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center.
Byzantium ( or Byzantion; Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and then Istanbul.

Sarayburnu

Seraglio PointHagios Demetrios
Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history.
Sarayburnu (Sarayburnu, meaning Cape Palace; known in English as the Seraglio Point) is a promontory quarter separating the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara in Istanbul, Turkey.

Hagia Sophia

Haghia SophiaHagia Sophia MosqueAyasofya
Numerous churches were built across the city, including Hagia Sophia which was built during the reign of Justinian the Great and remained the world's largest cathedral for a thousand years.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek `Αγία Σοφία, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is the former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal cathedral, later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.

Evliya Çelebi

Evliya CelebiEvliya ChelebiEvlija Čelebija
Some Ottoman sources of the 17th century, such as Evliya Çelebi, describe it as the common Turkish name of the time; between the late 17th and late 18th centuries, it was also in official use.
Evliya Çelebi was born in Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1611 to a wealthy family from Kütahya.

Grand Bazaar, Istanbul

Grand BazaarKapalıçarşıThe Grand Bazaar
Mehmed II also repaired the city's damaged infrastructure, including the whole water system, began to build the Grand Bazaar, and constructed Topkapı Palace, the sultan's official residence.
The Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarşı, meaning ‘Covered Market’; also Büyük Çarşı, meaning ‘Grand Market’ ) in Istanbul is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with 61 covered streets and over 4,000 shops on a total area of 30,700 m 2, attracting between 250,000 and 400,000 visitors daily.

Topkapı Palace

Topkapi PalaceTopkapiTopkapı
Mehmed II also repaired the city's damaged infrastructure, including the whole water system, began to build the Grand Bazaar, and constructed Topkapı Palace, the sultan's official residence.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.

Constantine the Great

Constantine IConstantineEmperor Constantine
After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became widely known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις" (Konstantinoúpolis), means the "City of Constantine".
He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople (now Istanbul) after himself (the laudatory epithet of "New Rome" came later, and was never an official title).

Hippodrome of Constantinople

HippodromeSultanahmet Squarecity hippodrome
Constantine also undertook a major renovation and expansion of the Hippodrome of Constantinople; accommodating tens of thousands of spectators, the hippodrome became central to civic life and, in the 5th and 6th centuries, the center of episodes of unrest, including the Nika riots.
Today it is a square named Sultanahmet Meydanı (Sultan Ahmet Square) in the Turkish city of Istanbul, with a few fragments of the original structure surviving.

Edirne

AdrianopleOdrinAdrianopolis
With the transfer of the capital from Edirne (formerly Adrianople) to Constantinople, the new state was declared as the successor and continuation of the Roman Empire.
Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453, before Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) became the empire's fourth and final capital between 1453 and 1922.

Mimar Sinan

SinanKoca Mimar Sinan AghaKodja Sinan
Suleiman the Magnificent's reign from 1520 to 1566 was a period of especially great artistic and architectural achievement; chief architect Mimar Sinan designed several iconic buildings in the city, while Ottoman arts of ceramics, stained glass, calligraphy, and miniature flourished.
His apprentices would later design the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul and Stari Most in Mostar, and help design the Taj Mahal in the Mughal Empire.

Valens Aqueduct

Aqueduct of ValensaqueductValens
Mehmed II also repaired the city's damaged infrastructure, including the whole water system, began to build the Grand Bazaar, and constructed Topkapı Palace, the sultan's official residence.
The Valens Aqueduct (Valens Su Kemeri or Bozdoğan Kemeri, meaning "Aqueduct of the Grey Falcon";, Agōgós tou hýdatos, meaning simply "aqueduct") is a Roman aqueduct which was the major water-providing system of the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey).

Armenian Genocide

ArmeniangenocideArmenians
The deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915 was among the major events which marked the start of the Armenian Genocide during WWI.
The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from Constantinople (now Istanbul) to the region of Angora (Ankara), 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were eventually murdered.

Dotted and dotless I

dotless iİdotless letter ''i
In modern Turkish, the name is written as İstanbul, with a dotted İ, as the Turkish alphabet distinguishes between a dotted and dotless I.

Abdul Hamid II

Abdülhamid IIAbdulhamid IISultan Abdul Hamid II
Sultan Abdul Hamid II was deposed with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 and the Ottoman Parliament, closed since 14 February 1878, was reopened 30 years later on 23 July 1908, which marked the beginning of the Second Constitutional Era.
Abdul Hamid II was born at the Topkapı Palace in Constantinople (today known in English as Istanbul), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, on September 21, 1842.